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The Natural Approach

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  • 1. The Natural Approach. Stephen Krashen, Tracy Terrell (1981).In Jack C. Richards&Rodgers, Theodore,CUP (2001). Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto Regular Practice II, Didáctica Especial de la Lengua Inglesa, Practicum at Primary School Level.
  • 2. Back in California:
    • Terrell taught Spanish. Wished to apply naturalistic principles of SLA.
    • Stephen Krashen, an applied linguist, built on the rationale. “The Natural Approach”(1983).
    • Related their approach to the Natural or DIRECT Method.
    • A)Use of language in communicative situations without recourse to the native language.
    • B)Teaching without any reference to grammar.
    • C) Textbook examples.
  • 3. Approach :theory of language.
    • Naturalistic language learning in YLE.
    • Emphasis on EXPOSURE, INPUT, rather than on practice.
    • Central role of COMPREHENSION.
    • COMMUNICATION as the primary function of language.
    • Primacy of MEANING.
    • Importance of VOCABULARY.
  • 4. Main Tenets of the Theory:
    • 1. The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis.
    • ACQUISITION is the natural way. Unconscious.Understanding language and using it for meaningful communication.
    • LEARNING :process in which conscious rules about the language are developed.Requires formal teaching and does not lead to acquisition.
  • 5. 2. The Monitor Hypothesis:
    • Conscious learning can function as a monitor or editor that checks and repairs the output of the acquired system.
    • 3 Conditions to Monitor:
    • 1. Time.
    • 2.Focus on forms.
    • 3.Knowledge of rules.
  • 6. 3. The Natural order Hypothesis.
    • Based on SLA, Brown and other studies (1978).
    • Certain grammatical structures or morphemes are acquired before others.
    • Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes.
  • 7. 4. The INPUT Hypothesis:
    • People acquire language best by being exposed to input that is slightly above their current level of competence.
    • i+1 formula.
    • Clues based on situation, context,extralinguistic information, KOW, make comprehension possible.
    • Caretaker speech, slower rate, repetition, use of Yes/No more than WH questions help to make the input more COMPREHENSIBLE.
  • 8. 5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
    • Krashen considers the learner’s emotional state as a FILTER that passes, impedes or blocks the INPUT necessary to acquisition.
    • 3 kinds of affective or attitudinal variables:
    • Motivation.
    • Self-confidence.
    • Anxiety (fear of emabarrassment, etc.)
  • 9. Implications for ELT
    • Provide lots of comprehensible input.
    • Use visual aids to help the acquisition of vocabulary.
    • The focus in the classroom should be on reading and listening;speaking should be allowed to “Emerge”. Silent Period.
    • Lower the affective filter. Relaxed classroom atmosphere.
  • 10. OBJETIVES
    • For beginner students up to Intermediate.
    • What they can/won’t be able to do (Page 184)
    • THE SYLLABUS:
    • BICs.
    • CALP.
  • 11. TECHNIQUES:
    • TPR (James Asher)
    • Mime, gesture, use of context.
    • Situation-based practice.
    • Group work activities.
    • Whatever minimizes learner’s anxiety and maximizes learner self-confidence.
  • 12. LEARNER ROLES:
    • Processor of comprehensible input.
    • Learner decisions on when to speak, what to speak about, what linguistic expressions to use.
    • Pre-production stage: participate in tle language class without need to respond.
    • Early production stage: respond to familiar questions,fixed conversation.
    • Speech-emergent phase: role-play, games, personal info and opinions, group problem-solving.
  • 13. TEACHER ROLES:
    • 1.Teacher is primary source of comprehensible input.
    • 2. Teacher creates a classroom atmosphere that is interesting and friendly to lower the affective filter.
    • 3. Teacher chooses a rich mix of classroom activities.
  • 14. ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:
    • Realia more than textbooks.
    • Visual aids.
    • Brochures, maps, advertisements, menus, shedules.
    • Syllabus of topics and situations.
    • PROCEDURE:
    • Mainly TPR.
  • 15. CONCLUSION
    • The Natural Approach rejects the formal grammatical organization of language to teach it.It is not used at a native level.
    • It emphasizes comprehensible and meaningful practice activities , rather than production of grammatically perfect utterances and sentences.