Modal Auxiliaries
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Modal Auxiliaries


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    Modal Auxiliaries Modal Auxiliaries Presentation Transcript

    • Modal Auxiliaries Prof. Rinkerman
    • Modal Auxiliaries
      • Modals don’t have an –s , - ed , or ing ending.
        • He can drive ( NOT: He cans drive )
      • Don’t use an infinitive with modals
        • He can go. (NOT: He can to go)
      • To form the negative, put NOT after the modal
        • He should not go.
    • Some Examples
      • We can play football.
      • We could play football.
      • We may play football.
      • We might play football.
      • We must play football.
      • We mustn't play football.
      • We ought to play football.
      • We shall play football.
      • We should play football.
      • We will play football.
      • We would play football.
    • Negatives
      • Positive negative
      • long form short form long form short form
      • Can -- cannot can't
      • Could -- could not couldn't
      • May -- may not --
      • Might -- might not mightn't
      • ought to -- ought not to oughtn't to
      • should ‘d should not shouldn't
      • Will 'll will not won't
      • Would 'd would not wouldn't
    • CAN
      •   Use Examples
      • ability to do something
      • In the present (to be able to) I can speak English.
      • permission to do something
      • In the present (to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema?
      • Request Can you wait a moment, please?
      • offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
      • Suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?
      • Possibility It can get very hot in Arizona.
    • COULD
      •   Use Examples
      • ability to do something
      • In the PAST (to be able to) I could walk when I was two.
      • Permission to do something
      • In the Past (to be allowed to) I could go to the movies when I
      • I was a teenager.
      • polite question Could I go to the cinema, please?
      • polite request Could you wait a moment, please?
      • polite offer I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
      • polite suggestion Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
      • possibility It could get very hot in Montana.
    • MAY
      • Use Examples
      • Possibility It may rain today.
      • Permission to do sth.
      • in the present
      • (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema?
      • polite suggestion May I help you?
    • MIGHT
      • Possibility It might rain tomorrow
      • (*less possible than MAY)
      • Polite question: (not very common)
      • Might I borrow your pen?
    • SHOULD
      • Advice (it’s good – it’s a good idea / not good to do or bad idea)
      • You should exercise.
      • You shouldn’t smoke.
    • Ought to = should
      • Advice
      • You ought to drive carefully.
      • I ought to study tonight.
    • MUST (HAVE TO)
      • Necessity: must = need to, have to
      • I must go to the supermarket today.
      • I have to go to the supermarket today.
      • Legal terms – You have no choice
      • You must have a valid driver’s license.
      • You have to have a valid driver’s license.
      • Strong Possibility (95% sure)
      • You’ve been driving for 10 hours.
      • You must be tired. (You have to be tired)
    • Must + Not / Mustn’t
      • Prohibition
      • You mustn’t drive without a valid license.
      • You mustn’t drink and drive.
    • Must / Have to
      • Must = have to
      • We must talk about it.
      • We have to talk about it.
      • Mustn’t = don’t have to
      • ( strong obligation (don’t have the need)
      • not to do something)
      • We mustn’t talk about it. (We have a strong obligation NOT to talk about it)
      • We don’t have to talk about it. (There is no need)
    • MUSTN’T versus DON’T HAVE TO
      • We use 'mustn't' to express strong obligations NOT to do something. (You have NO CHOICE)
      • We mustn't talk about it. It's confidential.
      • I mustn't eat chocolate. It's bad for me.
      • You mustn't phone me at work. We aren't allowed personal calls.
      • They mustn't see us talking or they'll suspect something.
      • We use 'don't have to' to state that there is NO obligation or necessity. (You can if you want, but you don’t have to)
      • We don't have to get there on time. The boss is away today.
      • I don't have to listen to this. I'm leaving.
      • You don't have to come if you don't want to.
      • He doesn't have to sign anything if he doesn't want to at this stage.
      • I don’t have to go. Only if I want to.
    • Will
      • Request / Demand / Order (less polite than would)
      • Will you please close the door?
      • Prediction / Assumption
      • I think it will rain on Saturday.
      • Promise
      • I will stop smoking.
      • Spontaneous Decision
      • Can someone give me a ride? I will.
    • Would
      • Wish / Request (more polite than will)
      • Would you close the door, please?
    • Exercise
      • Decide if the sentences have the same (similar) or different meaning.
      • Example:
      • 1a. Would you like to go to a movie?
      • 1b. Do you want to go to a movie?
      • S (same) or D (different)?
      • 2a. We will not go to New York.
      • 2b. We should not go to New York.
      • S (same) or D (different)?
    • Same or Different?
      • 1a. You should go to the doctor.
      • 1b. You can go to the doctor.
      • 2a. I may buy a new car.
      • 2b. I must buy a new car.
      • 3a. Could you help me later?
      • 3b. Would you help me later?
      • 4a. She must not driver her car.
      • 4b. She doesn’t have to driver her car.
    • Same or Different?
      • 5a. She has to leave immediately.
      • 5b. She must leave immediately.
      • 6a. We will have a test soon.
      • 6b. We may have a test soon.
      • 7a. I can’t go to the party.
      • 7b. I might not go to the party.
      • 8a. You shouldn’t buy a car.
      • 8b. You mustn’t buy a car.
    • Same or Different?
      • 9a. May I use your phone?
      • 9b. Could I use your phone?
      • 10a. He might not eat lunch.
      • 10b. He may not eat lunch.
      • 11a. I should go to the doctor.
      • 11b. I must go to the doctor.
      • 12a. I have to take my passport with me.
      • 12b. I may take my passport with me.