No hay notas en la diapositiva.
Regarding alcohol variables, data available in Costa Rica since 1990 clearly shows that men consume more frequently than women in all age groups. Men aged 20-49 years consume more frequently than younger and older men. According to the 1995 national survey on alcohol and drug abuse, the prevalence of heavy drinking is higher in men than among women whose prevalence is rather low (6%). Although there is strong evidence that male and female drinking behaviour are different, women’s patterns of consumption have changed in the last 25 years. From initial patterns of moderate consumption, women’s heavy drinking levels have increased in a significant way.
Recent research from the beginning of the new century has shown that more educated women show a higher prevalence of heavy drinking (by 10%), and research on 7th to 9th grade students suggests an earlier age of onset. In fact, the age of onset of alcohol use for both young men and women is as low as eleven years, which is lower than the age of onset found in other Latin American and even European countries, as pointed out by Jernigan. One main aspect with regard to the age of onset and some drinking patterns, like drunkenness, type of drinking context, etc., is the absence of gender-related significant differences. This is a matter of growing concern at national level, and particularly true in school based context rather than in general population.
In Costa Rica partner violence accounts for a growing number of deaths by murder among women and a significant number of physical and psychological injuries. In the year 2000, the National Institute on Women counted four thousand cases, 36% were new ones, and 26% requested protection measures (e.g. that the partner stay away from home).
This study explores some relevant aspects regarding alcohol consumption by males and females from the Costa Rican Greater Metropolitan Area sample, and makes a first approach to the problem of domestic violence and its relation with drinking behaviour.
Sample Size: 630 men and 644 women. In the urban area 51.6% were men and 48.4% women, while in the rural area 39.7% were men and 60.3% women.
Response rate: 56% considering interviews done, rejections and failure to find a subject. If considering only the relation between interviews completed and rejections, response rate is higher.
Data collection period: Each face-to-face interview was made by eight experienced and trained advanced psychology students. Fieldworkers were also prepared to attend any special situations regarding respondent feelings evoked by some sensitive questions (sexuality, victimization, alcohol consumption, etc.)
The percentage of people that reported never having had any drink in their life was only 9% for men and 19% for women. Former drinkers were in the group aged 45 and older.
The ratio of males to females in the sample was 0.98:1. Both men and women were distributed evenly, but men were more likely to be single, work in the services sector and live in an urban area. Males were also more likely than females to report middle family income and to provide more than half of the family income. 56% of men and women are married or live with a partner and the average number of people in households is 4.5
As showed by other studies women’s educational level is slightly higher than men’s, and they also have a lower rate of unemployment and retirement status than men.
Both men and women are Catholics in similar proportion (almost 70%), but there is a significantly higher percentage of women having a Protestant preference (23.3% vs 17% in males).
For men and women, lifetime abstention rates decreased as education level rises. 40% of men and 70% of women with less than 6 years of education were lifetime abstainers or current abstainers, while this was only true for 17% of males and 57% of females that had attended school for 10 to 12 years. The probability of being a current drinker is higher if the person has 13 years of education or more
In women, last year abstainers are more frequent among low income individuals, and the rate of abstention decreases as the income rises. Women are more likely than men to be abstainers in both the urban and rural areas.