Groundwater mining in the South-Eastern area of Spain: consequences and evaluation.
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Groundwater mining in the South-Eastern area of Spain: consequences and evaluation.

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Groundwater mining in the South-Eastern area of Spain: consequences and evaluation. Jose Luis García Aróstegui, Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME). International Annual UN-Water ...

Groundwater mining in the South-Eastern area of Spain: consequences and evaluation. Jose Luis García Aróstegui, Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME). International Annual UN-Water Zaragoza Conference 2012/2013. Preparing for the 2013 International Year. Water Cooperation: Making it Happen! 8-10 January 2013

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  • Buenas tardes a todos los presentes en esta sala. Antes de comenzar, quisiera dar las gracias a los organizadores por su invitación a participar en este evento paralelo. En este breve espacio de tiempo voy a tratar de llamar la atención about groundwater depletion, mainly groundwater mining in the South-Eastern of Spain y, particularmente en la cuenca del Segura. This areas include small and highly productive aquifers y es pionera al menos a nivel nacional en el uso intensivo del agua subterránea.
  • En primer lugar hay que decir que se trata de dar una visión regional de un problema global. El agotamiento de aguas subterráneas es un item de fuerte transcendencia a nivel mundial y la mayor parte de las publicaciones indican que deben contemplarse no sólo los aspectos hidrológicos, sino que the sustainable use of groundwater resources is an important interdisciplinary challenge. Otherwise, however, strategies to combat groundwater depletion are only possible at a regional scale, in line with the scales of aquifers.
  • Groundwater depletion, mostly groundwater mining, is probably the main environmental problem of SE Spain, y particularmente de la Cuenca del Segura, una de las River Basin District (RBD). Se estima que el uso de recursos no renovables supera los 12 km3, probablemente una tercera parte del total nacional cuando esta cuenca sólo supone el 4% respecto al total. La sobreexplotación actual se estima en unos 350 hm3/año.

Groundwater mining in the South-Eastern area of Spain: consequences and evaluation. Presentation Transcript

  • 1. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN:CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION José Luis García-Aróstegui (j.arostegui@igme.es) Side event: The pros and cons of intensively developed aquifers: hydrological, economic, social, and ethical issues. Preparatory meeting for an international research project. 9 January 2013 http://www.researcherid.com/rid/K-3454-2012
  • 2. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATIONEstimated nonrenewable groundwater abstraction for irrigation for the year 2000 (x106 m3 yr-1).Large amounts of groundwater are being abstracted over major irrigated regions such as India, northern China, UnitedStates, Pakistan, southern Mexico, northern Iran, central Saudi Arabia, and southern EuropeFrom:Wada et al. (2012). Nonsustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation: A global assessment. Water Resources Research 2
  • 3. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Estimated nonrenewable groundwater abstraction for irrigation for the year 2000 (106 m3 yr-1). Spain: 7% of nonrenewable groundwater abstraction contributing to gross irrigation water demandLarge amounts of groundwater are being abstracted over major irrigated regions such as India, northern China, UnitedStates, Pakistan, southern Mexico, northern Iran, central Saudi Arabia, and southern Europe (Italy, Bulgaria andSE Spain)From:Wada et al. (2012). Nonsustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation: A global assessment. Water Resources Research 3
  • 4. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION FACING THE EUROPEAN WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE in Segura Basin: 2015, 2021, 2027= disproportionate costs ? Overexploitation tendency in the Segura Basin 900 -18000 Current estimated groundwater deficit 800 al -16000 > 350 MCM/year su s U ng) Depletion since 1965 >12 km3 s a sti 700 -14000 n e s ca Until 1985 (Water Law date) > 3.5 km3 si ore Resources and withdrawals (hm /año) Bu (f 600 -12000 3 Cumulative balance (hm ) 3 500 3 -10000 464 hm /year Ba c 400 -8000 Ba kca ck ca stin• Area: 18870 km2 (60% Murcia) Overexploitation rate in st 300 2009: -6000 in• Population: 1.969.370 (year g op g 3 2009). Summer: > 2.500.000 354 hm /year op• Irrigated surface: 269.029 ha tio ti o n (data from CHS) (14% of the 200 -4000 n Basin; 2690 km2) 20• Climatology: 201 27 • Semi-arid climate 5 • Average rainfall: 365 mm/y 100 -2000 • PET: 827 mm/year • High climatic contrasts • Droughts / Floods• Hydrogeology: 0 0 1965 2010 2015 2020 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2025 2030 2035 2040 • Complex geological structures (Cordilleras Béticas) • Large number of aquifers, small and partitioned Total Withdrawals (hm3/year) Mean Resource (hm3/year) Cumulative balance (hm3/year) • > 10.000 wells and tubewells Be carefull: Forget myth that “recharge=sustainable yield” 4
  • 5. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATIONFrom natural regime to current status… Shall we create something new to disregard the intermediary ? 5
  • 6. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Quantitative problems: groundwater decline 68% of the GWBs are in Examples of fast rates of groundwater-level drawdown poor status and will not in some aquifers of Segura Basin Segura Basin Groundwater-level evolution in some “overexploited” aquifers in (40 years) 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 reach the objectives of 0 the Water Framework Directive even considering 100 the two extensions providedDepth to groundwater level (metres) Por problemas Po 200 cuantitativos cua 300 400 500 10.4 m/y 600 Jumilla-Villena 263440005 Ascoy-Sopalmo 263470014 Serral-Salinas (Sector Centro-Occidental) 273420002 Alto Guadalentín 253920008 Bajo Guadalentín 253880015 Triásico de los Victorias (Campo Cartagena) 273810046/52 • Continuous decline of groundwater levels • Lowering of groundwater discharge (springs, wetlands, rivers…) • Modifications of the groundwater flow around withdrawal areas, springs or discharge areas • Mixings of water masses, damages or progressive deterioration of water quality, including marine intrusion • Subsidence of un-consolidated sediments, collapses in evaporitic and carbonate materials • POSITIVE-NEGATIVE BALANCE: social, mitigate poverty, economic, opportunity, developing, environment 6
  • 7. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Ascoy-Sopalmo aquifer: continuous groundwater decline Total depletion of 1.8 km3Not scaledOfficially declared overexploited on 7 January 1987 7
  • 8. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATIONDeveloping a new method for the integrated water resources management of overexploited hydrogeological systems: Object-Oriented Bayesian Nerworks 8
  • 9. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATIONExample of Bayesian Network structure for every aquifer(*): links between variables INPUT VARIABLES OBJECTIVES SOCIOECONOMIC PART INTERFACE NODE 1 INTERFACE NODE 2 HYDROLOGICAL PART (*) “Stakeholder participation is the key to achieve the validation of this type of model, as well as strengthening collaboration and increasing confidence among stakeholders, managers and researchers” 9
  • 10. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Examples of results achievedAgricultural Net Profit (Euro/ha) Number of Agricultural Employments (empl/ha) 1. BUSINESS AS USUAL (BAU): CURRENT CONDITIONS 2. INDIVIDUAL WATER MANAGEMENT ACTIONS (IWMA) 2.1 WATER DEMAND REDUCTION (WDR) 2.2 EXTERNAL IRRIGATION WATER RESOURCE INCOME (EIWRI) Scenarios 2.3. PURCHASE OF WATER RIGHTS (PWR) 3. WATER BALANCE EQUILIBRIUM (WBE) 3.1 EXTERNAL IRRIGATION WATER RESOURCE INCOME (EIWRI) 3.2 PURCHASE OF WATER RIGHTS (PWR) 10
  • 11. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Examples of economic results achieved: Cost-effectiveness analysis TOTAL BENEFIT COST (m3/y) RATE ECONOMICCOD SCENARIO DESCRIPTION (€/y) (amount of water saved from the (€/m3) EVALUATION METHOD aquifer) BUSINESS AS ----------------------------------------S.1 USUAL (BAU) CURRENT CONDITIONS 0 0 0 -- WATER DEMAND 47*106 45*106 1.05 “Lost profits" REDUCTION (WDR) Loss of Agricultural Net INDIVIDUAL 14*10 6 43*10 6 0.32 Margin (FROM WATER EXTERNAL IRRIGATION DESALINATED WATER)S.2 MANAGEMENT WATER RESOURCE ACTIONS INCOME (EIWRI) Loss of Agricultural Net (IWMA) 1*10 6 20*10 6 0.05 Margin (FROM JV TRANSFER) PURCHASE OF WATER 16*106 9*106 2.20 “Lost profits" RIGHTS (PWR) WATER Loss of Agricultural Net EXTERNAL IRRIGATION Margin (FROM BALANCE WATER RESOURCE 35*106 111*106 0.32 DESALINATED WATER) EQUILIBRIUM INCOME (EIWRI) (WBE)S.3 As a water frame directive requirement (quantitative good PURCHASE OF WATER 120*106 111*106 1.03 “Lost profits" states of water RIGHTS (PWR) masses) 11
  • 12. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Alto Guadalentín aquifer Total depletion of 1.6 km3 Not scaledOfficially declared overexploited on 4 october 1988 LORCA 12
  • 13. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Authors suggest that the location and magnitude of theLorca earthquake (11 May 2011) was influenced by anthropogenic groundwater extraction 13
  • 14. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATIONNews headlines (Oct-2012): Social (and economics) impact. More knowledge is needed… 14
  • 15. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION Balancing the positive and negative impacts, and then decide... the long-term water management strategies: Making it Happen ! Managed Development Gradual Recoveryaverage aquifer water level General Stabilization Evaluation of groundwater resources and management options Orderly Depletion time UNPLANNED RATIONALIZATION SCENARIO OF MINING GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT rapid depletion with With knowledge of temporary recharge rate and uncertain trajectory availability of groundwater storage Based on: Foster, S. S. D. & Loucks, D. P. (eds) Non-Renewable Groundwater Resources: A Guidebook on Socially-Sustainable Management for Water-Policy Makers (UNESCO, 2006) 15
  • 16. GROUNDWATER MINING IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF SPAIN: CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATIONMany thanks for your attention Acknowledgments: Euro-mediterranean Water Institute 16