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LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012
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LESSON PLANNING - 2011 2012

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" EL CULTURAL " METHODOLOGY COURSE- ...

" EL CULTURAL " METHODOLOGY COURSE-
WHAT DOES LESSON PLANNING INVOLVE?

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  • 1. Lesson planning
  • 2. What is lesson planning?
  • 3. is one of those essential skills of the competent teacher Planning
  • 4. What should teachers take into account when planning a lesson?
  • 5. The students What the students need Who the students are What the students bring to class
  • 6. The Content ?
  • 7. The content depends on what the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson. Students who are interested in , involved in and enjoy what they are studying tend to make better progress and learn faster.
  • 8. What elements are necessary for successful learning? ?
  • 9. Harmer model Engage Activate Study
  • 10. This means getting the students interested in the class. Engage
  • 11. Every lesson usually needs to have some kind of language focus. Study
  • 12. For students to develop their use of English they need to have a chance to produce it . Activate
  • 13. Why is planning important? gives teacher confidence planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and therefore consider solutions makes sure that lesson is balanced and appropriate for class
  • 14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a course book? ?
  • 15. Advantages They do provide a ready made structure for teaching material
  • 16. Disadvantages The material was written for the teachers' particular students Each class is different and teachers need to be able to adapt material from whatever source
  • 17. What are the principles of planning? Prepare thoroughly, but in class, teach the learners, not the plan .
  • 18. Aims Teachers need to know what they want their students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before <ul><ul><li>What do the students know already? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the students need to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do with the students in the previous class? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How well do the class work together? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How motivated are the students? </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Take into account the things they like to do. The learners:
  • 20. What is the subject matter of the lesson The teaching point
  • 21. Teachers indicate what the activity will be Teaching procedures
  • 22. Involves students in a number of different types of activities and where possible introduces them to a wide selection of materials Materials and variety
  • 23. What are the main elements of a Lesson?
  • 24. How to plan a lesson PLANNING LEARNERS: What do they like doing? What topics interest them? CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: How will the chairs be arranged What instructions will I give? What happens if they don’t understand my instructions? How long is the whole lesson? MATERIAL: What materials will be used for each activity? What do I need to make, photocopy, borrow? What page of the coursebook have we got to? What can be used for homework? AIMS: What are the aims of the lesson? What are the aims of each activity? TEACHING PROCEDURES: What activities will help the learners achieve the lesson objectives? How will the activities link together to make a whole lesson? How long will each activity last? TEACHING POINT: What items of language will be studied or used in the lesson? What topics, contexts will be used? Am I confident about these teaching points? What preparation/ study do I need to do?
  • 25. In this session, we will focus on 5 lesson planning models for use in second language classrooms:
  • 26. Each of these models have their benefits and drawbacks, yet all have utility and application in the second language classroom. <ul><li>1 . Presentation-Practice-Production (PPP); </li></ul><ul><li>Van Els et al., 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Willis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Engage-Study-Activate (ESA) </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy Harmer </li></ul><ul><li>4. The ITB Model -- Into, Through and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Brinton and Holten, 1997, </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive model </li></ul><ul><li>Chamot </li></ul>
  • 27. 1. Presentation , Practice - Production <ul><li>the opportunity to learn something in context, </li></ul><ul><li>have it modeled by the teacher, </li></ul><ul><li>practice it in a controlled way and then </li></ul><ul><li>practice it freely . </li></ul>It is perhaps the most commonly taught and used format. The main idea behind this is that it gives students :
  • 28. Introduce the language and form(s) to be studied Explain concepts, provide definitions The students practice using the language and/or form(s) introduced by the teacher De-contextualized drilling, rote repetition Accuracy emphasized over fluency After students demonstrate successful use of language and/or form(s) in practice phase, the students are given an opportunity to use what they have learned in a less controlled setting
  • 29. <ul><ul><li>In Tasks, meaning is considered the primary aim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A relationship exists between the task, and a comparable, real-world context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks contain an information gap that must be resolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners learn to construct their own meanings. </li></ul></ul>A task is a goal-oriented activity with a clear purpose. It should achieve an outcome and create a final product. Some examples include : listing, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem-solving, sharing personal experiences, and creative tasks. 2. Task Based Learning
  • 30. Pre – task <ul><li>The teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>introduces and defines the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses activitiesto help students recall / learn useful words and phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures students understand task instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>May play a recording of others doing the same or similar task. </li></ul><ul><li>The students: </li></ul><ul><li>Note down useful words and phrases from the pre-task activities/ or the recording. </li></ul><ul><li>May spend a few minutes preparing for the task individually . </li></ul>
  • 31. Task cycle <ul><li>Task: </li></ul><ul><li>The students : PREPARE </li></ul><ul><li>Do the task in pairs/ small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be based on a reading / listening text. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a monitor and encourages students </li></ul><ul><li>Planning : </li></ul><ul><li>The students : INTERACT </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to report to the class how they did the task and what they discovered / decided. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse what they will say. Or draft a written version for the class to read </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures the purpose of the report is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as language adviser </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students rehearse oral reports or organize written ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Report : </li></ul><ul><li>The students: REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Present their spoken reports to the class, or circulate / display their written reports. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a chairperson, selecting who will speak next, or ensuring all students read most of the written report. </li></ul><ul><li>May give brief feedback on content and form. </li></ul><ul><li>May play a recording of others doing the same or similar task </li></ul>
  • 32. Language focus or Post task <ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>The students </li></ul><ul><li>Do conciousness-raising activities to identify and process specific language features from the task text and / or transcript. </li></ul><ul><li>May ask about other features they have noticed. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews each analysis activity with the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Brings other useful words, phrases and patterns to students’ attention. </li></ul><ul><li>May pick up on language items from the report stage </li></ul><ul><li>Practice : </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts practice activities after analysis activities where necessary, to build confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification : some feedback, error correction, pronunciation, extramaterial . </li></ul><ul><li>The students </li></ul><ul><li>Practise words , phrases and patterns from the analysis activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Practise other features occurring in the task text or report stage </li></ul><ul><li>Enter useful language items in their language notebooks </li></ul>
  • 33. Jeremy Harmer's Engage-Study-Activate (ESA) <ul><li>Engage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arouse student interest by involving their emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main focus in this stage is the construction of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be explicit or implicit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities or exercises used with the aim of getting the students using the target language as freely and communicatively as possible </li></ul></ul>3. ESA
  • 34. into Through beyond 4. Content based Instruction Brinton and Holten, 1997
  • 35. We usually have one specific idea to teach, but we don’y simply give the students the material, This approach to sequencing is called ”Into Through Beyond” <ul><li>We lead them into the material </li></ul><ul><li>take them through it </li></ul><ul><li>Guide beyond it </li></ul>
  • 36. into Through beyond <ul><li>reciprocal teaching </li></ul><ul><li>think pair and share </li></ul><ul><li>study guides </li></ul><ul><li>graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>confirm, revise predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus attention on the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit curiosity, activate </li></ul><ul><li>background knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>prepare for the main activity </li></ul><ul><li>practice </li></ul><ul><li>analysis </li></ul><ul><li>application </li></ul><ul><li>think pair and share </li></ul><ul><li>discussion </li></ul><ul><li>advance organizer </li></ul><ul><li>focusing question, predicting </li></ul><ul><li>KWL </li></ul><ul><li>Present material. </li></ul><ul><li>Students explore and </li></ul><ul><li>construct meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>discussion, debates </li></ul><ul><li>role plays </li></ul><ul><li>compare/contrast </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute essay </li></ul>
  • 37. <ul><li>Activates background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares learners </li></ul><ul><li>Gives learners info they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Connects activity with learners’ lives </li></ul>Present review vocabulary What where who when how which why. Show an example of how the grammar is used. What’s the difference between the sentences. Discuss or explain subject Make a mind map / list What do you know about………? Show a picture What is .? What do you think about…? Have you? What happened? Compare X and ……. Title: what does it mean? Look at the pictures – What’s happening. Read first line – What is it about? <ul><li>Teaches </li></ul><ul><li>Gives new information </li></ul><ul><li>explains </li></ul>Grammar Vocabulary Listening Speaking Writing Reading Watching Can include a while activity <ul><li>learners practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Checks comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Helps learners use info in their lives . </li></ul>Exercises in the book Make a list /mind map Make a dialog or role play Retell Ask the FIVE question strategy Make an outline of ……………. What where who when how which why. Compare X and ……. Make an advertisement for… What do you think about? Why? Draw a picture of Mixed sentences Write a letter to Into Pre activity Through activity Beyond Post activity Why How
  • 38. CALLA Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
  • 39. Cognitive Learning Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) Manipulating the material to be learned in a specific learning task. Linking new learning to prior knowledge related to particular concepts or processes Relating learning processes to linguistic demands in the domains of listening, speaking, reading and writing
  • 40. Social/Affective Learning Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) <ul><li>Interacting with others to assist </li></ul><ul><li>in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Developing cooperation and </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration skills and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Using affective control to </li></ul><ul><li>accomplish the learning task </li></ul>
  • 41. Planning : Advanced organization; selective attention; self management Monitoring : Checking for comprehension; monitoring production, self-monitoring while speaking and writing Evaluating : Checking back; reflecting on what one has learned, judging how well the task has been accomplished Metacognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
  • 42. Resourcing : Using reference materials such as textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopedias Grouping : Classifying words, terminology, quantities, or concepts according to their attributes Note-taking : Writing down key words and concepts Elaboration : Relating new ideas and concepts to known information and making personal associations Cognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
  • 43. More Cognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) <ul><li>Summarizing : Making mental, oral or written </li></ul><ul><li>summary of information gained at certain points </li></ul><ul><li>in learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Deduction/Induction : Use a rule/Make a rule </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery : Make a mental picture from the </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Representation : Mentally replay a </li></ul><ul><li>word, phrase or piece of information </li></ul><ul><li>Making Inferences : Use context clues to guess </li></ul><ul><li>meaning and predict upcoming information </li></ul>
  • 44. (Taken from: “The Learning Strategies Handbook” by Anna Uhl Chammot, Sarah Barnhardt, Pamela Beard El-Dinary, and Jill Robbins) Mptovation Cognitive conflict <ul><li>Activate background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Class time that expands through out the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>- Example: Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Life Experiences : Dialogs about students’ experiences related to the topic </li></ul>Building knowledge <ul><li>Explain, model </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Experiences : - Observation </li></ul><ul><li>- Stating the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentations: - Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Systematization: - Summary </li></ul><ul><li>- Visual Organizers </li></ul>Application Prompt Strategies, give feedback Working on exercises, practices, activities, etc. Evaluation Assess Strategies Metacognitive, auto-evaluation, co-evaluation, hetero-evaluation Expansion / Transference Support transfer For example: Using what has been learned in real life situations
  • 45. Sequencing activities hard complex creative new unknown using the information production (speak, wrt) Learner centered general Freer activities Easy Simple Mechanical Given Known Understanding Comprehension Teacher centered Specific Guided activities
  • 46. Good lesson planning is the art of mixing techniques, activities and materials in such a way that an ideal balance is created for the class. Conclusion
  • 47. [email_address] [email_address] Thank you ….. for your time and effort !

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