Dorothea orem
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  • 1. Dorothea Orem
    Nursing theory
  • 2. Brief biography
  • 3. 1914- June 22, 2007
    One of America’s foremost nursing theories
    Born in Baltimore, Maryland
    Her father was a construction worker
    Her mother was a homemaker
    Orem began her nursing career at Providence School of Nursing, Washington D.C.
    Early 1930’s – AD from Providence School of Nursing, Washington, D.C.
    1939 – BSN completed
  • 4. 1945- MS in nursing education
    1958 – consultant to the Office of Education where she began working on Self-Care Theory
    1959- first published her theory in “ Guides for Developing Curricula for the Education of Practical Nurses “ (a government publication)
    1976 – honorary Doctorate of Science from Georgetown University
    1999 – last edition of her theory was published.
  • 5.
  • 6. Orem’s Definition of Nursing
    Nursing is the provision of self-care which is therapeutic in sustaining life and health, in recovering from disease or injury, or coping with their effects.
    Nursing is a service to people, not a derivative of medicine.
    Nursing promotes the goal of patient self-care.
  • 7. Nursing Metaparadigm
  • 8. Person
    The recipient of nursing care.
    A being who functions biologically, symbolically, and socially
    Has the potential for learning and development
    Is subject to the forces of nature
    Has a capacity for self-knowledge
    Can engage in deliberate actions, interpret experiences, and perform beneficial actions
    Can learn to meet self-care needs (requisites)
  • 9. Human beings are distinguished from other living beings by their capacity to:
    - Reflect upon themselves and their environment
    - Symbolize what they experience
    - Use symbolic creations (ideas, words) in thinking, communicating, and guiding efforts to make things that are beneficial for themselves and/or for thers.
  • 10. Environment
    Environmental conditions – external physical and psychosocial surroundings
    Developmental environment – promotion of personal development through motivation to establish appropriate goals and to adjust behaviour to meet those goals.
    Can positively or negatively impact a person’s ability to provide self-care.
  • 11. Nursing
    A service geared towards helping the self and others
    Is required when self-care demands exceed a patient’s self-care ability (agency)
    Promotes the patient as a self-care agent
    Has several components
  • 12. Components of Nursing
    Nursing Art: the theoretical base of nursing and other disciplines such as sciences, art, humanities.
    Nursing Prudence: the quality that enables the nurse to seek advice in new or difficult situations, to make correct judgements, to decide to act in a particular manner, and/or to act.
    Nursing Service: a helping service
    Nursing Agency: the ability of RN.
  • 13. Role theory: the role of the nurse and patient are complementary as they work together to achieve self-care.
    Special technologies:
    • Social and Interpersonal technologies
    communicating, coordinating, establishing and maintaining therapeutic relations, rendering assistance.
    • Regulatory Technologies
    maintaining and promoting life processes, growth/development, and psycho-physiologic modes of functioning
  • 14. Health
    Supports health promotion and health maintenance
    Supports the premises of holistic health in that both RN and patient promote the individual’s responsibility for self-care.
  • 15. Conceptual Framework
  • 16. Self-care
    R
    R
    R
    Self-care
    Agency
    Self-care
    demand
    Deficit
    R
    R
    Nursing
    Agency
  • 17. Orem’s Self-Care theory
    Based on the concept of:
    SELF-CARE
    SELF-CARE AGENCY
    SELF-CARE REQUISITES
    THERAPEUTIC SELF-CARE DEMAND
  • 18. SELF-CARE definition
    Self-care comprises those activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life.
    It is the practice of activities that maturing and mature persons perform and initiate within the time frames, on their own behalf , and in the interest of maintaining life and healthful functioning.
  • 19. Orem’s Self Care Agency
    Definition: the individual’s ability to perform self-care activities
    Consists of two agents:
    • Self-care Agent
    Person who provides the self-care
    • Dependent Care Agent
    Person other than the individual who provides the care (such as a parent)
  • 20. Orem’s Self-care requisites (also called Self-Care Needs)
    Definition: the actions or measures used to provide self-care
    Consist of three categories:
    Universal- requisites/needs that are common to all individuals
    Developmental- needs resulting from maturation or develop due to a condition or event
    Health Deviation- needs resulting from illness, injury and disease or its treatment.
  • 21. Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory
    Is the central focus of Orem’s Grand Theory of Nursing
    Explains when nursing is needed
    Describes and explains how people can be helped through nursing
    Results when the self-care agency (patient) can’t meet her/his self-care needs or administer self-care
    Nursing meets these self-care needs through five methods of help
  • 22. Five Methods of Nursing Help
    Acting or doing for
    Guiding
    Teaching
    Supporting
    Providing an environment to promote the patient’s ability to meet current or future demands