The processes that organizes, manage, and lead the project team Those with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project Members can change as the project progresses Team also known as project staff Project management team subset of project team. Often not needed for small projects as covered by team as a whole Sponsor works with the project management team Fundamental to involve team in project planning
Rita Mulcahy advises: HR can be divided into administrative and behavioural management topics. Most answers should come from your everyday knowledge and work experience. Though there are a lot of topics, they do not amount to a lot of questions in the exam, so watch how much you study. As PM, you have responsibilities to team members. Some are ethical, some are administrative
Human Resources planning: Determines: Project roles Responsibilities Reporting relationships Creates the staffing management plan Inputs Understanding your organisational environment Availabilityof limited skills and experience In-house External NB Plan for and develop options Tools and Techniques Organisation chart Understand RAM (eg: RACI) and organisation charts (Pages 220/1) Networking – informal interaction with others is critical for good project management NB For exam, need to have a basic understanding of Organisational Theory Outputs Human Resource Plan Project roles and Responsibilities Skills required Reporting relationships Project organisation Staffing management plan (when and how requirements met) NB Need to understand the American view of Recognition and Rewards
A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is used to illustrate the connections between work that needs to be done and the project team members An example is the RACI chart where: R = Responsible (for doing the work) A = Accountable (for the success of the work) (Note – only one person can be Accountable for a task) C = Consulted (about aspects of the work) I – Informed (about the work, progress and success)
NB RM warns the exam contains made-up terms and processes, so you need to know the correct ones.
Acquire the human resources needed to complete the project Inputs People What sort of people do you need on the team? Who do you want on the team? Who wants to be on the team? Tools and Techniques Pre-assignment (selected in advance) Negotiation and influencing others to get the team you want Acquisition – contracting in resources Virtual teams – little or no face-to-face, therefore communications becomes very important Outputs Staff assignments Resource calendars (when team members work on the project) PM Plan updates
Inputs Staff assignments Resource calendars (when team members work on the project) PM Plan Tools and Techniques Interpersonal skills (soft skills) Empathy Influence Creativity Group facilitation Training – informal or formal Team Building (Team Development Stages) Forming – Team members are learning about the project and their responsibilities. They tend to be working as individuals Storming – The team address the project work and should start collaborating Norming – The team begins to work together and trust each other Performing – The team work as a well organised unit Adjourning – The work is completed and the team dis-band
Tools and Techniques Ground rules Clear expectations regarding acceptable behaviour by team members Should be developed and enforced by the team Meeting ground rules are important Co-location Team members working in the same place enhances the team performance Recognition and Rewards Recognise and reward desirable behaviour Team rewards are best as individual rewards can de-motivate others Objectives Improve skills of team members Improve trust and cohesiveness among team members Create a dynamic and cohesive team culture Outputs Team performance assessment As a result of evaluating the team performance, the project management team can identify training, coaching, mentoring, assistance, or changes required to improve the team performance Update personnel records of the people on the project
You were Appointed Formal (Legitimate) Power based on position (given to PM’s by the project charter). “I’m in charge” Reward Giving rewards. “Because you have done a good job I’m moving you on to more interesting work” Penalty Having the ability to penalise team members. “If you don’t do this I will give a bad report to your manager” Expert Being a technical or project management expert. “I hear that the PM is great so I want to work for her” Referent Based on the PM referring to the authority of a senior manager. “This is a pet project on the Managing Director and has high management focus” Involves Management is complex in a matrix environment Management is both formal and informal Tracking team performance Providing feedback Resolving issues Coordinating changes Interpersonal Skills Leadership Successful projects require strong leadership. Leadership is important through all stages of a project Influencing skills, including Ability to be persuasive and clearly state points and positions. Active and effective listening skills Consideration of the various perspectives in any situation. Gathering information to address important issues and reach agreements Effective decision making Focus on goals. Follow a decision making process Study the environmental factors Develop personal qualities of the team members Stimulate team creativity Manage opportunities and risk
Reduce conflict through Ground rules, Communication planning, Role definition, Good Project Management practice Difference of opinion can be healthy and creative Practice positive criticism Team members are generally responsible for managing their own conflicts Conflict should be addressed early and in private If conflict escalates then Project Manager steps in to use Five methods of managing conflict: Withdrawal: Retreating from actual or potential disagreements and conflict situations. Appropriate only in certain situations such as when a cooling-off period is needed. A temporary tactic: does not resolve the conflict, only delays it. Smoothing: De-emphasizes differences and emphasizes commonalities. Keeps the atmosphere friendly. A temporary tactic: does not resolve the conflict, only delays it. Should be used in conjunction with another method. Compromising: Considers various issues and searches for solutions which bring some degree of satisfaction to the conflicting parties. This method is considered to be a lose-lose. Both parties must give up something that is important to them; however, this method usually provides some acceptable form of resolution. Forcing: Exerts one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another party. This method provides resolution but is considered to be a win-lose. Problem Solving: (confrontation) Directly addresses disagreements. Conflict is treated as a problem. The problem is defined; information is collected; alternatives are identified and analyzed, and the most appropriate alternative is selected. Theoretically considered the best because both parties can be satisfied if they work together to solve the problem. Both parties must want to solve the problem and be willing to work together. Time-consuming method. This method is considered to be a win-win.
Inputs Staff assignments PM Plan Team performance assessments Performance reports Organisational process assets Tools and Techniques Observation and Conversation – Project Managers must stay in touch with the team members so they can assess work performance and morale Conflict Management (RM – remember top 4) Schedules Priorities Resources Technical opinions Administrative procedures Cost Personality Issues logs Interpersonal skills Outputs Staffing changes – may or may not impact schedule Inputs to performance appraisals
Project Human Resource Management Presentation initially prepared by Ken Dixon, PMP Updated by Jon Ashby Chapter 9 of the PMBOK® Guide (Fourth Edition) Project Human Resource Management