Classical period part 2
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  • 1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791
    • One of the greatest composers that ever lived
    • His music is the essence of the classical style
      • Elegant, graceful, refined, and high spirited
  • 2. Mozart
    • Listen to:
    • Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 (1788)
      • Fourth Movement: Allegro assai (very fast)
      • The rapid sonata-form last movement of this symphony conveys a feeling of controlled tension
  • 3. Franz Joseph Haydn 1732-1809
  • 4. Joseph Haydn
    • Listen to:
    • Symphony No. 94 in G Major (Surprise; 1791)
      • Second Movement: Andante
        • This movement is in Theme and Variations form
        • There are four variations, where the theme is changed in tone color, dynamics, rhythm, and melody
        • Sometimes the original melody is accompanied by a new one called a countermelody
        • These combinations of two distinctive melodies result in polyphonic texture
  • 5. More Classical Forms
    • Minuet and Trio
      • This type of music originated as a dance
      • The minuet was a stately dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows
      • The minuet of a symphony or trio is written for listening and not for dancing
      • It is in ABA form
        • A- Minuet, B-Trio, A-Minuet
  • 6. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Listen to:
    • Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music; 1787), K. 525 Third Movement: Minuet (Allegretto)
    • This work is in the form of a serenade
    • Serenades are usually light in mood and meant for entertaining
    • The third movement is in minuet form (ABA). The A (minuet) section is stately, mostly loud and staccato, with a clearly marked beat
    • In contrast, the B (trio) section is intimate, soft, and legato Its murmuring accompaniment contributes to the smooth flow of the music
  • 7. More Classical Forms
    • Rondo Form
    • Rondo form is a theme that returns several times in alternation with other forms
    • It can be outlined as: A B A C A D A E, etc.
    • This form can be used independently as its own piece or as a movement (usually the last one) of a symphony
  • 8. Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827
  • 9. Ludwig van Beethoven
    • Listen to:
    • String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800)
      • Fourth Movement: Rondo (Allegro)
    • This exciting movement from Beethoven can be outlined A B A C A B A
    • Its lively main theme A, in the style of a Gypsy dance, is made up of two repeated parts: a a b b
    • An unexpected tone held in part b suggests the playing of a Gypsy fiddler
  • 10. Classical Symphony
    • A symphony is an extended, ambitious composition lasting between 20 and 45 minutes
    • It explores the ranges, tone colors, and dynamics of the classical orchestra
    • A classical symphony consists of four movements which evoke a wide range of emotions through contrasts of tempo and mood
  • 11. Classical Symphony
    • A typical sequence is:
    • Movement 1 Vigorous, dramatic fast movement
    • Movement 2 A lyrical slow movement
    • Movement 3 Dance-like movement (minuet or scherzo)
    • Movement 4 A brilliant fast heroic movement
  • 12. Symphony Form:
    • The opening movement is almost always in sonata form
    • It is usually the most dramatic movement and stresses an exciting development of short motives (musical ideas)
    • Sometimes a slow introduction leads to the opening fast movement and creates a feeling of anticipation
  • 13. Symphony Form:
    • In the second movement, which is slow, we will often find broad song-like melodies
    • This movement is usually in sonata form, ABA form, or theme and variations form
    • This movement is usually not in the tonic key (key that the first movement is in)
    • Changing keys helps the expressive contrast of the second movement
  • 14. Symphony Form:
    • In the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart the third movement is generally a minuet or trio, and will be in a moderate or quick tempo
    • This movement can vary in character from a courtly dance to a lively peasant romp
    • Beethoven liked fast, energetic scherzos for his third movements
  • 15. Symphony Form:
    • The fourth and concluding movement of Haydn or Mozart is fast, lively and brilliant
    • Beethoven’s fourth movements tend to be more triumphant and heroic in character
    • The final movement of a classical symphony is almost always in rondo form : (A B A C A B A)
  • 16. Symphony Form
    • To sum it up, A Symphony has:
      • First Movement- Fast (usually in Sonata form)
      • Second Movement- Slow
      • Third Movement- Minuet or Scherzo
      • Final Movement- Fast (usually in rondo form)
  • 17. Symphonies
    • In most classical symphonies, each movement is a self-contained composition with its own set of themes
    • A theme from one movement will rarely appear in another movement
    • A symphony is unified partly by the use of the same key in three of its movements
    • Most importantly, the movements balance and compliment each other both musically and emotionally
  • 18. The Classical Concerto
    • Is a three movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra
    • It combines the soloist’s virtuosity, an interpretive abilities with the orchestra’s wide range of tone colors and dynamics
    • The soloist is the star and all of his or her musical talents are needed in this challenging dialogue
  • 19. Classical Chamber Music
    • Chamber music is subtle and intimate, intended to please the performer as well as the audience
    • A chamber music group is a team
    • Each member is important and an essential part of the group
    • No conductor is needed
  • 20. Classical Chamber Music
    • The most important form of chamber music (according to this book) is the string quartet, written for two violins, viola and cello
    • Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven wrote some of their most important music for this form
    • Like a symphony, the string quartet usually consists of four movements:
      • (1) Fast, (2) Slow, (3) Minuet or scherzo, (4) Fast