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  • 1. 6 Source, Message, and Channel FactorsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. The Persuasion Matrix
  • 3. Promotional Planning Elements Promotional Planning 1 2 3 4 Receiver Channel Message SourceComprehension Presentation Yielding Attention Can the Which media What type of Who will be receiver will increase message will effective in comprehend presentation? create getting the ad? favorable consumers’ attitudes? attention?
  • 4. A Direct Source
  • 5. Source Attributes — Receiver Processing Modes
  • 6. Source Credibility EthicalKnowledgeable Trustworthy Skillful Source Experienced Believable Unbiased Honest
  • 7. Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal
  • 8. Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
  • 9. Limitations of Credible Sources• High- and low-credibility sources – Equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their own best interest• Sleeper effect – Persuasiveness increases over time
  • 10. Source Attractiveness Similarity Familiarity Likeability Resemblance Knowledge of the Affection for the between the source through source resulting source and repeated or from physicalrecipient of the prolonged appearance, message exposure behavior, or personal traits
  • 11. Top Celebrity Endorsers Top Male Endorsers • Tiger Woods • Michael Jordan • David Beckham • Lance Armstrong Top Female Endorsers • Maria Sharapova • Jennifer Lopez • Jessica Simpson • Venus/Serena Williams • Annika Sorenstram
  • 12. Test Your KnowledgeThe use of celebrities in commercials is generallybased on the source characteristics of _____ andrepresents an attempt to induce persuasion throughthe ______ process. A) expertise; yielding B) expertise; identification C) power; identification D) attractiveness; identification E) attractiveness; internalization
  • 13. Advertising Risks of Using Celebrities The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity’s behavior may pose a risk to the company
  • 14. Endorser Traits
  • 15. Meaning Movement & the Endorsement Process
  • 16. Energy & Power – The Athlete and the Product
  • 17. Yao Ming is a Popular Endorser in China
  • 18. Choosing a Celebrity Endorser Match Trust w/audienceMatch w/product Risk Factors Image Familiarity Cost Likability
  • 19. Familiarity and Appeal• Q-scores – % of those who say ―one of my favorites‖ divided by % who have heard of him/her • Sports stars average 17; performers 18 – Broken down by demographic criteria• Fame index database – 10,000 celebrities rated by 250 criteria • Age, sex, residence, career highlights, charity affiliations, fears, interests, additions, etc.
  • 20. Applying Likability: Decorative Models
  • 21. Source PowerPerceived Perceived Perceived control concern scrutiny Compliance
  • 22. Source Power
  • 23. Message Structure Order of PresentationRecall Beginning Middle End
  • 24. Conclusion Drawing
  • 25. Message Sidedness
  • 26. Refutation
  • 27. Verbal vs. Visual Messages
  • 28. Test Your KnowledgeThe campaign centered around the theme ―Pork, theOther White Meat‖ is designed to show consumersthat pork is as lean as chicken. Ads in this campaignuse: A) Conclusion drawing B) A fear appeal C) A refutational appeal D) A humorous appeal E) An affective conclusion
  • 29. Message Appeal ChoicesAppeal to the logical, Appeal to the feelings rational minds of and emotions of consumers consumers Appeal to both
  • 30. Message Appeal OptionsComparative Fear Humor Ads Appeals Appeals• Especially • May stress • Can attract and useful for new physical danger hold attention brands or threats to health • Often the best• Often used for remembered brands with • May identify • Put consumers small market social threats in a positive share • Can backfire if mood• Used often in level of threat political is too high advertising
  • 31. Miller Lite’s Comparative Advertising
  • 32. Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
  • 33. Protection MotivationDangers ofHepatitis A Havrix vaccination
  • 34. Humor Appeals Pros Cons Aids attention and Does not aid persuasion in awareness generalMay aid retention of the May harm recall and message comprehensionCreates a positive mood May harm complex copyand enhances persuasion registrationMay aid name and simple Does not aid source copy registration credibilityMay serve as a distracter, Is not effective in bringingreducing counterarguing about sales May wear out faster than non-humorous ads
  • 35. Humor in Print Media
  • 36. Test Your KnowledgeAn ad for Snorestop Extinguisher, a nose spray foreliminating snoring, has the headline, ―Wife shootshusband and rests in peace.‖ This ad uses _____ toattract attention and convey a key selling point. A) a two-sided message approach B) a humor appeal C) comparative advertising D) a refutational appeal E) a primacy appeal
  • 37. Channel Factors Personal Nonpersonal•Flexible • No personal contact•Powerful • Geared to a•Real time large audience • Static
  • 38. Differences in Information Processing Self-Paced Externally Media Paced Media • Newspapers • Radio • Magazines vs. • Television • Direct Mail • Internet
  • 39. Context and Environment
  • 40. Clutter