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1914- June 22, 2007<br />One of America’s foremost nursing theories<br />Born in Baltimore, Maryland<br />Her father was a construction worker<br />Her mother was a homemaker<br />Orem began her nursing career at Providence School of Nursing, Washington D.C. <br />Early 1930’s – AD from Providence School of Nursing, Washington, D.C.<br />1939 – BSN completed<br />
1945- MS in nursing education<br />1958 – consultant to the Office of Education where she began working on Self-Care Theory<br />1959- first published her theory in “ Guides for Developing Curricula for the Education of Practical Nurses “ (a government publication)<br />1976 – honorary Doctorate of Science from Georgetown University<br />1999 – last edition of her theory was published. <br />
Orem’s Definition of Nursing<br />Nursing is the provision of self-care which is therapeutic in sustaining life and health, in recovering from disease or injury, or coping with their effects.<br />Nursing is a service to people, not a derivative of medicine. <br />Nursing promotes the goal of patient self-care.<br />
Person<br />The recipient of nursing care.<br />A being who functions biologically, symbolically, and socially<br />Has the potential for learning and development<br />Is subject to the forces of nature<br />Has a capacity for self-knowledge<br />Can engage in deliberate actions, interpret experiences, and perform beneficial actions<br />Can learn to meet self-care needs (requisites)<br />
Human beings are distinguished from other living beings by their capacity to:<br />- Reflect upon themselves and their environment<br />- Symbolize what they experience <br />- Use symbolic creations (ideas, words) in thinking, communicating, and guiding efforts to make things that are beneficial for themselves and/or for thers.<br />
Environment<br />Environmental conditions – external physical and psychosocial surroundings<br />Developmental environment – promotion of personal development through motivation to establish appropriate goals and to adjust behaviour to meet those goals. <br />Can positively or negatively impact a person’s ability to provide self-care.<br />
Nursing<br />A service geared towards helping the self and others<br />Is required when self-care demands exceed a patient’s self-care ability (agency)<br />Promotes the patient as a self-care agent<br />Has several components<br />
Components of Nursing<br />Nursing Art: the theoretical base of nursing and other disciplines such as sciences, art, humanities.<br />Nursing Prudence: the quality that enables the nurse to seek advice in new or difficult situations, to make correct judgements, to decide to act in a particular manner, and/or to act.<br />Nursing Service: a helping service<br />Nursing Agency: the ability of RN.<br />
Role theory: the role of the nurse and patient are complementary as they work together to achieve self-care.<br />Special technologies:<br /><ul><li>Social and Interpersonal technologies</li></ul> communicating, coordinating, establishing and maintaining therapeutic relations, rendering assistance.<br /><ul><li>Regulatory Technologies </li></ul>maintaining and promoting life processes, growth/development, and psycho-physiologic modes of functioning<br />
Health<br />Supports health promotion and health maintenance<br />Supports the premises of holistic health in that both RN and patient promote the individual’s responsibility for self-care.<br />
Orem’s Self-Care theory<br />Based on the concept of:<br />SELF-CARE<br />SELF-CARE AGENCY<br />SELF-CARE REQUISITES<br />THERAPEUTIC SELF-CARE DEMAND<br />
SELF-CARE definition<br />Self-care comprises those activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life.<br />It is the practice of activities that maturing and mature persons perform and initiate within the time frames, on their own behalf , and in the interest of maintaining life and healthful functioning.<br />
Orem’s Self Care Agency<br />Definition: the individual’s ability to perform self-care activities<br />Consists of two agents:<br /><ul><li>Self-care Agent </li></ul> Person who provides the self-care<br /><ul><li>Dependent Care Agent</li></ul> Person other than the individual who provides the care (such as a parent)<br />
Orem’s Self-care requisites (also called Self-Care Needs)<br />Definition: the actions or measures used to provide self-care<br />Consist of three categories:<br /> Universal- requisites/needs that are common to all individuals<br />Developmental- needs resulting from maturation or develop due to a condition or event<br /> Health Deviation- needs resulting from illness, injury and disease or its treatment.<br />
Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory<br />Is the central focus of Orem’s Grand Theory of Nursing<br />Explains when nursing is needed<br />Describes and explains how people can be helped through nursing<br />Results when the self-care agency (patient) can’t meet her/his self-care needs or administer self-care<br />Nursing meets these self-care needs through five methods of help<br />
Five Methods of Nursing Help<br />Acting or doing for<br />Guiding<br />Teaching<br />Supporting<br />Providing an environment to promote the patient’s ability to meet current or future demands<br />
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