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  • The attempt to check whether our earlier hypotheses can be supported by empirical findings resulted in some general conclusions 1) It appears that currently most of the West European cities don’t generally have a higher share of employment in creative and knowledge-based industries, although the East-European cities started almost from scratch and still have to invest a lot of effort into general economic restructuring and creating and improving the system of city governance. This result may also be partly explained by the level of statistics in the post-socialist countries, which provides only relatively aggregated figures without subdivision into smaller categories and sectors. These figures can very possibly be on the high side. 2) As it was assumed on the basis of the evaluation of hard and soft factors, as well as historical pathways, Munich, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Dublin and Toulouse are indeed successful in accommodating creative and knowledge based industries. Birmingham, Helsinki and Milan, which seem to be in a less favourable position according to the complex of success factors identified, are in fact doing really well. They are not only not lagging behind, but sometimes are ahead of the expected leaders. 3) The expected leadership of the ‘golden triangle’ (Amsterdam, Barcelona, and Munich) of cities which most often appeared on the top of the list suggested by the factors associated with success is also not strongly demonstrated by their statistical economic profiles. 4) The difference between the expected and real results may to some extent be explained by the strength of policy interventions. At this stage this can be no more than a hypothesis: it suggests an important agenda for further research on the role, necessity and efficiency of policy in accommodating creative knowledge and reinforcing the competitiveness of European urban regions.
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