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Promotional Planning Elements Promotional Planning 1 2 3 4 Receiver Channel Message SourceComprehension Presentation Yielding Attention Can the Which media What type of Who will be receiver will increase message will effective in comprehend presentation? create getting the ad? favorable consumers’ attitudes? attention?
Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
Limitations of Credible Sources• High- and low-credibility sources – Equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their own best interest• Sleeper effect – Persuasiveness increases over time
Source Attractiveness Similarity Familiarity Likeability Resemblance Knowledge of the Affection for the between the source through source resulting source and repeated or from physicalrecipient of the prolonged appearance, message exposure behavior, or personal traits
Top Celebrity Endorsers Top Male Endorsers • Tiger Woods • Michael Jordan • David Beckham • Lance Armstrong Top Female Endorsers • Maria Sharapova • Jennifer Lopez • Jessica Simpson • Venus/Serena Williams • Annika Sorenstram
Test Your KnowledgeThe use of celebrities in commercials is generallybased on the source characteristics of _____ andrepresents an attempt to induce persuasion throughthe ______ process. A) expertise; yielding B) expertise; identification C) power; identification D) attractiveness; identification E) attractiveness; internalization
Advertising Risks of Using Celebrities The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity’s behavior may pose a risk to the company
Choosing a Celebrity Endorser Match Trust w/audienceMatch w/product Risk Factors Image Familiarity Cost Likability
Familiarity and Appeal• Q-scores – % of those who say ―one of my favorites‖ divided by % who have heard of him/her • Sports stars average 17; performers 18 – Broken down by demographic criteria• Fame index database – 10,000 celebrities rated by 250 criteria • Age, sex, residence, career highlights, charity affiliations, fears, interests, additions, etc.
Test Your KnowledgeThe campaign centered around the theme ―Pork, theOther White Meat‖ is designed to show consumersthat pork is as lean as chicken. Ads in this campaignuse: A) Conclusion drawing B) A fear appeal C) A refutational appeal D) A humorous appeal E) An affective conclusion
Message Appeal ChoicesAppeal to the logical, Appeal to the feelings rational minds of and emotions of consumers consumers Appeal to both
Message Appeal OptionsComparative Fear Humor Ads Appeals Appeals• Especially • May stress • Can attract and useful for new physical danger hold attention brands or threats to health • Often the best• Often used for remembered brands with • May identify • Put consumers small market social threats in a positive share • Can backfire if mood• Used often in level of threat political is too high advertising
Protection MotivationDangers ofHepatitis A Havrix vaccination
Humor Appeals Pros Cons Aids attention and Does not aid persuasion in awareness generalMay aid retention of the May harm recall and message comprehensionCreates a positive mood May harm complex copyand enhances persuasion registrationMay aid name and simple Does not aid source copy registration credibilityMay serve as a distracter, Is not effective in bringingreducing counterarguing about sales May wear out faster than non-humorous ads
Test Your KnowledgeAn ad for Snorestop Extinguisher, a nose spray foreliminating snoring, has the headline, ―Wife shootshusband and rests in peace.‖ This ad uses _____ toattract attention and convey a key selling point. A) a two-sided message approach B) a humor appeal C) comparative advertising D) a refutational appeal E) a primacy appeal
Channel Factors Personal Nonpersonal•Flexible • No personal contact•Powerful • Geared to a•Real time large audience • Static
Differences in Information Processing Self-Paced Externally Media Paced Media • Newspapers • Radio • Magazines vs. • Television • Direct Mail • Internet