The increasing role of groundwater in the global water policy: Is groundwater mining an acceptable solution?
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The increasing role of groundwater in the global water policy: Is groundwater mining an acceptable solution?

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The increasing role of groundwater in the global water policy: Is groundwater mining an acceptable solution? Ramón Llamas, Director of the Water Observatory, Botín Foundation. International Annual ...

The increasing role of groundwater in the global water policy: Is groundwater mining an acceptable solution? Ramón Llamas, Director of the Water Observatory, Botín Foundation. International Annual UN-Water Zaragoza Conference 2012/2013. Preparing for the 2013 International Year. Water Cooperation: Making it Happen! 8-10 January 2013

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The increasing role of groundwater in the global water policy: Is groundwater mining an acceptable solution? Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SIDE EVENT: INTENSIVE DEVELOPMENT AQUIFERS,PREPARATORY MEETING FOR AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROYECTINTERNATIONAL ANNUAL UN-WATER ZARAGOZA CONFERENCE SIDE-EVENT 19:00 h-20:30 h . 9 JANUARY 2013THE INCREASING ROLE OF GROUNDWATER IN THE GLOBAL WATER POLICY: IS GW MINING AN ACCEPTABLE SOLUTION? by Ramon Llamas M. Botín Foundation- Water Observatory e-mail: mramonllamas@gmail.com 1
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Aim of this presentation2. The 1997 UNESCO conference: Water a looming crisis3. California water resources policy and the 2003 Dead Sea conference4. The editorial for the ASCE Journal5. The five usual stages in groundwater development6. When consumption of GW storage may be an adequate solution?7. Conclusions 2
  • 3. 1. AIM OF THIS PRESENTATIONObtain reliable information: “Groundwater still our of sight but less out of mind”(A. Skinner, IAH General Secretary 2008) 3
  • 4. 2. The 1998 UNESCO Conference: Water a looming crisis“During more than ten years I have tried –without success-to find reliable informationon medium size aquifers (more than 500 km2)where intensive GW development had beenan economic and/or social disaster”The response was – and still seems to be-STONY SILENCE (Marc de Villiers, 2000,Water, p.283) 4
  • 5. 3. THE CALIFORNIA WATER RESOURCES POLICY AND THE 2004 DEAD SEA CONFERENCEThere I stated: “I am not enthusiastic on the California water resources policy. The farmers lobby is so powerful as the National Riffle Association”Someone from the audience said: “They are the same” Everybody laughed 5
  • 6. 4. THE EDITORIAL FOR THE 2005 ASCE JOURNALProbably because of this anecdote theeditor of the ASCE journal on WaterResources Planning and Managementasked me to Write an editorial ongroundwater policy.This is what I am now going to commenton and its follow up. 6
  • 7. 5. THE FIVE USUAL STAGES IN GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT(I)• That was a rather long editorial (four pages)• The main issues are represented in the following graph, which I will explain briefly 7
  • 8. 5.THE FIVE USUAL STAGES INGROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT(II) 8
  • 9. 5. THE FIVE USUAL STAGES IN GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT(III)• THE FIVE STAGES ARE: – Hydroschizophrenia – Groundwater silent revolution – Formation of powerful farmers’ lobbies, asking for surface water transfers – Formation of also powerful conservation lobbies – Social and political confrontations 9
  • 10. 5. THE FIVE USUAL STAGES IN GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT(IV) CAUSES OF THE SILENT REVOLUTION From the dug-well From the water wheel From the water-witchesto the deep borehole. to the pump. to Hydrogeology. 10
  • 11. 6. WHEN CONSUMPTION OF GW SOTRAGE MAY BE AN ADEQUATE SOLUTION?It requires analyzing1. Hydrological performance2. Economic benefits and costs3. Social changes4. Environmental externalities5. Political issues6. Alternative future solutions 11
  • 12. THE FIVE USUAL STAGES IN GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT(V) BRUSSELS, Sep 2001SARAGOSSA, Oct 2002 CLAMOROUS SOCIAL CONFLICTS IN SPAIN 12 VALENCIA, May 2003
  • 13. 7. CONCLUSIONS (I)• The intensive use of groundwater silent revolution has produced stupendous social and economic benefits.• It has also created some problems, mainly ecological, due to its scarce planning and control by the governmental agencies 13
  • 14. 7. CONCLUSIONS (II)• The usual current anarchy in groundwater management or governance demands a greater participation of the users, mainly farmers, by means of groundwater user associations.• It is urgent to assess the different types and performance of such associations. 14
  • 15. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 15