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Finland-Russia cooperation. Seppo Rekolainen, Finnish Environment Institute. Furthering water cooperation among nations and stakeholders. Making it happen! International Annual UN-Water Zaragoza ...

Finland-Russia cooperation. Seppo Rekolainen, Finnish Environment Institute. Furthering water cooperation among nations and stakeholders. Making it happen! International Annual UN-Water Zaragoza Conference 2012/2013. Preparing for the 2013 International Year. Water Cooperation: Making it Happen! 8-10 January 2013

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  • 1. Transboundary water co-operation between Russia and Finland Seppo Rekolainen Finnish Environment Institute Member of the Transboundary Water Commission between Russia and Finland
  • 2. 25.01.13 Finland and Soviet Union: needs for jointSeppo Rekolainen, SYKE management of transboundary waters arly sixties: large water quality problems, hydropower regimes, flood management problems ommon understanding of risks, benefits and costs in the broad sense: knowledge and understanding of the neighbours’ situation pen atmosphere in both sides: willingness to face the problems egal basis: Agreement, signed 1964 ne agreement: all transboundary rivers and lakes (>400, about 20 significant, large/significant issues) 2
  • 3. Seppo Rekolainen, SYKE 25.01.13 Signing ceremony in 19643
  • 4. Seppo Rekolainen, SYKE 25.01.13 The agreement4
  • 5. FINLAND – RUSSIA TRANSBOUNDARY WATER COOPERATION f Location of Norway River Paatsjoki Finland with Rivers Vuoksi and Sweden Paatsjoki Finland crossing the Russian Lake Saimaa Lake Ladoga border River Vuoksi Russia
  • 6. THE LAKE SAIMAA - RIVER VUOKSISYSTEM atchment 69 500 km2 ○ Finland 77 %, Russia 23 % ake Saimaa ○ surface 4 460 km2 ○ precipitation ~ 600 mm/a iver Vuoksi natural discharge ○ mean 600 m3/s ○ max 1170 m3/s ○ min 220 m3/s
  • 7. FINNISH - RUSSIAN AGREEMENTON THE UTILISATION OFTRANSBOUNDARY WATERCOURSES(1964) egulations on: ○ Water flow and structural measures ○ Floods and water scarcity ○ Timber floating and navigation ○ Fisheries and fish migration ○ Pollution and water quality ○ Frontier guard issues (related with water) ○ Even public health and economic considerations
  • 8. JOINT FINNISH – RUSSIANCOMMISSION (1965) ach Party appoints 3 members (including chair), 3 deputy members, experts, secretary nnual meetings with reports from joint working groups according to common annual plan ecisions are made unanimously, binding on both parties f mutual understanding is lacking, the Commission may take the issue to the governments
  • 9. 25.01.13 The Structure of the CommissionSeppo Rekolainen, SYKE he Commission has Annual meetings (50th meeting in 2012, 50th anniversary in 2014) ermanent working groups 1) the integrated water management group 2) the water protection group 3) the frontier guards group, and 4) the chairpersons group Additionally: fisheries group 9
  • 10. Seppo Rekolainen, SYKE 25.01.1310
  • 11. Seppo Rekolainen, SYKE 25.01.1311
  • 12. LAKE SAIMAA AND RIVER VUOKSI DISCHARGE RULEydropower and flood risks main challenges at the starting point in1970sanagement challenges – Russia ○ Low flows in winter, spill discharges at high flows - problems for hydro ○ Other interests: fisheries, abstraction, recreation ○ Two hydro power units in river Vuoksianagement challenges – Finland ○ Repeated floods (1899, -24, -36, -55, -62-63, -74-75) - losses to settlements, industry, agriculture ○ Interests: hydro power, navigation, fisheries, recreation, endemic species ○ Low waters - problems to navigation, recreation in Lake Saimaa ○ Two hydro power units in river Vuoksinitiative of the Russian Party at the Joint Transboundary
  • 13. LAKE SAIMAA AND RIVER VUOKSIDISCHARGE RULEevelopment targets at the outset ○ Increase winter discharge and minimum flows in River Vuoksi ○ Prevent exceptionally high and low water levels in Lake Saimaa ○ Prevent exceptionally high and low flows in River Vuoksi • First plan 1979 accepted by Joint Commission ○ Counterarguments in both countries -> further planning and discussions with stakeholderseveral alternatives jointly investigated ○ Impacts on livelihoods, fisheries, hydro and other industry, habitation, navigation, water quality • Joint discharge rule accepted 1989, implemented since 1991 • Main aim: minimise overall losses in Saimaa-Vuoksi basin
  • 14. LAKE SAIMAA AND RIVER VUOKSI DISCHARGE RULE• Natural water level and discharge in normal circumstances• When water level forecast goes beyond normal zone discharge may be increased or reduced• Natural discharge resumed when flood or drought threat ceases
  • 15. 25.01.13 Water quality and water protectionSeppo Rekolainen, SYKE ommon monitoring programmes ○ Intercalibration of chemical analysis (present results excellent) ○ Common reports on water quality 15
  • 16. 25.01.13 Vuoksi – COD Вуокса - ХПКSeppo Rekolainen, SYKE 14 Vuoksi 12 10 8 6 4 CODMn mg/l FI CODMn mg/l RUS 2 moving average (6 sampes), FI moving average (6 samples), RUS 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Kemiallisen hapenkulutuksen pitoisuudet (CODMn) Vuoksella Suomen ja Venäjän puolella vuosina 1994– 2010. Химическое потребление кислорода (ХПКMn) на р. Вуокса в российском и финляндском створах в 1994–2010 гг. Chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) in the River Vuoksi in the Finnish side (blue) and the Russian side (red) 1994–2010. 16
  • 17. 25.01.13 Water quality and water protectionSeppo Rekolainen, SYKE ommon reports on loads and other pressures as well as all protection and mitigation measures done and planned 250 2500 Vuoksen-Saimaan alue BOD7 t/d t/d Kiintoaine t/d m3/d 100 t/d CODCr t/d Tuotanto 100 t/d 200 Jätevesien määrä x1000 m3/d 2000 150 1500 100 1000 50 500 0 0 2 7 9 1 4 7 9 1 6 7 9 1 8 7 9 1 0 8 9 1 2 8 9 1 4 8 9 1 6 8 9 1 8 9 1 0 9 1 2 9 1 4 9 1 6 9 1 8 9 1 0 2 0 2 4 0 2 6 0 2 8 0 2 1 0 2 BOD, COD and Solids to the River Vuoksi 17
  • 18. Remaining challengeslimate change ○ Increased occurrence and variability of heavy precipitation and drought periods ○ Shorter snow period, more abundant autumn and winter floods, less severe spring floods ○ Alterations in ice conditions • Ice and snow cover essential for Saimaa seal nestingorecasting and optimal flow controlbecome crucial -> improved real-time data on hydrology and meteorologylood risk management tools: mappingand planning
  • 19. 25.01.13 FINLAND - RUSSIA COOPERATION:Seppo Rekolainen, SYKE CONCLUSIONS dentification of shared interests and goals nalysis of multiple interests disregarding state borders inding an optimal solution for sharing costs and benefits articipatory approach: involve stakeholders to identify their needs, problems and priorities ong-term commitment eing open and transparent has increased the trust between partners 19
  • 20. Seppo Rekolainen, SYKE 25.01.13 Thank you!20