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Speech acts <br />Concept proposed by John Langshaw Austin in 1962 one of the founders of pragmatic and later developed byJohn R. Searle in 1969, both philosophers of language. Speech acts refer to the moments in which statementsoccur in the communicative act within a given context.<br />Speech Acts are group of utterances with a single interactional function.<br />
Theory of Speech Acts<br />Desire<br />Ilocution<br />Effect<br />perlocution<br />Specific words locution<br />A speech act has 3 aspects:<br />locution= physical utterance by the speaker <br />illocution= the intended meaning of the utterance by the speaker (performative) <br />perlocution= the action that results from the locution <br />Alice told Tom: "Would you please close the door“<br />
Levels of action<br />Locutionary act: is the basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expressions. <br />Performing an act of saying something <br />One sentence can be used to perform illocutionary acts of various types or with various contents. depending on the circumstances, do any one of several different things, so we can use a sentence with a given locutionary content in a variety of ways. <br />Austin defines it "as belonging to a certain vocabulary...and as conforming to a certain grammar,...with a certain more or less definite sense and reference" <br />
Ilocutionary act: are the real actions which are performed by the utterance. We form an utterance with some kind of function in mind. This communicative force of an utterance is known as illocutionary force.<br />Performing an act in saying something<br />Levels of Action<br />Types of Ilocutionary Acts<br />ILLOCUTIONARY ACT ATTITUDE EXPRESSED INTENDED HEARER <br />ATTITUDE <br />Statement belief that A belief that A<br />request desire for A to do smth intention to do smth<br />promisefirm intention to do smth belief that A will do smth<br />apologyregret for Doing smth forgiveness of A<br /> for Doing smth<br />
Types of ilocutionary Acts<br />Constatives: affirming, announcing, answering, confirming.<br />“we find the defendant guilty” <br />Directives: advising, asking, forbidding, ordering, permitting.<br />“would you make some tea, please?<br />
Types of Ilocutionary Acts<br />Commissives: agreeing, inviting, offering, promising, <br />“I promise to call you tonight” <br />Acknowledgments: apologizing, congratulating, thanking.<br />
Levels of Action<br />Perlocutionary act: are the effects of the utterance on the listener. reveals the effect the speaker wants to exercise over the hearer. This is also known as the perlocutionary effect<br />performing an act by saying something<br />Would you clse the door,please?<br />
Example<br />A bartender utters the words, "The bar will be closed in five minutes,“ <br />The locutionary act of saying that the bar will be closed in five minutes , where what is said is reported by indirect quotation.<br />The illocutionary act insaying this, the bartender is informing the patrons of the bar's imminent closing and perhaps also the act of urging them to order a last drink. <br />The bartender intends to be performing the perlocutionary acts of causing the patrons to believe that the bar is about to close and of getting them to order one last drink. <br />