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The NaturalThe Natural
Stephen Krashen, Tracy Terrell (1981).In Jack C.Stephen Krashen, Tracy Terrell (1981).In Jack C.
Richards&Rodgers, Theodore,CUP (2001).Richards&Rodgers, Theodore,CUP (2001).
Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto Regular Practice II,Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto Regular Practice II,
Didáctica Especial de la Lengua Inglesa, Practicum atDidáctica Especial de la Lengua Inglesa, Practicum at
Primary School Level.Primary School Level.
Back in California:Back in California:
Terrell taught Spanish. Wished to applyTerrell taught Spanish. Wished to apply
naturalistic principles of SLA.naturalistic principles of SLA.
Stephen Krashen, an applied linguist, built onStephen Krashen, an applied linguist, built on
thethe rationale. “The Natural Approach”(1983).rationale. “The Natural Approach”(1983).
Related their approach to theRelated their approach to the Natural orNatural or
DIRECT Method.DIRECT Method.
A)Use of language in communicative situationsA)Use of language in communicative situations
without recourse to the native language.without recourse to the native language.
B)Teaching without any reference to grammar.B)Teaching without any reference to grammar.
C) Textbook examples.C) Textbook examples.
Approach :theory ofApproach :theory of
Naturalistic language learning in YLE.Naturalistic language learning in YLE.
Emphasis on EXPOSURE, INPUT, ratherEmphasis on EXPOSURE, INPUT, rather
than on practice.than on practice.
Central role of COMPREHENSION.Central role of COMPREHENSION.
COMMUNICATION as the primaryCOMMUNICATION as the primary
function of language.function of language.
Primacy of MEANING.Primacy of MEANING.
Importance of VOCABULARY.Importance of VOCABULARY.
Main Tenets of theMain Tenets of the
1.1. The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis.The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis.
ACQUISITION is the natural way.ACQUISITION is the natural way.
Unconscious.Understanding language andUnconscious.Understanding language and
using it for meaningful communication.using it for meaningful communication.
LEARNING :process in which conscious rulesLEARNING :process in which conscious rules
about the language are developed.Requiresabout the language are developed.Requires
formal teaching and does not lead toformal teaching and does not lead to
2. The Monitor2. The Monitor
Conscious learning can function as aConscious learning can function as a
monitor or editor that checks and repairsmonitor or editor that checks and repairs
the output of the acquired system.the output of the acquired system.
3 Conditions to Monitor:3 Conditions to Monitor:
1. Time.1. Time.
2.Focus on forms.2.Focus on forms.
3.Knowledge of rules.3.Knowledge of rules.
3. The Natural order3. The Natural order
Based on SLA, Brown and other studiesBased on SLA, Brown and other studies
Certain grammatical structures orCertain grammatical structures or
morphemes are acquired before others.morphemes are acquired before others.
Errors are signs of naturalisticErrors are signs of naturalistic
developmental processes.developmental processes.
4. The INPUT4. The INPUT
People acquire language best by beingPeople acquire language best by being
exposed to input that is slightly above theirexposed to input that is slightly above their
current level of competence.current level of competence.
i+1 formula.i+1 formula.
Clues based on situation,Clues based on situation,
context,extralinguistic information, KOW, makecontext,extralinguistic information, KOW, make
comprehension possible.comprehension possible.
Caretaker speech, slower rate, repetition, useCaretaker speech, slower rate, repetition, use
of Yes/No more than WH questions help toof Yes/No more than WH questions help to
make the input more COMPREHENSIBLE.make the input more COMPREHENSIBLE.
5. The Affective Filter5. The Affective Filter
Krashen considers theKrashen considers the learner’s emotionallearner’s emotional
statestate as a FILTER that passes, impedes oras a FILTER that passes, impedes or
blocks the INPUT necessary to acquisition.blocks the INPUT necessary to acquisition.
3 kinds of affective or attitudinal variables:3 kinds of affective or attitudinal variables:
o Anxiety (fear of emabarrassment, etc.)Anxiety (fear of emabarrassment, etc.)
Implications for ELTImplications for ELT
Provide lots ofProvide lots of comprehensible input.comprehensible input.
Use visual aids to help the acquisition ofUse visual aids to help the acquisition of
The focus in the classroom should be onThe focus in the classroom should be on
reading and listening;speaking should bereading and listening;speaking should be
allowed to “Emerge”. Silent Period.allowed to “Emerge”. Silent Period.
Lower the affective filter. RelaxedLower the affective filter. Relaxed
classroom atmosphere.classroom atmosphere.
For beginner students up to Intermediate.For beginner students up to Intermediate.
What they can/won’t be able to do (PageWhat they can/won’t be able to do (Page
THE SYLLABUS:THE SYLLABUS:
TPR (James Asher)TPR (James Asher)
Mime, gesture, use of context.Mime, gesture, use of context.
Situation-based practice.Situation-based practice.
Group work activities.Group work activities.
Whatever minimizes learner’s anxietyWhatever minimizes learner’s anxiety
and maximizes learner self-confidence.and maximizes learner self-confidence.
LEARNER ROLES:LEARNER ROLES:
Processor of comprehensible input.Processor of comprehensible input.
Learner decisions on when to speak, what toLearner decisions on when to speak, what to
speak about, what linguistic expressions tospeak about, what linguistic expressions to
Pre-production stage:Pre-production stage:participate in tle languageparticipate in tle language
class without need to respond.class without need to respond.
Early production stage:Early production stage:respond to familiarrespond to familiar
questions,fixed conversation.questions,fixed conversation.
Speech-emergent phase:Speech-emergent phase:role-play, games,role-play, games,
personal info and opinions, group problem-personal info and opinions, group problem-
TEACHER ROLES:TEACHER ROLES:
1.Teacher is primary source of1.Teacher is primary source of
comprehensible input.comprehensible input.
2. Teacher creates a classroom2. Teacher creates a classroom
atmosphere that is interesting andatmosphere that is interesting and
friendly to lower the affective filter.friendly to lower the affective filter.
3. Teacher chooses a rich mix of3. Teacher chooses a rich mix of
classroom activities.classroom activities.
ROLE OFROLE OF
Realia more than textbooks.Realia more than textbooks.
Visual aids.Visual aids.
Brochures, maps, advertisements,Brochures, maps, advertisements,
menus, shedules.menus, shedules.
Syllabus of topics and situations.Syllabus of topics and situations.
Mainly TPR.Mainly TPR.
TheThe Natural ApproachNatural Approach rejects the formalrejects the formal
grammatical organization of language togrammatical organization of language to
teach it.It is not used at a native level.teach it.It is not used at a native level.
It emphasizes comprehensible andIt emphasizes comprehensible and
meaningful practice activities , rathermeaningful practice activities , rather
than production of grammatically perfectthan production of grammatically perfect
utterances and sentences.utterances and sentences.