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Krashen

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  • 1. Krashen<br />Stephen Krashen: specialises in 2nd language acquisition &amp; development – non- English &amp; bilingual<br />
  • 2. Theory of Language<br />Reject grammar being central part of lang – in fact gramm structure not require explicit analysis/explanation by lang teacher, learner or teaching materials. <br />Communication as main function: eg of communicative approach<br />No emphasis on ‘theory of language’ at all – some say there is none – such as Gregg,1984.<br />Main focus vocabulary – lexicon – used to send messages – grammar is a by-product<br />Although they say they it is ‘communicative’, similar to audiolinguists in that they see learning occurring in stages. <br />
  • 3. Led to collaboration Krashen&amp; Terrell (Tracy, Spanish teacher in California -1977; 1982 – ‘The Natural Approach’). <br />Wanted language to be learned along more naturalistic principles of langacqn. Using Krashen’s theories, ‘The Natural Approach’ published in 1983 – langacqn – Krashen, procedures – Terrell. <br />Emphasis is on: <br />exposure/input not practice<br />making ss emotionally prepared to learn<br />allowing ss to listen before production <br />need to use written &amp; other sources for input<br />
  • 4. 5 main hypotheses<br /> acquisition-learning <br /> monitor <br /> natural order<br /> input<br />affective filter <br />
  • 5. Acquisition learning - 2 independent systems of language: acquired &amp; learned.<br />
  • 6. Monitor<br />Relationship between these 2 aspects of a learner. <br />Monitor part of the learner corrects errors or makes speech more acceptable. <br />Can only happen if the learner has enough time to think, if they focus on what is correct and if the rule is known to them. <br />
  • 7. Natural Order<br />Research findings by Dulay &amp; Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 show grammar structures seem to be acquired in a ‘natural order’. <br />So some structures are acquired early &amp; some late. Findings show that the learner’s L1, age, background or how they learned the language make no difference to this. <br />However, according to Krashen, syllabuses should not be designed in a manner which takes this order into account. In fact, it should not be this way at all.<br />
  • 8. Input<br />How he tries to explain how the learner acquires the new language. <br />Learner acquires language in this way, not learns it<br />Input needs to be slightly higher than the learner’s level<br />So natural communicative input is essential – ‘comprehensible ‘ input -&gt; with this go 2 further hypotheses: 1) speaking is a result of acquisition &amp; NOT its <br /> cause<br /> 2) if input is understood, and there is enough <br /> of it, the necessary grammar is <br /> automatically provided <br /> (Krashen, 1985, p2) <br />
  • 9. Affective Filter<br />‘affective variables’ play a role in 2ndlangacqn<br />Motivation, self-confidence &amp; anxiety – affects the mental block or ‘willingness’ of the acqn- impede langacqn<br />
  • 10. Evidence for Input hypothesis: (Krashen, 1985a)<br />People speak to children acquiring 1stlang in certain ways<br />People speak to L2 learners in certain ways<br />L2 learners often go through an early Silent Period<br />Difference in langacqn success reflected in younger/older learners from comprehensible input<br />The more comprehensible input, more L2 proficiency<br />Opposite goes for lack of comp. input<br />Teaching methods are dependent on comprehensible input <br />Immersion teaching works as the input is comprehensible<br />For bilingual programs to be successful, comp. input is nec.<br />
  • 11. 5 hypotheses have implications for lang teaching:<br />Present as much comprehensible input as poss<br />Things that help comprehension are NB – such as pics/realia- exposure to wider lexicon<br />Focus should be on reading &amp; listening – speaking comes later when ss ready<br />For a lower filter to work, class needs to be relaxed &amp; ss should focus on meaningful communication<br />
  • 12. Syllabus<br />See course organisation from 2 perspectives: <br />1)Some general goals of most courses – 4 areas: <br />basic personal communication skills: oral e.g. listening to announcements in public spaces<br />basic personal communication skills: written eg reading &amp; writing personal letters<br />Academic learning skills: oral eg. Listening to a lecture<br />Academic learning skills: written eg taking notes in class<br />
  • 13. But ‘Natural Approach’ focuses mainly on basic communication skills. <br />2nd perspective is that “ the purpose of a language course will vary according to needs of the students and their particular interests” – Krashen &amp; Terrell 1983:65. <br />
  • 14. BUT – how do you do this for all the ss? Needs differ – so list of topics understood as suggestions not set.<br />
  • 15. Types of learning &amp; teaching activities:<br />Focus on comprehensible input – teacher talk focuses on things in classroom &amp; on pics &amp; ss don’t need to say anything till feel ready – less stress ( filter) , but do need to reply to T’s commands &amp; qns in other ways. <br />T talks slowly &amp; clearly<br />Asks qns – 1 word answers<br />Charts/ pics/maps/ realia focal point for qns, then when ss able, talk about other ss<br />Pair/group, followed by whole class activities<br />Techniques often borrowed from other methods &amp; adapted to suit their needs: such as Command-based Act’s from Total Physical Response; Direct Method – mime, gesture, context; CLT – group-work<br />
  • 16. Nothing really new, but the way they use them &amp; the COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT, classroom env. that helps with learner anxiety and helps to increase learner confidence. <br />
  • 17. Learner roles:<br />Learners trying to ‘acquire’ lang,not learn it in usual way. Slightly more difficult input is given than at level, but by context &amp; extralinguistic info, can understand.<br />Learner’s roles change depending on level and a major aspect is the learner deciding when to speak, what to speak about &amp; what lang to use when speaking. <br />3 phases: 1) pre-production: no response but participate by <br />egpointing<br />2) early-production: either/or qns, single words, <br /> short phrases, fill in charts, use fixed <br /> conversational patterns eg ‘How are you?’<br /> 3) speech-emergent: role-play, games, personal <br /> info, opinions, group problem solving <br />( Krashen &amp; Terrell, 1983:76)<br />
  • 18. Learners have 4 responsibilities:<br />Give info on their goals so that topics &amp; situations can be comp. input<br />Take an active role in comp. input.: learn &amp; use conversational man. techniques<br />Decide when to start using speech &amp; what grade to use<br />Where learning exercises such as grammar are a part of program, decide with teacher how much time to spend on them &amp; try to do &amp; check by themselves. <br />PROBLEM – Ls need to comm. with other Ls, so may not get good comp.input slightly above their level – they (K&amp;T) are aware of this, but give no solutions. <br /> <br />
  • 19. Teacher Roles:<br />3 main roles<br />Main source of comprehensible input – constant flow of langnec plus non-linguistic clues to meaning – so very teacher-centred<br />Atmosphere – friendly, interesting, allowing a low affective filter. This is achieved through not expecting production of speech, int topics &amp; not correcting errors<br />Materials need to be of a high standard, very varied &amp; interesting, based not just on what T thinks is nec, but also on ss needs &amp; interests. <br />
  • 20. Materials<br />Primary goal of materials to make classroom activities as meaningful as possible by giving “the extralinguistic context that helps the acquirer to understand and thereby to acquire” (Krashen &amp; Terrell, 1983:55).<br />Thus REALIA are of paramount NB, and not textbooks.<br />So pictures, visual aids, schedules, brochures, ads, maps, simple books, games. Thus a lot of work for the teacher!!<br />
  • 21. Dialogues<br />Pairwork interviews with personal info<br />Personal charts &amp; tables<br />Preference ranking – opinion polls<br />Giving personal info about self<br />Using imagination<br />Problem-solving activities<br />Games<br />Content activities such as academic subject matter<br />
  • 22. Lev SemenovichVygotsky (1896-1934) University of Moscow- teacher of literature but led to developmental psychology, education and psychopathology.<br />influence on Krashen’s second language acquisition theory – application of their theories to second language teaching produces similarities.<br />
  • 23. Krashen&apos;sinput hypothesis similar toVygotsky&apos;s concept of zone of proximal development. According to the input hypothesis, language acquisition takes place during human interaction in an environment of the foreign language when the learner receives language &apos;input&apos; that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. <br />For example, if a learner is at a stage &apos;i&apos;, then maximum acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to &apos;Comprehensible Input&apos; that belongs to level &apos;i + 1&apos;.<br />Krashen&apos;sacquisition-learning hypothesis - influenced by Vygotsky. <br />
  • 24. Vygotsky speaks of internalization of language, Krashen uses the term language acquisition, both based on a common assumption: interaction.<br />Lang acq defined by Krashen &amp; NB in achieving proficiency is parallel of Vygotsky&apos;s view of cognitive development of the person&apos;s social history and being a product of it. <br />
  • 25. Lots of opposition to these ideas<br />Krashen under pressure from bilingualists – bilingual teaching following his approach is considered by many to be controversial. <br />Other linguists, such as Michael Long, do not agree with Krashen that language acquired through acqn &amp; not learning is better. <br />Reasons…formal teaching seems to be better for the learner in the long run.<br />Although through formal instruction, Ls seem to make more errors initially, they do get better. <br />For naturalistic learners, these errors are still evident much later on. <br />
  • 26. As to the question of which type allows you to learn a language faster, hhhmmmm?<br />Does a person who received formal instruction in a language go further in the long run ?? Long feels the answer is yes (1987). <br />

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