GRAMMAR BOOK 
SANCHO HAY E S
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
1. Nationalities 
2. Stem changers 
3. Para 
4. Adjectives 
5. Object Pronoun Placement 
6. DOP 
7. IOP...
NATIONALITIES 
País Nacionalidad 
México Mexicano 
Guatemala Guatemalteco 
Honduras Hondureño 
El Salvador Salvadoreño 
Ni...
STEM CHANGING VERBS 
O-ue verbs 
Ex. poder 
puedo podemos 
puedes podeis 
puede pueden 
E-I verbs 
Ex. peder 
pido pidemos...
PARA 
Most often used for 
Physical location 
Ex. Viajo por Santiago mañana. 
Recipients 
Ex. La Flora es por Kara 
Deadli...
ADJECTIVES 
Nouns ending in a vowel  +s 
El lago los lagos 
Nouns ending in a consanant + es 
El arbol  los arbole...
PRONOUN PLACEMENT 
• Attatch the pronoun to the infinitive 
• Voy a comerlo 
• 2. Attatch the pn to a progressive 
• Estoy...
DOP 
• Put before the verb or attached to an affirmative 
command or a present progressive verb. 
• The object the verb is...
IOP 
• Put before the DOP and the verb 
• Tells to whom or for whom the verb is 
talking about 
• Ex. Doy el lápiz a Spenc...
SER VS ESTAR 
Ser Estar 
• Identify people To be • Physical States/ 
Conditions 
• Used with de to show 
possession 
• Emo...
-ISIMO 
-isimo is used to express extremes. 
Ex.- 
Rico Riquísimo 
Feliz Felicísimo 
Largo larguísimo 
*** g gu 
cqu ...
VERBS LIKE GUSTAR 
• Usually used with an infinitive 
• Use pronoun before verb to show subject 
• Ex. Me gustan los avion...
AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS 
• Used to talk about indefinite situations or things. 
• Positive 
• Algo- something 
• Al...
PERO VS. SINO 
• Pero- using but when not negating the first idea 
• Ex. No soy español pero hablo bien la lengua. 
• Sino...
DOP/IOP/SE 
• When using both an IOP and DOP in 
third person form, use “se” instead of 
“le” (the IOP) 
• Doy la regalo a...
REFLEXIVE VERBS 
• Conjugate the verb 
• Add the correct pronoun before the conjugated 
verb 
• Ex.- dormirse 
Me duermo N...
TÚ COMMANDS 
Affirmative tú commands- 
• Change the tú form to third person form 
• Ex.– ¡comes! ¡come! 
Negative tú comm...
ADVERBIOS 
• Pick an adjective 
• Add mente 
• *if it ends in a vowel change it to an a 
and then add mente 
• Lento lent...
MODAL VERBS 
• Always used with an infinitive 
• Ex. No puedo nadar 
• Desear- to need 
• Poder- to be able to 
• Querer- ...
PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES 
• Past participles can be used as 
adjectives 
• They are usually used with estar 
• Ex- L...
PRETERITE 
-ar verbs 
-é -amos 
-aste asteis 
-o -aron 
-Er/ir verbs 
-í -imos 
-iste -isteis 
-ió -ieron
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE 
• Tells what one is doing 
• Regular- 
• Ar- ando 
• Er/ir- iendo 
• *If it ends in a vowel and is an...
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×

Grammar book

375 visualizaciones

Publicado el

spanish grammar book

Publicado en: Educación
0 comentarios
0 recomendaciones
Estadísticas
Notas
  • Sé el primero en comentar

  • Sé el primero en recomendar esto

Sin descargas
Visualizaciones
Visualizaciones totales
375
En SlideShare
0
De insertados
0
Número de insertados
26
Acciones
Compartido
0
Descargas
7
Comentarios
0
Recomendaciones
0
Insertados 0
No insertados

No hay notas en la diapositiva.

Grammar book

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOK SANCHO HAY E S
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Nationalities 2. Stem changers 3. Para 4. Adjectives 5. Object Pronoun Placement 6. DOP 7. IOP 8. Ser vs. estar 9. -isimo 10. Verbs like gustar 11. Affirmatives and negative words 12. Pero vs. sino 13. DOP/IOP/Se 14. Reflexive verbs 15. Tu commands, aff. and neg. 16. Adverbios 17. Modal verbs 18. Past participles as adjectives 19. Preterite
  3. 3. NATIONALITIES País Nacionalidad México Mexicano Guatemala Guatemalteco Honduras Hondureño El Salvador Salvadoreño Nicaragua Nicaragüense Costa Rica Costarricense Panamá Panameño Cuba Cubano Republica dominicana Dominicano Puerto Rico Puertorriqueño Venezuela Venezolano País Nacionalidad Perú Peruano Paraguay Paraguayo Bolivia Boliviano Chile Chileno Argentina Argentino Uruguay Uruguayo España Español Guinea Guineano ecuatorial Ecuador Ecuatoriano Colombia Colombiano
  4. 4. STEM CHANGING VERBS O-ue verbs Ex. poder puedo podemos puedes podeis puede pueden E-I verbs Ex. peder pido pidemos pides pidéis pide piden
  5. 5. PARA Most often used for Physical location Ex. Viajo por Santiago mañana. Recipients Ex. La Flora es por Kara Deadlines Ex. Necesita la presentación por jueves. Goals Ex. Trabaja mucho por ganar mas dinero.
  6. 6. ADJECTIVES Nouns ending in a vowel  +s El lago los lagos Nouns ending in a consanant + es El arbol  los arboles Nouns ending in z -ces El lapiz los lapices If adj. ends in a e +s If adj ends in a consanant +es If adj is referred to a nationality it must match BUT  las muchachas inglesas Los muchachos ingleses.
  7. 7. PRONOUN PLACEMENT • Attatch the pronoun to the infinitive • Voy a comerlo • 2. Attatch the pn to a progressive • Estoy comiendolo • attatch the prn to an affirmative command • !Comolo! • Place the pn b4 a conjugated verb • Lo voy a comer
  8. 8. DOP • Put before the verb or attached to an affirmative command or a present progressive verb. • The object the verb is doing • Ex. Miro la tele La miro Me Nos Te Os Lo/la Los/las
  9. 9. IOP • Put before the DOP and the verb • Tells to whom or for whom the verb is talking about • Ex. Doy el lápiz a Spencer. Le doy el lápiz. Me Nos Te Os Le Les
  10. 10. SER VS ESTAR Ser Estar • Identify people To be • Physical States/ Conditions • Used with de to show possession • Emotional states • Occupation • Nationalities • What something is made of • Date • Where/ when an event takes place • General observations • Mala= bad • Location/ spatial relationships • Health • Weather expressions • Ongoing expressions • Variable or changing characteristics. • Mala= sick Soy Somos Estoy Estamos Eres Soís Estas Estaís Es Son Esta Estan
  11. 11. -ISIMO -isimo is used to express extremes. Ex.- Rico Riquísimo Feliz Felicísimo Largo larguísimo *** g gu cqu zc
  12. 12. VERBS LIKE GUSTAR • Usually used with an infinitive • Use pronoun before verb to show subject • Ex. Me gustan los aviones • “me” is not the subject, “los aviones” are. Verb conjugates depending on the REAL subject not the object in front. • Ex. Me gustas tú.
  13. 13. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS • Used to talk about indefinite situations or things. • Positive • Algo- something • Alguien- someone • Alguno- any • Negative • Nada- nothing • Nadie- no one • Ninguno- none
  14. 14. PERO VS. SINO • Pero- using but when not negating the first idea • Ex. No soy español pero hablo bien la lengua. • Sino- saying two negating things. • Ex. No voy a estudiar español sino matemáticas. • Sino que- used the same as sino but with two conjugated verbs. • Ex. No vas al cine sino que come con sus padres.
  15. 15. DOP/IOP/SE • When using both an IOP and DOP in third person form, use “se” instead of “le” (the IOP) • Doy la regalo a Spencer Se la doy.
  16. 16. REFLEXIVE VERBS • Conjugate the verb • Add the correct pronoun before the conjugated verb • Ex.- dormirse Me duermo Nos dormimos Te duermas Os dormís Se duerme Se duermen
  17. 17. TÚ COMMANDS Affirmative tú commands- • Change the tú form to third person form • Ex.– ¡comes! ¡come! Negative tú commands- • Put into yo form • Change to opposite vowel • Add s • Ex. Comes  !No Comas!
  18. 18. ADVERBIOS • Pick an adjective • Add mente • *if it ends in a vowel change it to an a and then add mente • Lento lentamente • Fácil fácilmente • *When there are two adjectives are being used as adverbs only use mente for the second adjective. • Corro fácil y rápidamente.
  19. 19. MODAL VERBS • Always used with an infinitive • Ex. No puedo nadar • Desear- to need • Poder- to be able to • Querer- to want to • Deber- should • Soler- to be accustomed to • Tener que- to have to do something • Ir+a- to go to do something
  20. 20. PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES • Past participles can be used as adjectives • They are usually used with estar • Ex- La puerta está cerrado. • The door is closed.
  21. 21. PRETERITE -ar verbs -é -amos -aste asteis -o -aron -Er/ir verbs -í -imos -iste -isteis -ió -ieron
  22. 22. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE • Tells what one is doing • Regular- • Ar- ando • Er/ir- iendo • *If it ends in a vowel and is an er/ir add –yendo • Ex. Leer leyendo, traer trayendo • For eI

×