Using Adjectives in Sentences Sometimes just naming a person, place, or thing is not enough. You want to tell more about it. You may want to talk about its size, its color, or your feelings about it. You may want to compare it to something else. This is the time to use an adjective. Adjectives are words that describe nouns and pronouns. In this Chapter, you will learn about adjectives and how to use them in sentences. By choosing good adjectives, you can change dull writing into interesting writing.
Goals for Learning To recognize adjectives in sentences, and to identify the nouns they describe To recognize and use definite and indefinite articles To use proper adjectives To use possessive nouns and pronouns as adjectives To use numbers as adjectives To use demonstrative pronouns as adjectives To use adjectives that compare
Key Vocabulary Words Adjective A word that describes or tells about a noun or pronoun Predicate adjective An adjective that follows a verb and describes the subject of the sentence Definite article The word the; it means a particular person or thing Indefinite article The word a or an; it means any one of a group of people or things Proper adjective A proper noun used as an adjective, or an adjective made from a proper noun
Key Vocabulary Words Demonstrative adjective The word this, that, these, or those used as an adjective Positive form The form of an adjective used to describe people or things Comparative form The form of an adjective used to compare two people or things Superlative form The form of an adjective used to compare more than two people or things
Objectives To identify an adjective that comes before a noun To identify an adjective that comes after a noun To identify the noun or pronoun that an adjective describe To use adjectives to describe nouns and pronouns
What Is an Adjective? An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. An adjective may tell what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Usually, an adjective comes before the noun it is describing. EXAMPLE 1 What kind? Ana likes winter weather. Which one? I saw the new pony. How many? We planted two trees. How much? The dress cost thirty dollars.
Practice A The words in bold are adjectives. List each adjective on your paper. After each one, write the noun it describes. The suit matches her new robe. She dives into the chilly pool. Angela takes an old towel to swim meets for good luck. She swims in two races. Angela wins a blue ribbon for first place.
What Is an Adjective? You can use more than one adjective to describe a noun. EXAMPLE 2 Wednesday was a cool, windy day. (Cool and windy describe the day.)
Practice B Write each sentence on your paper. Add one or more adjectives to describe each noun in bold. Emily sits on the couch. Nathan’s family took a trip. Franco played a game. Nora wore clothes from Spain. We all drank mugs of cocoa.
What Is an Adjective? Most adjectives come in front of the nouns they describe. Sometimes adjectives come after the noun. Then they are set off with commas. EXAMPLE 3 The eager and excited players took the field. The player, eager and excited, took the field.
What Is an Adjective? Some adjectives follow the verb in a sentence. They come in the predicate of the sentence. These adjectives are called predicate adjectives. A predicate adjective tells about the noun or pronoun that is the subject of the sentence. EXAMPLE 4 The students were happy. (Happy describes the students.)
Practice C Write the adjective or adjectives in each sentence. Next to each one, write the noun or pronoun it describes. Mr. Jackson is the band teacher. He is great at playing the trumpet. The band plays many songs, popular and classical. Mr. Jackson is eager to get large audiences. He stands, tall and patient, until the class is ready.
Lesson 4-1 Review Write each adjective in bold on your paper. Next to each adjective, write the noun it describes. Angela is excited. She has strong arms and legs from swim practice. Neeru is tiny. She has long, black hair. Nathan is stocky and strong. He has wavy hair and a nice smile.
Lesson 4-1 Review Write each sentence. Add an adjective to describe each noun in the sentence. Underline each adjective you use. The coat is on the chair. We bought it at a sale. Her brother wore it to a game. The gym was packed with fans.
Objectives To recognize and use definite articles To recognize and use indefinite articles
The Articles A, An, and The The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. An article always comes before the noun it describes. Use the definite article the when you are talking about a particular person or thing. Use an indefinite article when you are talking about any one of a group of people or things. A and an are indefinite articles. EXAMPLE 1 Emily wants the book about frogs. (a particular book) Nathan was looking for a book. (any book)
Practice A Write each sentence on your paper. Underline each article. Jackie saw a show about the making of a movie. The special effects were amazing. A model ship was used for a part of the movie. It was an effect that was needed. The ship is now in a museum.
The Articles A, An, and The Use the article a before a word that begins with a consonant sound. Use the article an before a word that begins with a vowel sound. EXAMPLE 2 a book a math problem an apple an easy problem
Practice B Write the article that completes each sentence. Yesterday was (a, an) unusual day. I need (a, an) explanation. The student raised her hand to give (a, an) answer. The new TV was (a, an) big bargain. Michelle wanted (a, an) new pair of shoes.
The Articles A, An, and The Use the articles a and an only with singular nouns. You can use the article the with singular and plural nouns. EXAMPLE 3 Angela bought a swimsuit. (Swimsuit is singular.) She wore it to the practice. (Practice is singular.) She talked to the swimmers. (Swimmers is plural.)
Practice C Write each sentence. Fill in each blank with a or an. Jose took ____ trip to ____ island. He found ____ starfish and ____ oyster shell. Jose built ____ huge sand castle on the beach. ____ exciting tour of the island lasted ____ hour. ____ person in the group asked ____ question.
Lesson 4-2 Review Write the article that belongs in each sentence. Emily has (a, the) pear in her lunch. She sat on (a, an) bench near the door. Mr. Thomas gave (a, the) assignments for tomorrow. Andy and (a, the) soccer team played a great game. We waited for more than (a, an) hour.
Lesson 4-2 Review Number your paper from 6 to 10. Write five sentences about today’s weather. Use at least five articles in your sentences. Underline each article.
Objectives To recognize and use proper adjectives To capitalize proper adjectives
Proper Adjectives A proper adjective is a proper noun that you use as an adjective. A proper adjective refers to the name of a particular person, place, thing, event, or idea. Capitalize a proper adjective. EXAMPLE 1 Proper Noun Emily speaks English. Proper Adjective Emily speaks the English language.
Proper Adjectives Sometimes you must change the spelling of a proper noun to make it into an adjective. EXAMPLE 2 Proper Noun Nathan would like to visit Spain someday. Proper Adjective Nathan would like to see the Spanish countryside.
Practice A Write the proper adjective in each sentence. Next to each adjective, write the noun it describes. Italian cooking is very popular in this country. They saw Canada geese flying overhead. There is nothing like a California sunset. My mother’s family is German. We bought some Florida oranges.
Practice B Write a sentence using each proper adjective. Underline the word that the proper adjective describes. American Spanish French African Chinese
Noun or Adjective? A proper noun and a proper adjective may be spelled exactly the same way. How do you tell if the word is a noun or an adjective? You must look carefully at how the word is used in its sentence. EXAMPLE 3 Proper Noun Jeong Chang lives in Hollywood. (a particular place) Proper Adjective Curtis enjoys Hollywood movies. (a kind of movie)
Practice C Write each word in bold. How is the word used in the sentence? If it is used as an adjective, write adjective next to it. If it is used as a noun, write noun. The poetry has made me a Shakespeare fan. I drive an American car. This coat was made in Canada. Mr. Thomas visited Egypt last summer. Mrs. Young made French toast.
Lesson 4-3 Review Write each sentence on your paper. Capitalize each proper adjective. Then underline the noun it describes. Suzi bought towels at the january sale. One of the tallest trees is the california redwood. The waitress brought us our canadian bacon. I ordered a swiss cheese sandwich. The tuesday meeting was three hours long.
Lesson 4-3 Review Write a sentence using each proper noun as a proper adjective. Underline the noun that the proper adjective describes. German Paris June Asian Texas
Possessive Nouns and Pronouns as Adjectives Lesson 4-4
Objectives To use possessive nouns as adjectives To use possessive pronouns as adjectives
Possessive Nouns and Possessive Pronouns as Adjectives Do you remember learning about possessive nouns in Chapter 2? How about possessive pronouns in Chapter 3? Both show belonging. They have something else in common. Both describe nouns. This means that they are adjectives.
Possessive Nouns Both common nouns and proper nouns can be turned into possessive adjectives. EXAMPLE 1 This is my sister’s bedroom. Sister’s is a possessive adjective made from the common noun sister. It is used to describe the noun bedroom. EXAMPLE 2 Roxanne’sdog is huge! Roxanne’s is a possessive adjective made from the proper noun Roxanne. It is used to describe the noun dog.
Practice A Write each possessive adjective in bold. Next to it, write the noun it describes. My friend’s rabbit has smooth fur. Emily likes Angela’s jokes. My mother’s ring is missing. Where is Armando’s soccer ball? The band’s CD quickly became popular.
Practice B Write a sentence using each possessive adjective. Underline the noun that the adjective describes. Mandy’s teacher’s team’s Javier’s city’s
Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns act as both pronouns and adjectives. EXAMPLE 3 Anne is excited. Her team is competing today. The word her is a possessive pronoun. It works as a adjective to describe the noun team. It also has an antecedent: Anne’s.
Practice C Write each possessive adjective in bold. Next to it, write the noun that it describes. Our puppy likes to play. My car is red and white. His plan was a success. Michelle likes her new computer. The students were proud of their effort.
Its and It’s Many writers confuse these two little words. They sound alike, but they are not the same word. Its is a possessive pronoun that you use as a adjective. It’s is a contraction of the two words its and is. EXAMPLE 4 Its bark is too loud. (Whose bark? Its bark.) It’s a nice day. (It is a nice day.)
Practice D Write the word that completes each sentence. The cat lost (its, it’s) collar. The printer is beeping. (Its, It’s) out of paper. The show was popular because of (its, it’s) actors. The book lost (its, it’s) importance after the discovery. The puppy is barking. I think (its, it’s) hungry.
Lesson 4-4 Review Number your paper from 1 to 10. Find the 10 possessive adjectives in these sentences. List them in order. Next to each one, write the noun it describes. Nathan and his older brother David went to hear the new mayor give a speech. David drove them into town in his car. He had to fill the car’s gas tank, so they stopped at a gas station. Then they went to their father’s office to pick up their tickets. They had a great view from their seats in the third row. After the mayor’s speech, Nathan and David went exploring. Soon, Nathan’s stomach was growling. He and his brother had a quick meal before driving back to their house.
Objectives To recognize and use numbers as adjectives To recognize and use indefinite pronouns as adjectives
Numbers as Adjectives You can use number as adjectives. A number describes a noun by telling how many. Spell out numbers one through nine. Numbers 10 and above are often shown as numerals. EXAMPLE 1 Sam drove 112 miles. It took him two hours.
Numbers as Adjectives Do you remember learning about indefinite pronouns in Chapter 3? They are words such as many, both, some, and neither. You can also use indefinite pronouns as adjectives. Like numbers, indefinite pronouns tell how many, but the exact number is unknown. EXAMPLE 2 Several people wanted to go to the concert. Few students were able to go.
Practice A Write the number or indefinite pronoun used as an adjective in each sentence. The concert was three hours long. Many people got there early. There were a few songs Sam had heard before. There were 30 people in the band. The drive home took Sam’s family 15 minutes.
Practice B Use each word as an adjective in a sentence. Underline the noun each adjective describes. nine few several six one
Pronoun or Adjective? The same word may be an indefinite pronoun or an adjective. To tell the difference, you must think carefully about how the word works in the sentence. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun. It acts like a noun. It names something or someone. An adjective describes a person, place, thing, or idea. EXAMPLE 3 Pronoun Many people clapped, and several cheered. (The antecedent of several is people.) Adjective Several families were there. (Several describe families. It tells how many.)
Practice C Write each bold word. Next to it, write adjective or pronoun. Everyone was happy at the dance. When the band played, most people danced. When the dance was over, no one wanted to go home. Some people went to Tony’s Café afterwards. Others went bowling.
Practice D Write each word used as an adjective in the paragraph. After each one, write the noun or pronoun it describes. Summer picnics at Kai’s house are fun. Most of her family comes. Nine people crowd into one small house! Kai’s mom cooks the chicken, and it is hot and tasty. Kai’s aunt makes a potato salad. Everyone loves the sweet lemonade.
Lesson 4-5 Review Write the number or indefinite pronoun used as an adjective in each sentence. After it, write the noun or pronoun it describes. Most people enjoy going to the movies. Tony’s Café has several kinds of sandwiches. Track season lasts three months. Math class is forty-eight minutes long. My room is two doors down on the right.
Lesson 4-5 Review Write each sentence on your paper. Add a number or indefinite pronoun to complete each sentence. Underline the word you added. The rain fell for ____ hours. He asked for ____ eggs. The speed limit is ____ kilometers per hour. I saw ____ of my friends. ____ students go to Wilson High School.
Objectives To recognize the four demonstrative adjectives To use demonstrative adjectives
Demonstrative Adjectives Do you remember learning about demonstrative pronouns in Chapter 3? You can also use these pronouns as adjectives. The four demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. They point to a particular thing or things. EXAMPLE 1 Pronoun That is a long book. Adjective That book is long. (Which book?) Pronoun These are my favorite CDs. Adjective These CDs are my favorite. (Which CDs?)
Practice A Write each word in bold. After each one, write adjective or pronoun. Those are good boots. I like the way these pens write. This book is very funny. Those are Andy’s poems. Did you hear that duck?
Practice B Write five sentences describing things in your classroom. Use a demonstrative adjective in each sentence. Underline each one. Example: Light streams through that window.
Lesson 4-6 Review Write the demonstrative adjective in each sentence. Next to it, write the noun that it describes. We had a very strange day this week. That Wednesday is one I will remember. First, those new bells rang several times each hour. No one knew whether a bell meant to leave that class or not. Then the cafeteria served those odd sandwiches.
Lesson 4-6 Review Choose a demonstrative adjective for each blank. Write the sentence on your paper. Did you draw ____ pictures? This car is mine, and ____ one is my brother’s. Look at ____ mountains! ____ cut is healing. Please read ____ words to me.
Objectives To recognize adjectives that compare To use the positive, comparative, and superlative forms of adjectives
Adjectives That Compare You use adjectives to describe people or things. You can also use adjectives to compare people or things. Adjectives have three forms—positive, comparative, and superlative. EXAMPLE 1 Positive Comparative Superlative pretty prettier prettiest new newer newest
Adjectives That Compare Rule 1 Use the positive form to describe one thing. Rule 2 Use the comparative form to compare two things. This form often ends in –er. Rule 3 Use the superlative form to compare more than two things. This form often ends in –est. EXAMPLE 2 Positive That computer is fast. Comparative That computer is faster than this computer. Superlative Of all the computers, this one is the fastest.
Practice A Write the correct form of the adjective for each sentence. Nina’s hair is (longer, longest) than Carrie’s. This room is the (bigger, biggest) in the house. This is a very (hard, harder) job. My uncle is (older, oldest) than my mother. She told the (funny, funniest) story!
Doubling the Final Consonant To make the comparative and superlative forms of some adjectives, you must double the final consonant. Then you add –eror –est. Double the final consonant in these cases: The word has one syllable. The word ends in one consonant. The word has one vowel before the final consonant. EXAMPLE 3 big + -er= bigger big + -est= biggest sad + -er= sadder sad + -est= saddest
Practice B Write the adjective that belongs in each blank. Use the comparative or superlative form of the word at the end of each sentence. Nathan is ____ than Thom. (thin) I was the ____ one of all! (mad) Nathan’s hair is ____ than mine. (red) She was the ____ person on the beach. (tan) All three dogs were wet, but the ____ was Duke. (wet)
Using More and Less, Most and Least For longer adjectives, you use the words more and less to make the comparative form. You use most and least to make the superlative form. EXAMPLE 4 Positive Comparative Superlative delicious more delicious most delicious helpful less helpful least helpful exciting less exciting least exciting
Practice C Write each adjective on your paper. Next to each one, write its comparative and superlative form. timid amazing graceful popular rugged
Irregular Adjectives Remember that an irregular word does not follow usual rules or patterns. Some adjectives have completely different words for their comparative and superlative forms. You need to remember these words or look them up in a dictionary to be sure. EXAMPLE 5 Positive Comparative Superlative good better best bad worse worst little less least many more most
Practice D Write the correct form of the adjective for each sentence. Jesse thinks Amy Tan is a (good, best) writer. Nathan is watching (less, least) TV lately. He is doing (more, most) reading. The writer I like (better, best) is Anne Tyler. This is the (worse, worst) movie I have ever seen!
Lesson 4-7 Review Write the letter of the correct sentence. A Old Pew is one of the meanest men around.B Old Pew is one of the most mean men around. A Which of those two ships can sail faster?BWhich of those two ships can sail fastest? A Long John Silver hopes to be richer soon.B Long John Silver hopes to be more rich soon. A Treasure Island is the goodest book I have read.B Treasure Island is the best book I have read. A I have fewer CDs than Armando.B I have fewest CDs than Amarnado.
Lesson 4-7 Review Number your paper from 6 to 10. Write each bold adjective in the paragraph. After each one, write positive, comparative, or superlative. Many readers think Treasure Island is the most exciting story of all. They love its colorful characters. Old Pew is a scary fellow, but even more frightening is John Silver. Have you read the book? Which character do you think is the most unforgettable one? Why do the characters seem more real than those in other books?