6                    Source, Message, and                      Channel FactorsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin              Copyright © 2...
The Persuasion Matrix
Promotional Planning Elements                 Promotional Planning     1                2              3              4  R...
A Direct Source
Source Attributes — Receiver Processing Modes
Source Credibility                      EthicalKnowledgeable                       Trustworthy  Skillful           Source ...
Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal
Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople  *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
Limitations of Credible Sources• High- and low-credibility sources  – Equally effective when arguing for a    position opp...
Source Attractiveness Similarity          Familiarity        Likeability Resemblance       Knowledge of the   Affection fo...
Top Celebrity Endorsers          Top   Male Endorsers            •   Tiger Woods            •   Michael Jordan            ...
Test Your KnowledgeThe use of celebrities in commercials is generallybased on the source characteristics of _____ andrepre...
Advertising Risks of Using Celebrities        The celebrity may overshadow         the product being endorsed      The cel...
Endorser Traits
Meaning Movement & the Endorsement Process
Energy & Power – The Athlete and the Product
Yao Ming is a Popular Endorser in China
Choosing a Celebrity Endorser    Match                                   Trust  w/audienceMatch w/product                 ...
Familiarity and Appeal• Q-scores  – % of those who say ―one of my favorites‖    divided by % who have heard of him/her    ...
Applying Likability: Decorative Models
Source PowerPerceived      Perceived    Perceived control        concern      scrutiny               Compliance
Source Power
Message Structure                 Order of PresentationRecall         Beginning        Middle         End
Conclusion Drawing
Message Sidedness
Refutation
Verbal vs. Visual Messages
Test Your KnowledgeThe campaign centered around the theme ―Pork, theOther White Meat‖ is designed to show consumersthat po...
Message Appeal ChoicesAppeal to the logical,    Appeal to the feelings  rational minds of         and emotions of     cons...
Message Appeal OptionsComparative              Fear               Humor   Ads                  Appeals             Appeals...
Miller Lite’s Comparative Advertising
Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
Protection MotivationDangers ofHepatitis A                                Havrix                              vaccination
Humor Appeals          Pros                         Cons   Aids attention and        Does not aid persuasion in       awar...
Humor in Print Media
Test Your KnowledgeAn ad for Snorestop Extinguisher, a nose spray foreliminating snoring, has the headline, ―Wife shootshu...
Channel Factors    Personal             Nonpersonal•Flexible              • No personal                         contact•Po...
Differences in Information Processing   Self-Paced            Externally     Media              Paced Media • Newspapers  ...
Context and Environment
Clutter
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Factores de fuente, mensaje y canales

  1. 1. 6 Source, Message, and Channel FactorsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. The Persuasion Matrix
  3. 3. Promotional Planning Elements Promotional Planning 1 2 3 4 Receiver Channel Message SourceComprehension Presentation Yielding Attention Can the Which media What type of Who will be receiver will increase message will effective in comprehend presentation? create getting the ad? favorable consumers’ attitudes? attention?
  4. 4. A Direct Source
  5. 5. Source Attributes — Receiver Processing Modes
  6. 6. Source Credibility EthicalKnowledgeable Trustworthy Skillful Source Experienced Believable Unbiased Honest
  7. 7. Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal
  8. 8. Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
  9. 9. Limitations of Credible Sources• High- and low-credibility sources – Equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their own best interest• Sleeper effect – Persuasiveness increases over time
  10. 10. Source Attractiveness Similarity Familiarity Likeability Resemblance Knowledge of the Affection for the between the source through source resulting source and repeated or from physicalrecipient of the prolonged appearance, message exposure behavior, or personal traits
  11. 11. Top Celebrity Endorsers Top Male Endorsers • Tiger Woods • Michael Jordan • David Beckham • Lance Armstrong Top Female Endorsers • Maria Sharapova • Jennifer Lopez • Jessica Simpson • Venus/Serena Williams • Annika Sorenstram
  12. 12. Test Your KnowledgeThe use of celebrities in commercials is generallybased on the source characteristics of _____ andrepresents an attempt to induce persuasion throughthe ______ process. A) expertise; yielding B) expertise; identification C) power; identification D) attractiveness; identification E) attractiveness; internalization
  13. 13. Advertising Risks of Using Celebrities The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity’s behavior may pose a risk to the company
  14. 14. Endorser Traits
  15. 15. Meaning Movement & the Endorsement Process
  16. 16. Energy & Power – The Athlete and the Product
  17. 17. Yao Ming is a Popular Endorser in China
  18. 18. Choosing a Celebrity Endorser Match Trust w/audienceMatch w/product Risk Factors Image Familiarity Cost Likability
  19. 19. Familiarity and Appeal• Q-scores – % of those who say ―one of my favorites‖ divided by % who have heard of him/her • Sports stars average 17; performers 18 – Broken down by demographic criteria• Fame index database – 10,000 celebrities rated by 250 criteria • Age, sex, residence, career highlights, charity affiliations, fears, interests, additions, etc.
  20. 20. Applying Likability: Decorative Models
  21. 21. Source PowerPerceived Perceived Perceived control concern scrutiny Compliance
  22. 22. Source Power
  23. 23. Message Structure Order of PresentationRecall Beginning Middle End
  24. 24. Conclusion Drawing
  25. 25. Message Sidedness
  26. 26. Refutation
  27. 27. Verbal vs. Visual Messages
  28. 28. Test Your KnowledgeThe campaign centered around the theme ―Pork, theOther White Meat‖ is designed to show consumersthat pork is as lean as chicken. Ads in this campaignuse: A) Conclusion drawing B) A fear appeal C) A refutational appeal D) A humorous appeal E) An affective conclusion
  29. 29. Message Appeal ChoicesAppeal to the logical, Appeal to the feelings rational minds of and emotions of consumers consumers Appeal to both
  30. 30. Message Appeal OptionsComparative Fear Humor Ads Appeals Appeals• Especially • May stress • Can attract and useful for new physical danger hold attention brands or threats to health • Often the best• Often used for remembered brands with • May identify • Put consumers small market social threats in a positive share • Can backfire if mood• Used often in level of threat political is too high advertising
  31. 31. Miller Lite’s Comparative Advertising
  32. 32. Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
  33. 33. Protection MotivationDangers ofHepatitis A Havrix vaccination
  34. 34. Humor Appeals Pros Cons Aids attention and Does not aid persuasion in awareness generalMay aid retention of the May harm recall and message comprehensionCreates a positive mood May harm complex copyand enhances persuasion registrationMay aid name and simple Does not aid source copy registration credibilityMay serve as a distracter, Is not effective in bringingreducing counterarguing about sales May wear out faster than non-humorous ads
  35. 35. Humor in Print Media
  36. 36. Test Your KnowledgeAn ad for Snorestop Extinguisher, a nose spray foreliminating snoring, has the headline, ―Wife shootshusband and rests in peace.‖ This ad uses _____ toattract attention and convey a key selling point. A) a two-sided message approach B) a humor appeal C) comparative advertising D) a refutational appeal E) a primacy appeal
  37. 37. Channel Factors Personal Nonpersonal•Flexible • No personal contact•Powerful • Geared to a•Real time large audience • Static
  38. 38. Differences in Information Processing Self-Paced Externally Media Paced Media • Newspapers • Radio • Magazines vs. • Television • Direct Mail • Internet
  39. 39. Context and Environment
  40. 40. Clutter
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