Piensa. Manuel Palma

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Breve viaje para conocer los 3 filósofos griegos padres del pensar occidental. Teoría e Historia del Diseño. Manuel Palma

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  • Think.A presentation by Matthew Redmond of Oral Roberts University.
  • ….“to employ one’s mind rationally” or…
  • The last of these guys, Aristotle, is standing next to Plato and pointing out to the earth. We’ll look at why later.
  • The first of these guys, as mentioned, was…
  • Socrates is considered by most to be one of the great fathers of the art of philosophy…
  • …oldMr. Socrates himself. He wasn’t considered to be the most handsome man…
  • And even here, closer up, you can see, he is…
  • …Socrates’ wife’s name was Xanthippe, and although it doesn’t appear that she did anything to influence Socrates’ thinking, it is a testimony to the man’s intelligence to note that he married a young, beautiful woman when he himself was disagreeable in appearance. He was indeed quite a great thinker.
  • Socrates was not satisfied with simply accepting the world as it was. He desired to understand it, and to understand the way people thought about it. So he began a search for truth and emphasized rational thinking, and this sparked a revolution in the world.
  • We all know that in Greece, mythology was integrated into everything everyone did, but that practice was also common in the rest of the world. People did think, but for the most part, rather than examining and analyzing the world around them and trying to reach an understanding of it by thinking, people used myths to explain different phenomena in the world. For example…
  • Socrates didn’t deny the gods though. He believed in most of the classic Greek mythology, including…
  • …Socrates believed in the pursuit of truth, and he believed individuals should strive to do this by rational thinking. He believed the world could be understood and explained through thinking. Rather than just accept things as they were or were assumed to be, he began trying to understand why they were and why people thought they way they did.
  • And this movement he started began to slowly uproot people’s long-held reliance on mythology. He certainly did not overthrow mythology as a whole, and it was not his goal to do so, but as people began to think more about the world around them, they began to find a new understanding of it and didn’t have to resort as often to mythical forces for explanations. Thus, they did not have to rely as much as places like this building here…
  • Socrates said, “To Find yourself, think for yourself.” Socrates believed one cannot just accept the world as it comes at him. He must think in order to understand and to find a true glimpse of truth and the meaning of life. This then passed down the tradition that thinking rationally was a necessary aspect of living.
  • One of Socrates’ core teachings was the idea that knowledge is virtue. One of Socrates core interests was the moral character of man. He came to the conclusion that moral actions are the result of having virtue and that virtue comes through knowledge. Prior to Socrates, people believed that what was moral was doing what was pleasing to the gods. However, Socrates saw this as weak and uncertain based on the wavering character of the gods and the whimsical wishes of the priests that represented them. He believed good was founded in a higher, more definite authority than the character of the gods. This authority he believed was immutable, unconditional truth, and virtuous action comes by knowledge of this truth.
  • Socrates believed that at their heart, all people are good and want to do good. By watching people, he saw that everyone did what he saw was best. People only did what they thought would be good for themselves. Thus, Socrates concluded that at their heart, everybody wants to do good. However…
  • …People just don’t know what good is. They do what they think is best, but what they think is best is not really the actual best. What they think is good is not actually the highest good. What people lack is not will power but knowledge of the truth that leads to virtue.
  • Thus, wrongdoing is the result of ignorance. He did not mean that people were stupid and made stupid decisions. Rather, they had a rational ignorance, in that they made decisions they thought were good and rational, however, they had an ignorance of truth. Improper conduct is a product of our ignorance of the truth rather than a weakness of the will. As you can, Bush here wants to do what is good, he desires to make a phone call, but he just lacks the knowledge of how to make a phone call. Therefore his ignorance leads to wrongdoing.
  • Thus, in order to cause people to good, you have only to teach them what good is. They have the rationale and desire to good, but they just don’t know what it is. Teach them knowledge of the truth, and they will be virtuous and do what is good.
  • Yet quite ironically, Socrates claims he did not teach anyone anything, for Socrates believed he could not teach.
  • He said, “I cannot teach anybody anything. I can only make them think.” Although people considered him the wisest man to be alive, Socrates believed he actually knew nothing at all, and therefore could not teach anyone anything. Thus, instead of teaching his students lessons, he developed a different technique unique from any other “teacher” previous to his time…
  • …and that technique has now come to be called “The Socratic Method.” Socrates asked his students questions to get them to discover truth. This method dramatically impacted the world, and Socrates is considered to be the first to employ it. He asked questions about people’s ideas to see if any belief they had was irrational or illogical. He even refused to answer questions with direct replies, but rather replied to questions with even deeper questions that addressed the issue at hand. He did this because of a fundamental belief he had:
  • Socrates believed that all knowledge lies within all people. No one can learn anything new, and nothing can be taught because everyone already knows everything. However, we have just forgotten it and need to draw it out. We draw it out by questions. Socrates believed that souls were eternal and are reincarnated. Each time we are reborn we forget our knowledge. We must ask questions to draw out all the knowledge from our past lives. If one asks the right questions, he will find the right answers. This introduced the world to the concept of continually challenging your beliefs with questions. Because Socrates believed we will only do the right things if we know the right things, he believed it was critical to continuously question what we think we know in order to find true knowledge. Socrates also never offered any answers to his questions after questioning and tearing down a person’s ideas because he believed the answers were already within the person and he couldn’t give it to them; they could only truly find it by drawing it out themselves. Giving the answer to them would not be true knowledge.
  • Unfortunately, the world can be resistant to new ideas. Socrates made many people angry by his blunt honesty, radical new ways of thinking, criticism of politics and rulers, and method of teaching. The Athenian ruling world felt threatened by the great influence Socrates had, and especially by his criticism of their government and immorality and his praise of their archrival Sparta. So..
  • …the Athenian rulers that opposed Socrates put him on trial and condemned him as guilty of corrupting the minds of the Athenian youth. When asked what his punishment should be, he suggested he receive a wage paid by the government and be given free dinners for the rest of his life for being the benefactor of Athens. The rulers were appalled by this, and sentenced him to death. Socrates had the opportunity to flee, but he did not, for various reasons. One of the reasons was that…
  • He simply did not fear death. According to Xenophon, Socrates purposefully mocked the rulers in his suggestion of his punishment because he believed he was better off dead. He believed no philosopher or great thinker should fear death.
  • He said that “Death may be the greatest of all human blessings.” Perhaps he believed this because he believed that every time we die we are reborn and have the opportunity to live a new life and again pursue the sacred quest of truth. Whatever the reason, he willingly embraced his punishment. Surrounded by a group of his students, he downed a wine mixed with the poison of a hemlock, and died. He spoke his last words to his student Crito, saying “We owe a cock to Asclepius. Please, don’t forget to pay the debt.” Asclepius was the Greek god for curing illness, and it is likely that Socrates’ spoke these last words because he believed death was a cure, a freedom of the soul from the body and the opportunity to begin again. Although we as Christians do not believe Socrates was reborn in another life and privileged to live on, his ideas certainly were.
  • Socrates did not write any of his ideas down, because he believed writing was inferior and corrupted truth…
  • (And by the way, if you were wondering, this is an ancient Greek “pen,” called a stylus, which is where we get the term for phone styluses today. Ancient Greeks used such a device to write into wax tablets or other similar writing devices.) Yet although Socrates did not write his ideas down, many of his students remembered and practiced what he taught, and…
  • And this leads us to the second one of the great thinking guys that shaped modern thinking.
  • …who is considered by most to also be one of the great founders of modern thinking, particularly metaphysics, both in how he transmitted to us Socrates’ ideas and how he developed his own.
  • …goodol’ Mr. Plato. Check out the man’s pects!
  • One of Plato’s greatest contributions to metaphysics and thinking as a whole was the idea of his Perfect Platonic Forms. Plato believed there is a division of reality between the irreconcilable and warring worlds of the material and the immaterial.
  • The true reality lies above the world we observe around us. True reality is spiritual, abstract, and distant. Plato believed the truth is absolute and immaterial and exists in its own immaterial world beyond this material world. The forms of perfect things and truth exist in this immaterial world. He believed this world was not just an idea, but an actual state of existence above and beyond our own and was eternal and unchangeable.
  • This world is but a shadow. The world we observe around us is but a shadow of the true forms that lie above in the eternal, perfect platonic world. Plato denied the reality of the material world. Everything we observe is always changing, inconsistent, and untrue. Thus, it is but a shadow of perfect, unchanging truth.
  • Therefore our body, being material, is an inferior shadow. It is evil because it limits us in perceiving the true forms. We are distracted by our physical senses. Plato believed we are blinded by the sight of our eyes. We think that what we observe with our sense is real and true, but it is really just a shadow. Also, the body is always changing and eventually dies, and therefore can’t be perfect or eternal.
  • The soul is what it is good and eternal. It is an eternal form, and because it is a form, it is true and good. Only the soul can perceive the perfect forms, for it is perfect itself. However as mentioned before, the body hinders the soul from finding truth. The senses distract it from true reality. The body’s appetite causes the owner of the soul to crave evil. But after the body dies and disintegrates, the eternal soul is free to move into the realm of pure forms and lives forever. This theory of forms introduced the idea of dualism, which is prominent in Western thinking and religion today, and we can especially see it in Christianity. Some Christians have come to interpret the flesh literally as the flesh of our bodies, and they condemn it as evil, rather than interpreting it as our old nature. Christians have an idea of heaven as a separate, non-physical reality of perfect forms to which our soul migrates after departing from this evil body. But that is simply Platonic thought. The Bible clearly says that our bodies will be resurrected. This is the reality God created for us and meant for us to exist in.
  • Because the body is unreliable and inferior, Plato believed knowledge is found not through experience but through deductive reasoning. He believed in an a priori approach. One begins by looking to the general forms that are overarching and independent of our sense experience. After finding the perfect eternal truth, he will be better to understand the shadows that are meager imitations of truth. Knowledge is proportionate to the realm from which it is gained, and general knowledge gained from the perfect forms is itself perfect.
  • Because the world is an imperfect shadow, observation of the world will only lead to imperfect ideas. If one seeks knowledge experientially or by observation, he will find only opinions rather than true knowledge. This world is in a state of flux, so the views derived from it also will always be changing and thus instable opinions. The phenomena we perceive with our senses is imperfect and leads to imperfect knowledge.
  • True knowledge is found by examining perfect forms. Perfect forms are eternal and unchanging, so the knowledge gained from looking up to them will also be stable and true. One applies the constant truths he learns from these general overarching forms to the changing physical reality. According to Plato, the body is material and a shadow, but the mind, which is a part of the immortal soul, is a perfect form that can imagine other perfect forms. Truth lies within the mind. By imagining with the mind the true form of things, we can better understand the shadows we sense around us because we will understand what those shadows are striving to be. In his dialogues, Plato says Socrates condemns people who think that something must be grasped by the senses to be real. He believes true reality is unavailable to these people. Thus, we should relate the phenomena we perceive with our senses to the ideals we find through thought. Thus, because of this and because the mind is a perfect form and the senses imperfect shadows, thought is superior to senses in discovering truth.
  • One of Plato’s most famous ideas that illustrates his conception of forms versus shadows is the allegory of the cave…
  • …This video illustrates that idea a little better. Those who take the world of the senses to be real are living in a den of evil and ignorance. To climb out of this cave and see the light and understand true reality is extremely difficult, and those who are able to do it are unable to explain this true reality to those still in the cave. They are scorned.The video is a bit cheesy, but bear with it. It illustrates the point, and I think it is pretty humorous.(Click on video to pull up link to youtube video content.)
  • To pass down all this ideas Plato had and taught, Plato established the…
  • …the Academy. However, the beautiful building you see here…
  • …This is the Academy. Unfortunately, this is just about all that remains of Plato’s grand Academy. As you can see…
  • The attendees of Plato’s Academy included many great thinkers, but the most notable, which can be seen in this engraving being taught by Plato himself, was…
  • …the third guy that shaped modern thinking. That guy was…
  • …Aristotle, who is considered by many scholars to be one…
  • …a nice beard.
  • Although Aristotle was instructed by Plato at The Academy, learned how to think under him, discovered the world with him, and studied all of his ideas for nineteen years…
  • …and you can see him disagreeing with Plato here about what should be studied. Plato is pointing upwards, symbolizing his belief that what should be studied is the perfect forms above. However, Aristotle is motioning down to the world around him, symbolizing his most notable disagreement with Plato that what should be studied is the world we sense around us.
  • Aristotle just did not think that knowledge was abstract and distant. He did not think that true reality existed in some abstract world beyond the one we sense and observe. He just could not believe that such a world was real.
  • Aristotle believed knowledge is empirical. Reality is what experience, the world around us, the physical world, the world we can sense, observe, measure, and describe. Knowledge is found in the world around us. Aristotle disagreed with Socrates that all knowledge lies within us and needs only to be drawn out by questions, for he believed that the world must be studied to learn truth. And he disagreed with Plato that the world to be studied is distant and abstract.
  • We observe the world around us to find truth. We can trust in our senses and in fact must trust in our senses to find truth. Knowledge of truth comes by observing, studying, and experimenting with the world we are in. Through observation of the world, truth is revealed.
  • Aristotle believed that everything we observe has essence and form. This sounds similar to Plato’s forms and shadows, but it is fundamentally different. Aristotle believed that the essence and form of everything were interconnected and could not be separated from each other. The essence of everything is tied to a material form, yet the form of everything has essence.
  • The essence of a thing is its ultimate purpose. Aristotle believed that everything has a purpose and final state it strives to reach. That final state was its essence. The essence of a thing gives meaning to its existence and directs its life. For instance, in simple terms, the essence of a plant is to grow, to sprout, to bloom, to give life, and finally to produce more plants.
  • The form of a thing is its actual material existence. Aristotle believed that there was no world beyond this material world we sense and observe, therefore all things have material form. Every form has an essence, and a thing’s form is how it fulfills its essence. For instance, the form of a plant goes down to the cellular level, and the form of a plant allows it to grow, spread life, and reach its essence.
  • Aristotle wasn’t the first to practice these sciences, and he certainly wasn’t the best in them. He made major errors in physics for example that withheld progress for hundreds of years. However, his beliefs about the world and his practices in these sciences did lead to the development of the…
  • …Scientific Method, which dramatically progressed all the sciences. Aristotle believed that knowledge is found by ascending from the particulars of things to the understanding of the essence of things. Although he did not specifically write out the scientific method, it is clear he practiced it in all he search for truth.
  • …and finally came to a conclusion about the answer.As you can see, this is the very framework of the scientific method.
  • …what? You don’t recognize this guy? This fine, young specimen is none other than…
  • …Great. Yes. Aristotle was the teacher of the great emperor that changed the face of the world. I think its pretty funny though. That last statue makes Alexander the great and mighty warrior and emperor look like a wimpy, feminine guy…
  • …you can see here, Socrates taught Plato, who taught Aristotle, who taught Alexander the Great. So even if these old guys’ ideas did nothing to shape their world, their affect on Alexander the Great profoundly shaped the world.
  • These men not only shaped Greece by all they taught and did…
  • …They also shaped the world as a whole.
  • As Socrates said, “I am neither an Athenian nor a Greek, but a citizen of the world.” These men believed their influence and purpose was not limited to the land around them. They believed they were called to change the world. And change the world they did. They truly taught the world to…
  • Think.
  • Piensa. Manuel Palma

    1. 1. pensaraverboEmplear la mente racionalmenteFormar o concebir una creencia o idea
    2. 2. Platón
    4. 4. (mejor encarada)
    5. 5. Sócrates empezó la búsqueda de la verdady el método del pensamiento racional querevolucionó el mundo
    6. 6. Antes deSócratesmuchagentedependía demitos paraexplicaciones
    7. 7. Aunque Sócratesno negaba los dioses
    8. 8. Él hacía énfasis enpensarpara explicar el mundo
    9. 9. Esto retó la dependenciaclásica en la mitología
    10. 10. Para encontrarte a ti mismo,piensapor ti mismo.
    11. 11. Conocimiento es virtud
    12. 12. Los malos actos son resultado de la ignorancia
    13. 13. Enseña a la gente el bien y va a hacer el bien
    14. 14. Sin embargo, Sócratessostenía que él no enseñaba…
    15. 15. No puedo enseñar nada a nadie, sólo puedo hacerlos pensar
    16. 16. El Método Socrático:descubrir la verdad haciendo preguntas
    17. 17. Desafortunadamente, el mundopuede ser resistente a nuevasideas
    18. 18. Líderes de Atenas se opusieron a Sócrates y, lo sentenciaron a muerte
    19. 19. Pero Sócratesno tenía miedo ala muerte
    20. 20. La muerte puede ser la más grande de todas lasbendiciones humanas
    21. 21. Sócrates NO escribió…
    24. 24. La verdad estáarriba
    25. 25. El mundo no es más que sombra
    26. 26. Cuerpoes maldad e inferior
    27. 27. Almaes buena y eterna
    28. 28. El conocimiento se encuentra a través delrazonamiento deductivo
    29. 29. Observando un mundo imperfecto da ideas imperfectas
    30. 30. El conocimiento verdadero viene delVer las formas arriba
    31. 31. Alegoría de la Caverna
    32. 32. Para pasar sus en-señanzas, Platónestableció…
    33. 33. Platón enseñó a muchos, entre ellos a …
    35. 35. Aunque Aristóteles fueenseñado por Platón…
    36. 36. …muchas veces difería de él
    37. 37. El conocimiento no esabstracto y distante
    38. 38. El conocer es EMPÍRICO
    39. 39. OBSERVAel mundopara encontrarla verdad
    40. 40. Todo tiene unaesencia y forma
    41. 41. ESENCIA
    42. 42. …y forma
    43. 43. Aristóteles no fue el primer científico, pero desarrolló
    44. 44. Scientific MethodMÉTODOCIENTÍFICO
    48. 48. No sólo cambiarona Grecia…
    49. 49. Sino cambiaron al MUNDO
    50. 50. No soy ateniense, ni soy griego, sino ciudadano del mundo Sócrates
    51. 51. PIENSA