Classical period part 2
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Classical period part 2


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    Classical period part 2 Classical period part 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791
      • One of the greatest composers that ever lived
      • His music is the essence of the classical style
        • Elegant, graceful, refined, and high spirited
    • Mozart
      • Listen to:
      • Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 (1788)
        • Fourth Movement: Allegro assai (very fast)
        • The rapid sonata-form last movement of this symphony conveys a feeling of controlled tension
    • Franz Joseph Haydn 1732-1809
    • Joseph Haydn
      • Listen to:
      • Symphony No. 94 in G Major (Surprise; 1791)
        • Second Movement: Andante
          • This movement is in Theme and Variations form
          • There are four variations, where the theme is changed in tone color, dynamics, rhythm, and melody
          • Sometimes the original melody is accompanied by a new one called a countermelody
          • These combinations of two distinctive melodies result in polyphonic texture
    • More Classical Forms
      • Minuet and Trio
        • This type of music originated as a dance
        • The minuet was a stately dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows
        • The minuet of a symphony or trio is written for listening and not for dancing
        • It is in ABA form
          • A- Minuet, B-Trio, A-Minuet
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
      • Listen to:
      • Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music; 1787), K. 525 Third Movement: Minuet (Allegretto)
      • This work is in the form of a serenade
      • Serenades are usually light in mood and meant for entertaining
      • The third movement is in minuet form (ABA). The A (minuet) section is stately, mostly loud and staccato, with a clearly marked beat
      • In contrast, the B (trio) section is intimate, soft, and legato Its murmuring accompaniment contributes to the smooth flow of the music
    • More Classical Forms
      • Rondo Form
      • Rondo form is a theme that returns several times in alternation with other forms
      • It can be outlined as: A B A C A D A E, etc.
      • This form can be used independently as its own piece or as a movement (usually the last one) of a symphony
    • Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827
    • Ludwig van Beethoven
      • Listen to:
      • String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800)
        • Fourth Movement: Rondo (Allegro)
      • This exciting movement from Beethoven can be outlined A B A C A B A
      • Its lively main theme A, in the style of a Gypsy dance, is made up of two repeated parts: a a b b
      • An unexpected tone held in part b suggests the playing of a Gypsy fiddler
    • Classical Symphony
      • A symphony is an extended, ambitious composition lasting between 20 and 45 minutes
      • It explores the ranges, tone colors, and dynamics of the classical orchestra
      • A classical symphony consists of four movements which evoke a wide range of emotions through contrasts of tempo and mood
    • Classical Symphony
      • A typical sequence is:
      • Movement 1 Vigorous, dramatic fast movement
      • Movement 2 A lyrical slow movement
      • Movement 3 Dance-like movement (minuet or scherzo)
      • Movement 4 A brilliant fast heroic movement
    • Symphony Form:
      • The opening movement is almost always in sonata form
      • It is usually the most dramatic movement and stresses an exciting development of short motives (musical ideas)
      • Sometimes a slow introduction leads to the opening fast movement and creates a feeling of anticipation
    • Symphony Form:
      • In the second movement, which is slow, we will often find broad song-like melodies
      • This movement is usually in sonata form, ABA form, or theme and variations form
      • This movement is usually not in the tonic key (key that the first movement is in)
      • Changing keys helps the expressive contrast of the second movement
    • Symphony Form:
      • In the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart the third movement is generally a minuet or trio, and will be in a moderate or quick tempo
      • This movement can vary in character from a courtly dance to a lively peasant romp
      • Beethoven liked fast, energetic scherzos for his third movements
    • Symphony Form:
      • The fourth and concluding movement of Haydn or Mozart is fast, lively and brilliant
      • Beethoven’s fourth movements tend to be more triumphant and heroic in character
      • The final movement of a classical symphony is almost always in rondo form : (A B A C A B A)
    • Symphony Form
      • To sum it up, A Symphony has:
        • First Movement- Fast (usually in Sonata form)
        • Second Movement- Slow
        • Third Movement- Minuet or Scherzo
        • Final Movement- Fast (usually in rondo form)
    • Symphonies
      • In most classical symphonies, each movement is a self-contained composition with its own set of themes
      • A theme from one movement will rarely appear in another movement
      • A symphony is unified partly by the use of the same key in three of its movements
      • Most importantly, the movements balance and compliment each other both musically and emotionally
    • The Classical Concerto
      • Is a three movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra
      • It combines the soloist’s virtuosity, an interpretive abilities with the orchestra’s wide range of tone colors and dynamics
      • The soloist is the star and all of his or her musical talents are needed in this challenging dialogue
    • Classical Chamber Music
      • Chamber music is subtle and intimate, intended to please the performer as well as the audience
      • A chamber music group is a team
      • Each member is important and an essential part of the group
      • No conductor is needed
    • Classical Chamber Music
      • The most important form of chamber music (according to this book) is the string quartet, written for two violins, viola and cello
      • Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven wrote some of their most important music for this form
      • Like a symphony, the string quartet usually consists of four movements:
        • (1) Fast, (2) Slow, (3) Minuet or scherzo, (4) Fast