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Modal Auxiliaries
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Modal Auxiliaries

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  • 1. Modal Auxiliaries Prof. Rinkerman
  • 2. Modal Auxiliaries <ul><li>Modals don’t have an –s , - ed , or ing ending. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He can drive ( NOT: He cans drive ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t use an infinitive with modals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He can go. (NOT: He can to go) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To form the negative, put NOT after the modal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He should not go. </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Some Examples <ul><li>We can play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We could play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We may play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We might play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We must play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We mustn't play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We ought to play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We shall play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We should play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We will play football. </li></ul><ul><li>We would play football. </li></ul>
  • 4. Negatives <ul><li>Positive negative </li></ul><ul><li>long form short form long form short form </li></ul><ul><li>Can -- cannot can't </li></ul><ul><li>Could -- could not couldn't </li></ul><ul><li>May -- may not -- </li></ul><ul><li>Might -- might not mightn't </li></ul><ul><li>ought to -- ought not to oughtn't to </li></ul><ul><li>should ‘d should not shouldn't </li></ul><ul><li>Will 'll will not won't </li></ul><ul><li>Would 'd would not wouldn't </li></ul>
  • 5. CAN <ul><li>  Use Examples </li></ul><ul><li>ability to do something </li></ul><ul><li>In the present (to be able to) I can speak English. </li></ul><ul><li>permission to do something </li></ul><ul><li>In the present (to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema? </li></ul><ul><li>Request Can you wait a moment, please? </li></ul><ul><li>offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend? </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility It can get very hot in Arizona. </li></ul>
  • 6. COULD <ul><li>  Use Examples </li></ul><ul><li>ability to do something </li></ul><ul><li>In the PAST (to be able to) I could walk when I was two. </li></ul><ul><li>Permission to do something </li></ul><ul><li>In the Past (to be allowed to) I could go to the movies when I </li></ul><ul><li> I was a teenager. </li></ul><ul><li>polite question Could I go to the cinema, please? </li></ul><ul><li>polite request Could you wait a moment, please? </li></ul><ul><li>polite offer I could lend you my car till tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>polite suggestion Could we visit Grandma at the weekend? </li></ul><ul><li>possibility It could get very hot in Montana. </li></ul>
  • 7. MAY <ul><li>Use Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility It may rain today. </li></ul><ul><li>Permission to do sth. </li></ul><ul><li>in the present </li></ul><ul><li>(substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema? </li></ul><ul><li>polite suggestion May I help you? </li></ul>
  • 8. MIGHT <ul><li>Possibility It might rain tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>(*less possible than MAY) </li></ul><ul><li>Polite question: (not very common) </li></ul><ul><li>Might I borrow your pen? </li></ul>
  • 9. SHOULD <ul><li>Advice (it’s good – it’s a good idea / not good to do or bad idea) </li></ul><ul><li>You should exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>You shouldn’t smoke. </li></ul>
  • 10. Ought to = should <ul><li>Advice </li></ul><ul><li>You ought to drive carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>I ought to study tonight. </li></ul>
  • 11. MUST (HAVE TO) <ul><li>Necessity: must = need to, have to </li></ul><ul><li>I must go to the supermarket today. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to go to the supermarket today. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal terms – You have no choice </li></ul><ul><li>You must have a valid driver’s license. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to have a valid driver’s license. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Possibility (95% sure) </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve been driving for 10 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>You must be tired. (You have to be tired) </li></ul>
  • 12. Must + Not / Mustn’t <ul><li>Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>You mustn’t drive without a valid license. </li></ul><ul><li>You mustn’t drink and drive. </li></ul>
  • 13. Must / Have to <ul><li>Must = have to </li></ul><ul><li>We must talk about it. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to talk about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Mustn’t = don’t have to </li></ul><ul><li>( strong obligation (don’t have the need) </li></ul><ul><li>not to do something) </li></ul><ul><li>We mustn’t talk about it. (We have a strong obligation NOT to talk about it) </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t have to talk about it. (There is no need) </li></ul>
  • 14. MUSTN’T versus DON’T HAVE TO <ul><li>We use 'mustn't' to express strong obligations NOT to do something. (You have NO CHOICE) </li></ul><ul><li>We mustn't talk about it. It's confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>I mustn't eat chocolate. It's bad for me. </li></ul><ul><li>You mustn't phone me at work. We aren't allowed personal calls. </li></ul><ul><li>They mustn't see us talking or they'll suspect something. </li></ul><ul><li>We use 'don't have to' to state that there is NO obligation or necessity. (You can if you want, but you don’t have to) </li></ul><ul><li>We don't have to get there on time. The boss is away today. </li></ul><ul><li>I don't have to listen to this. I'm leaving. </li></ul><ul><li>You don't have to come if you don't want to. </li></ul><ul><li>He doesn't have to sign anything if he doesn't want to at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t have to go. Only if I want to. </li></ul>
  • 15. Will <ul><li>Request / Demand / Order (less polite than would) </li></ul><ul><li>Will you please close the door? </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction / Assumption </li></ul><ul><li>I think it will rain on Saturday. </li></ul><ul><li>Promise </li></ul><ul><li>I will stop smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Can someone give me a ride? I will. </li></ul>
  • 16. Would <ul><li>Wish / Request (more polite than will) </li></ul><ul><li>Would you close the door, please? </li></ul>
  • 17. Exercise <ul><li>Decide if the sentences have the same (similar) or different meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>1a. Would you like to go to a movie? </li></ul><ul><li>1b. Do you want to go to a movie? </li></ul><ul><li>S (same) or D (different)? </li></ul><ul><li>2a. We will not go to New York. </li></ul><ul><li>2b. We should not go to New York. </li></ul><ul><li>S (same) or D (different)? </li></ul>
  • 18. Same or Different? <ul><li>1a. You should go to the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>1b. You can go to the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>2a. I may buy a new car. </li></ul><ul><li>2b. I must buy a new car. </li></ul><ul><li>3a. Could you help me later? </li></ul><ul><li>3b. Would you help me later? </li></ul><ul><li>4a. She must not driver her car. </li></ul><ul><li>4b. She doesn’t have to driver her car. </li></ul>
  • 19. Same or Different? <ul><li>5a. She has to leave immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>5b. She must leave immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>6a. We will have a test soon. </li></ul><ul><li>6b. We may have a test soon. </li></ul><ul><li>7a. I can’t go to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>7b. I might not go to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>8a. You shouldn’t buy a car. </li></ul><ul><li>8b. You mustn’t buy a car. </li></ul>
  • 20. Same or Different? <ul><li>9a. May I use your phone? </li></ul><ul><li>9b. Could I use your phone? </li></ul><ul><li>10a. He might not eat lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>10b. He may not eat lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>11a. I should go to the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>11b. I must go to the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>12a. I have to take my passport with me. </li></ul><ul><li>12b. I may take my passport with me. </li></ul>

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