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Wow breast oh bra 4 u Document Transcript

  • 1. Wow! Breast Oh! BraA net compilation . . . . .
  • 2. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra A net compilation . . . . .BreastMedical Reviewing Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD What is the breast? How is the mammary gland designed? How are human breasts different than other primates? What happens to the breasts in pregnancy? What do the nipples and surrounding pigmented tissue function? What are other internal features of the breast? What are cosmetic aspects of the breast? How does breast tissue develop in the fetus?What is the breast?The breast refers generally to the front of the chest and medically specifically to the mammarygland.(The word "mammary" comes from "mamma," the Greek and Latin word for the breast, whichderives from the cry "mama" uttered by infants and young children, sometimes meaning "I wantto feed at the breast.")How is the mammary gland designed?The mammary gland is a milk-producing structure that is composed largely of fat cells (cellscapable of storing fat). The fat deposits are laid down in the breast under the influence of thefemale hormone, estrogen. Just as the surge of estrogens at adolescence encourages this process,androgens, such as testosterone, discourage it.Within the mammary gland there is a complex network of branching ducts (tubes or channels).These ducts exit from sac-like structures called lobules.The lobules in the breast are the glandsthat can produce milk in females (or rarely in males) given the appropriate hormonal stimulation.The breast ducts transport milk from the lobules out to the nipple. The ducts exit from the breastat the nipple.How are human breasts different than other primates?Human breasts are unlike those of other primates. In other primates, the breasts grow only whenthe female is producing milk (lactating). When the primate female has weaned her young, herbreasts flatten back down. In humans, the breasts develop at adolescence usually well before anypregnancy and the breasts stay enlarged throughout the remainder of life.What happens to the breasts in pregnancy?During pregnancy the breasts grow further. This growth is much more uniform than that atadolescence. The breasts of a small- busted woman tend to grow about as much during pregnancyas those of a buxom woman. The amount of milk-producing tissue is essentially the same. This isthe reason that when milk production begins, small-breasted women produce as much milk as dolarge-breasted women.What do the nipples and surrounding pigmented tissue function?The nipple becomes erect because of such stimuli as cold, breast feeding, and sexual activity. Thesmall darkened (pigmented) area around the nipple is called the areola. (The word "areola" is thediminutive of the Latin "area" meaning a small space.) In pregnancy the areola darkens further Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 1
  • 3. and spreads in size. The areola contains small modified sweat glands (Montgomerys glands)which secrete moisture that acts as a lubricant for breastfeeding.What are other internal features of the breast?The lobules and ducts in the breast are supported by surrounding fatty tissue and the suspensoryligaments of the breast. There are no muscles in the breast. The characteristic bounce of the breastcomes from the elasticity of the matrix of connective tissue fibers in the breast.There are blood vessels and lymphatics in the breast. The lymphatics are thin channels similar toblood vessels; they do not carry blood but collect and carry tissue fluid which ultimately reentersthe blood stream. Breast tissue fluid drains through the lymphatics into the lymph nodes locatedin the underarm (axilla) and behind the breast bone (sternum).What are cosmetic aspects of the breast?Although the primary biologic function of the breast is to produce milk to feed a baby, the breasthas for many centuries been a symbol of femininity and beauty. Despite the contemporaryconcept of an ideal breast, there is no single model that is ideal. The appearance of the normalfemale breast differs greatly from one woman to the next and the breast of any given womannormally differs at different times during a womans life -- before, during and after adolescence,during pregnancy, during the menstrual cycle, and after menopause.How does breast tissue develop in the fetus?Breast tissue begins to originate by the fourth week of fetal life. It grows along two ridges, one oneither side, running from the armpit (axilla) to the crotch. These are the milk ridges or milk lines.Breast tissue can develop anywhere along the milk line. It is quite common to have breast tissueup toward and even in the armpit. An extra nipple can also develop anywhere along the milk line,as can a complete auxiliary breast.Rarely, the breast may be absent. The normal growth of the breast or nipple never takes place andthere is no sign whatsoever of the breast tissue, areola or nipple. Absence of the breast (alsocalled amastia) frequently does not occur as the only physical problem. Unilateral amastia(amastia just on one side) is often associated with absence of the pectoral muscles (the muscles ofthe front of the chest). Bilateral amastia (with absence of both breasts) is associated in 40% ofcases with multiple congenital anomalies (birth defects) involving other parts of the body as well.Amastia can be distinguished from amazia -- wherein breast tissue is absent, but the nipple ispresent -- a condition that typically is a result of radiation or surgery.Featured:Breast Main ArticleThe breast generally refers to the chest, however, more specifically, to the mammary gland. Themammary gland is a milk producing gland comprised largely of fat. Within the mammary gland isa complex network of branching ducts. The ducts exit from sac-like structures called lobules,which can produce milk in females. The darkened area around the nipple is called the areola. Themammary glands, nipple, and areola change prior, during, and after pregnancy.Second Opinion Articles Breast Enlargement Surgery (Breast Augmentation) - Source: The Cleveland ClinicDoctors & Experts Views Hormone Therapy in Survivors of Breast CancerProcedures & Tests Breast Biopsy Mammogram Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Breast Self ExamView All Breast Procedures & Tests »Health News Little Evidence Silicone Breast Implants Harm Health Mammograms: Fewer Women Getting Mammograms Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 2
  • 4. Lavender Oil May Spur Breasts in Boys Silicone Breast Implants: New ConcernsView All Breast Health News »Ask the Experts Breast Cysts (Fibrocystic) and CaffeineRelated Diseases & Conditions Breast Cancer Fibrocystic Breast Condition Breast Lumps In Women Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor)View All Breast Related Diseases & Conditions »Health Features Breast Cancer and Menopause Pituitary Tumors Cancers: Leading Cancers in Women, Men, & ChildrenTools & References Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctors Appointment How to Choose a Doctor Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctors AppointmentGlossary Breast GlossaryCleavage (breasts) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An example of breast cleavage. Suzanne Valadon, painting by Renoir, 1885. Profile view of cleavage. Cleavage is the cleft created by the partial exposure of a womans breasts, especially when exposed by low-cut clothing. The neckline of a garment that exposes cleavage is known as décolletage (or décolleté in current French). Intermammary sulcus or intermammary cleft are the terms adopted by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists for the area of cleavage between the breasts not including the breasts.Theories of cleavageEvolutionary psychologists theorize that humans permanently enlarged breasts, in contrast toother primates breasts, which only enlarge during ovulation, allowed females to "solicit maleattention and investment even when they are not really fertile."[1] Popular British zoologist andethologist Desmond Morris theorizes that cleavage is a sexual signal that imitates the image ofthe cleft between the buttocks[citation needed], which according to The Naked Ape is also unique tohumans, other apes as a rule having much flatter buttocks.ControversiesIn the United States there is controversy over how much cleavage exposure is acceptable inpublic. In two separate incidents in 2007 Southwest Airlines crews had asked travelers to modifytheir outfits, to wear sweaters, or to deplane.[2] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 3
  • 5. Related slangExposure of the underside of the breast, such as below an extremely short crop top, is known asneathage, Australian cleavage, reverse cleavage, sleevage or underboob. When the lateralaspects of the breasts are uncovered, it is known as side cleavage or sideboob.Annual celebrationOn the first Friday of every April in South Africa, brassiere marketer Wonderbra sponsors a"National Cleavage Day". It is a day for women to celebrate not only their cleavage, but theirindependence.[3]See also • Breast fetishism • Cleavage enhancement • Mammary intercourse • Buttock cleavage • Toe cleavageReferences 1. ^ Charles B. Crawford & Dennis Krebs (eds.), "How Mate Choice Shaped Human Nature", Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1998). 2. ^ "Woman Told She Was Too Hot To Fly" NBC News, 3. ^ National Cleavage Day - WonderbraExternal links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Décolleté • "Sargents Portraits", an article including a mention of the scandal caused by the portrayal of cleavage in John Singer Sargents "Portrait of Madame X". • "Cleavage Is Back by Cheryl Lu-Lien Tan, The Baltimore Sun", viewed 9 June 2007.Breasts and Self-Image: Introduction © Mary D. Brown Introductory Note You can find complete publication information for the books mentioned here in the earlier article entitled Annotated Bibliography: Our nation seems to be engaged in a festival of breasts. Our fascination with them is insatiable, and the images are everywhere. (Latteier, p. 8) Although women have always had breasts, only in America over the last half of the twentieth century have breasts become a consuming passion of the culture, invoked and visible everywhere. This twentieth-century fascination with the breast has led to a media image of the ideal breast-or perhaps the medias push to create the image has led to Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 4
  • 6. societys fixation. But whichever came first, the cultural fixation and the ideal image areundeniable. They shape the way women evaluate themselves and complicate the adolescent girlspassage into womanhood.It hasnt always been this way, of course. In earlier civilizations, and even today in many non-Western cultures, womens breasts are accepted as natural, normal, and therefore unremarkable.But in the U.S., the cult of the breast began to develop during the period of prosperity after WorldWar II:...breasts were the particular preoccupation of Americans in the years after World War II, whenvoluptuous stars, such as Jayne Mansfield, Jane Russell, and Marilyn Monroe, were popular box-office attractions. The mammary fixation of the 1950s extended beyond movie stars and shapedthe experience of adolescents of both genders. In that era, boys seemed to prefer girls who were"busty," and American girls began to worry about breast size as well as about weight.(Brumberg, p. 108)Writer Carolyn Latteier describes her experience of coming of age during this era like this:I grew up in the late 1950s, the era of "mammary madness." Breasts were practically thedefinition of femininity during those years. They had to, above all, be big. Brassieres of that erawere highly engineered structures, with two conical cups stitched in precise spirals and carefullylabeled from small to large: A, B, C, and D. The goal was to get as deep into the alphabet aspossible. Size was everything. (Latteier, p. 4)This fascination with breasts-and particularly breast size-has deeply influenced all females whohave grown up during the last half century. As Ayalah and Weinstock discovered whilecompiling their ground-breaking study in the late 1970s:In one interview after another, as we observed the numerous and varied instances of causalitywhich linked a womans breasts to her personality or lifestyle, we were amazed at how basic andprofoundly fundamental the experience of having breasts actually was in womens lives. (Ayalahand Weinstock, p. 23)A generation later, Meema Spadola found that this attitude had not changed:...every time I did an interview or gathered together a group of women to discuss breasts, whatalways amazed me was just how much our breasts shape our lives, and, more than that, how eagerso many women are to talk about what breasts mean to them.(Spadola, p. 239). Another factor that perhaps reinforces societys focus on breasts is that theyrejust so darned obvious:Breasts are public-visible. They exist "out there," as a sign, a password. They define anddetermine other peoples perceptions of a girls femininity. They express what kind of person sheis without her will or consent. (Latteier, p. 19)The media have capitalized on this high visibility:The tremendous anxiety and self-consciousness that women exhibited while being photographed,another factor we hadnt anticipated, confirmed our notion that women were negatively affectedby the ever-present media images of "ideal" breasts. (Ayalah and Weinstock, p. 13)When Ayalah and Weinstock undertook to counter the media-created image of the ideal breast,they initially envisioned simply a book of photographs showing breasts as they really are. Butthey soon found that women wanted to talk about their breasts as well as allow them to bephotographed. Wed like young girls today to be aware of the discovery made by Ayalah andWeinstocks subjects more than 20 years ago:The one observation that most women made during their brief exposure to the photographs wasabout the variety of breasts. "I always thought breasts looked pretty much the same. Howamazingly different they all are. They seem to have different characters-like individual faces."(Ayalah and Weinstock, p. 15)But, unfortunately, most young girls today dont think of their bodies as personally unique.Theyre caught up in cultural expectations about what they and their bodies should be-a situation Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 5
  • 7. that underlies and molds their development from girls into young women. As Joan JacobsBrumberg concludes in the preface to her eye-opening cultural study:...although young women today enjoy greater freedom and more options than their counterparts ofa century ago, they are also under more pressure, and at greater risk, because of a uniquecombination of biological and cultural forces that have made the adolescent female body into atemplate for much of the social change of the twentieth century. (Brumberg, p. xxv)In the next article well look at the ways in which cultural expectations affect girls duringadolescence. In the meantime, if you have comments or stories to share about your experiences,please post a message here.Teen girls questions about breastsIf you havent already, read first the main breast development page first.Disclaimer: Information here is not medical advice. It is not intended to diagnose or treat anydisease, nor to replace the advice you could get from a health professional. If you are in doubt,please see a doctor (or several). So if youre in doubt, and especially if you have some othersymptoms, please see a doctor.The following comments are made by visitors of our site, and may or may not agree with theviewpoints presented on this website. The comments and opinions below belong to thecommenters who made them. They are posted here because they might further help andencourage men and women who visit this website; however 007 Breasts is not responsible for thiscontent or any loss/damage caused by reading these.Hi Im 15, 5 foot 4 and a 30c is this a weird size because nobody else seems to be a 30c?? Mymum is 38FF does this mean I will grow that big? I am a size 8 and I got my period when i was13, is a 30c smaller than say a 38 c?? I dont really understand. Thanks, EmmaHello Emma,Its not a weird size. Im not sure where you have gotten such an idea.While technically C cup should be about the same as C cup in another band size, in reality thatdoes not happen. So 30C may in fact be smaller cup than 38C.You dont necessarily grow as big as your mom. Time will tell.hi I just turned 17 3 months ago and I started my period when I was 13 and I have a big questionabout my breasts. I am a 34a and im not flat chested but my breasts grew pointy and I hate it. Ireally want to know why this happens. I noticed when I was 12 when all my friends startedgrowning their breasts that their bud was really round and now when I see them topless they havenice size round breasts. Will my breast ever become round? I am never braless unless the top i amwearing is very tight and makes them look round. I also would like to know what exactly causesyour breast to grow from round to pointy?? my mother has very big breasts and I am not askingfor huge breasts but I would like nice ROUNDED breasts and I am looking into surgery but I donot like the risks. And Im curious about the pill because it can make your breasts grow larger.But what I would just want to know why my breasts are like this and I am 17 now and will theygrow into round breasts and hopefully bigger?? I really hope you can help because this has beenbothering me for a very long time and I just really need some answers thank youHello, I dont have any real answers to you as to why such happens. However this shape is morecommon in teenagers than in adults - in other words, it very often happens that the breasts get alot rounder when a woman is in her early 20s. Girls also get "curvier" at that time all around. Sojust wait maybe 4-5 years; this getting curvier and rounder may very well happen to you too.Thank you so much for replying to my message, youve helped alot ! Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 6
  • 8. I am okay with my breast now but im thinking about getting my nipple pierced when i get older.Is this a good idea and is it safe? nicoleNipple piercing is a form of body modification (or mutilation), because it changes your bodypermanently.Today, piercings are becoming more popular among young people in Western cultures as afashionable thing. Yet, surveys prove a large number of people still do NOT find such thingsattractive. (According to Ink Me, Stud - survey data on consumer attitudes towards bodydecoration, 56 percent of people surveyed said they simply find tattoos and body art distasteful.)So you might end up liking a guy who does NOT like it.Risks: Nipple piercing procedure itself carries the risk of infection, mastitis (serious breastinfection), scarring, jewelry rejection, boils, risk of HIV or hepatitis transmission (fromunsterilized equipment), and more (in one case it meant partial mastectomy). Read also Nipplepiercing risks and Considering nipple piercing at far as breastfeeding and nipple piercing is concerned, you can breastfeed as long as you donthave a buildup of internal or external scar tissue. If you do, or if the piercing became infectedduring the healing process, you may have a problem with milk flow. But by far most moms withpierced nipples can breastfeed fine. They just should remove the jewelry while breastfeeding.We hope you will also discuss this subject with an adult.I am 15 and the areola on my breasts are very large. Im not overly self conscience about this, as ithasnt disgusted anyone as of yet, but Im curious if this happens to a lot of girls my age?CuriousYou are not alone (see the next posts for example), but I do not know what percentage of girlshave large areola. It would also depend on what you call "large".hi im a 14 year old girl and my size is 34b and i wanted to know what would be a normal sizeareola? i know there is no normal size but what would be not small but not large because mine is7cm by 7cm and im really self-concious about it and cant have showers at school (after pe) mineare still puffed up so will then get un-puffed? and if they do will the size go down too? and domen mind if you have a big areola? will teenage boys tease me for it? thank you, katieMy guess is that 7cm by 7cm is a little bigger than average for someone who hasnt beenpregnant, but your areola is perfectly normal. Areola size varies a lot, as you know. Mine areabout that size too (but Ive been pregnant). The size of areola will not go down. It may increase(usually will) during pregnancy. Im not sure what you mean by the puffiness. maybe you arereferring to the stage 4 as shown in Breast development and pics.I want to stress that your areola is perfectly normal. Teenage boys probably know next to nothingabout normal areola sizes - theyve only seen maybe a few pics in mens magazines or somethingof that sort. The models in those may have less than average size areola compared to most adultwomen. But obviously most teenage boys wont be seeing your areolas (unless you plan to showthem publicly... : ) I wouldnt worry about teenage boys, or about men for that matter. If someonewould make a remark about your areolas, that just shows THEIR immaturity and stupidity. Imean, if you have a boyfriend, are you planning on making some degrading remark on any of hisbody parts, for example, "You have funny bowed legs" or anything?? People with any mannerswouldnt do that, and in case of areolas, yours are normal anyway.Just go ahead and take showers after PE. There are probably other girls in your class who areself-conscious about some aspect of their breasts. So you can all just help each other by seeing alittle bit of the normal variety.Comments: I am 14 years old and just over a C cup (36C). My boobs sag slightly but I know thatthat is because of the weight of them. I am really worried though - I have really laurge areolas,flat nipples and my boobs are just plain ugly with stretch marks (they grew very quickly). What if Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 7
  • 9. guys expect perfect boobs and then see mine? When I get to an age where my boyfriend and Ihave sex, whats he going to say? Please help, Im really self concious but I cant talk to any of myfriends or family about it, Im too embarrassed.NatI can understand youre worried about this. But all those things you mentioned are normal andnot that unusual. I would recommend that you talk with your boyfriend about your fearsbeforehand. If you feel he might not know how female breasts look like, you can invite him to seethis website and he can learnAnd, he is likely to be self-conscious about something too. Most of us have some kind of physicaldefect or a part thats not perfect in appearance.Hello,Im a 16 year old female and I am a bit concerned with the size of my areola. My breasts dontseem to get any bigger, (34A) but my areolas do. I have grown feeling uncomfortable aboutthem, and I was wondering if it was normal and if not, if surgery was well worth it. Help.cloeyHi Cloey, Its normal to have large areolas. Its normal to have small areolas too, and mediumsize. The media leaves the impression that the idea or normal areola size is this tiny tiny one.But if you have not seen a lot of other peoples areolas that are not models, you cant tell what isnormal or common or typical. So people believe that what they see in TV and ads is the normwhen it is not.Surgery - I would advice against. Why? Because any surgery around nipple can affect your futureability to breastfeed. Surgery will cut some of the nerves to the areola/nipple and its those nervesthat relay the message to brain from babys suckling to tell the breast to release milk.That would mean you would have to put your possible future babies to a higher risk of manymany diseases like diabetes, heart disease, ear infectios, allergies etc. Formula-fed babies AREsicker than breast-fed babies. I know its far from your mind right now, but when the time comes(if it comes), it can be very important to you and your future husband.I have always felt a bit odd about my large areolas... Now I feel a bit better. I have a question: Iam a teenager and I want to know whether I should wear a bra at night or not.SamWearing a bra during night could be harmful in the long run. Tight clothes in general can hinderlymph flow, and sometimes blood circulation. In a study by Singer and Grismaijer, 3 out of 4women who wore their bras 24 hours per day developed breast cancer. Now, breast cancer isNOT likely to strike you as a teenager; it takes years and years to develop. But over years andyears of time, combined with other lifestyle factors, wearing a bra to bed could help the cancer todevelop. Bras can hinder the lymph flow and drainage from the breast tissue, which wouldnormally remove toxins from the breast. For this reason, if/when you wear bras, make sure theyare fitted properly and are NOT tight anywhere, and it is best to remove the bra when you can,like at home and when 16 and i have big boobs but the thing im worried about is my nipple is just flat it just lookslike some red dot on my areola unless its cold then it sticks out when will it be fully developedinto a regular nipple.fairyNipples just come in many different sizes and shapes, just like breasts. Your nipples are normal.Truly flat nipples are those that do not protrude or become erect when stimulated or cold. Trulyflat nipples may be an issue in the future when breastfeeding your baby, because sometimes (notalways) a baby can have difficulty latching on to them. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 8
  • 10. I am 19years old and I got my first period when I was 13. My breast size is only34C.But mymom, my sister, even my cosine (who is younger than me by 2years) have breast size of 36C. Iam kind of embarrassed about my breast size. But I have a big hip (stomach) and a big butt.When ever I wear a dress by stomach is the one kind of stick out and my breast wont even showout. Sometime my cousins make fun of that (not in a bad way but just for fun). But I feel likesomething is wrong with my body. I am over weighted. My weight is 156 (height is 5 1"). Mostof the over weighted people I see, have a big breast. And in your site u stated that losing weightcould make ur breast smaller as well. And I am kind of worried to lose my weight now.Could u please tell me what other possible reasons for my small breast size? Is there any type ofbra that would show my breast bigger? @@@@Also, (approximately) when (age) does onesbreast size(I meant the fifth stage) stop increasing ?@@@@ I am already 19 and I am worried ifmy breast wont get any bigger than 34C.Thank you very much.AmuthaThere is no specific reason a small breast size. It is mostly determined by ones genes. I do notknow why some people sometimes have smaller breast size than their relatives. But, it happensand it happens quite often.Yes there are bras that make breasts look bigger. There are padded bras, gel inserts, siliconeinserts etc.Breasts usually stop growing about 2-3 years after you get your period. But with some womenthey grow some more even after that. Its not set in stone. Please read Breast development articlealso, it might help you still more.And, dont be afraid of losing weight for your HEALTHS sake - after all, isnt health moreimportant than breast size?Hi,Im a 15 and 1/2 year old girl. I got my periods when I was 14. The problem is my right breast isprobably a 30A while my left breast is a 36A. I am very embaressed by this and wanted ot knowif I have any hope of my right breasts growing? I stress alot over this and am very embaressed byit.DiyaHi DiyaIm sorry to tell you that if the asymmetry is substantial, it might stay that way. So you might haveto live with it. Maybe the right breast bud got damaged or hurt earlier in your life, and that hascaused this.Consider buying a breast form to put into a bra cup.I am 20 years old, i was a late bloomer didnt start my period unill i was 16 or breast nevereven grew untill my 11th grade year of high school. i have always been called madonna.or vieniebreast i am worried bout my size and my shape of breast..for one i have to wear sports bras cuzthe average bra doesnt fit. i have firm breast there pointed but theres no base. are they ever goingto be round. i still have pains in my breasts they come and go. so im guess there still growing...alli know is that im a 36,,a or b. depends on the bra...i never wanted breast in the first place. but if ihave to grow. why wont my breast grow right..i dont know if you can say there saggy..just pointyand stay upward..please are my breast going to stay this was for the rest of my life.....everyfemale on both sides of my family have tits saggy and wear triple ds..please i dont want to havebreast that big. just want breast round.AprilThere is a lot of variation in breast development, and also in breast sized, among women, so Icant predict exactly how yours will end up. But it sounds like they are still developing, and wontgrow that much in size anymore. I think its a good chance they will get rounder in a few years. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 9
  • 11. Thats usually the last thing that happens with breast development. Many girls get rounder and alittle fuller breasts in their early twenties.hello im 13 years old and I started menstruating a bit more than a year ago, but before i hadgotten my period my breasts never started to develop too noticeably. my mother is a C or D cupbut me and my sister, (who is 17 and has on and off periods) both have very small breasts(AA).my mom thinks we will develop but looking at my sister, I dont think it will ever happen. Mymom also thinks it has to do with my weight (im about 5 foot 4 and 95 pounds) but I look aroundand everyone my age has boobs and some are even skinnier than me. Ive been taking dance sinceI was 4 and I was wondering if that has to do with it.You may just have small breasts - BUT your weight and being skinny does definitely affect it too.When there is not much fat in your body, there cannot be much fat in the breasts either. Dance Iguess provides you with lots of exercise which makes your body fit, with not much fat. So if yougain weight, your breasts will get somewhat bigger. Your sister, if she doesnt have a regularperiod, is she underweight?You yourself are definitely underweight, check for example this Body mass index calculator. Youwould need at least 13 pounds more...Remember also that not eating enough food makes you vulnerable to mineral and vitamindeficiencies. This not also affects your breast size but also your brain. For example, it has beenproven in a scientific study that dieting girls who were anemic (iron deficiency) also had a lowerintelligence: Researchers in Britain discovered that a drop in iron corresponded to a significantdrop in 15 years old and im still a 32A and i got my period when i was 12 but almost 13, ive readsomewhere that your breasts stop developing around two years after you got your period, is thistrue? so im a little worried and i also heard from somewhere that milk and other dairy products,nuts, and Cheerios will *help* your breasts grow bigger! is this true?anonymousBreast development can continue more than two years after the period starts. But I cannot tell ifyours will continue to grow.Its quite likely that your breasts are perfectly normal, just small. Please read our article aboutsmall breasts.Since cows milk in modern world unfortunately has hormones, it could affect the growth ofbreast cells. But it really wouldnt be a safe idea because of some health problems associatedwith dairy products. However, there is a basic relationship between eating and breast size: if youare or become overweight, then obviously your breasts will be or get bigger as well. Also, there issome speculation that residual estrogenic hormones in our water supply or in our food (frompesticides) would be contributing to breast growth.Nuts probably wouldnt affect breast development. But they have healthy fats in them so its agood idea to include some nuts and seeds in your diet. I cant image why cheerios would help.They are not very nutritious.Good nutritious diet is one requirement for normal growth, but otherwise breast development andbreast size is determined by your genes. So its practically impossible to change that.Even if your breasts wont grow any bigger, remember that breast size is not nearly so importantas the media images try to convey. Even small breasts can produce enough milk for your possiblefuture baby - and thats the precious and important part.And not all men like big-breasted women, AND if a guy only likes you because of your outwardappearance, then hes likely to dump you very easily too when that changes. And the outward willchange - with pregnancy and aging. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 10
  • 12. Hey.. Well I am 15 years old.. My bra size is 34B.. My breasts (both of them) are covered instretch marks.. I look at them and feel disgusted.. I hate my boobs !!! I also have extremelypuffy nipples.. I mean they are just huge !! My nipples look normal when they are hard, but forsome reason they dont get hard unless I like play with them or something.. I feel ashamed.. Isthere anyway I could get my nipples not to be sooo puffy ? And is there anything I can do for thestretch marks ? If I were to have surgery to make my breasts bigger when I am older is thereanyway they could fix my nipples ? Please give me any advice possible.. thanks !LeAnnaHello LeAnna,Stretch marks on breasts most commonly appear during puberty, pregnancy, or weight gain.Tendency to get stretch marks is somewhat hereditary, but diet also plays a role.Stretch marks do fade away with time. One thing you can try do is to massage the area with amoisturizing lotion such as cocoa butter. It seems that vitamin E is of help, too. Researchers haverecently examined the link between stretch marks and elevated cortisol levels (think stress;pregnancy; puberty). See also this article about Strech Marks and Wikipedia entry.Remember nipples come in so many sizes and shapes and its normal to have a flat nipple. Sinceyour nipple gets hard or erect when stimulated, you have nothing to worry - your baby willeasily be able to take it into its mouth. It is possible that during pregnancy and/or breastfeedingyour nipple will stay erect much more than now.Plastic surgeons can probably do almost anything. Surgery would also leave you with scars onyour breasts and/or around nipples. But theres something even more serious about breastsurgery.If you go have surgery on your breasts, it will endanger your ability to breastfeed fully. Surgeonsmay say, "Yes you can breastfeed after surgery", but they dont mention that many women do notproduce enough milk for their baby after surgery. Additionally, any surgery around the nipplesusually cuts nerves that go to the nipple, and that can endanger the "let-down" reflex inbreastfeeding. It means your brain may not get the message to the nipple to start letting the milkdown, and so the milk wont flow through the nipple.And, breast implants will seriously endanger your own health. A large number of women (aboutone third) who undergo the implant surgery will get some kind of complication from it, smaller orbigger. Some women end up with crippling auto-immune diseases with pain all over their bodies.And all women with breast implants will need to have additional surgery or surgeries later, eitherto replace or remove the implants at some point.FDA�s October 2003 Summary of Research on Inamed Implants. Complications andsymptoms.BREAST IMPLANT RISKS from FDA.Try to accept yourself as you are. Also, we hope you will find a husband in future that will likeYOU for what YOU ARE, and not some hollywood image. If a guy likes you for your outwardappearance ONLY, hell most likely dump you as soon as that changes.why is it that one of my breast is always one size bigger than the other and sometimes i feel likeim the only one with is problem can you tell me why that is pleasethank you candis sanchezI have a problem!!! I know certain teens have a boob smaller than the other and people alwaysanswer them, Oh honey thats normal on women! Well in my case Im 16 years old Im 58 Im138lb. And I have a boob smaller but way smaller than the other is like my left bob is a 36b andmy right one is a 34b... When I buy a bra 36b it fits perfect on the left boob but loose on the rightone. When I buy a 34b bra it fits perfect on the right one but really tigth on my left one.. PleaseHelp!! / without a boob job sergury.. thanksI found this site very helpful, but I cant seem to stop worrying about my breasts. I was hopingyou could help me. I have one breast that is way bigger than the other, and the bigger one sags. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 11
  • 13. Both are pointy and not rounded. I am 16 years old. Will my breasts continue to develop andpossibly change, or will I be stuck with my ugly breasts forever? Hope you can help. Thanks foryour time.TaylorAt 16, your breasts might still grow and develop, and the size difference might even out. But evenif it doesnt, actually most women have asymmetrical breasts, usually only very slightly, butsometimes the size difference is more - even a cup size difference. All that is determined by yourgenes. You probably notice the lopsidedness more than others do. See also Lopsided breasts atTeenHealthFX.The page Breast Development has some more info on breast development. In the final stage ofbreast development, the areola is not anymore elevated from the contour of the breast.Youre not alone in this. There are many others with lopsided breasts. I personally got lopsidedbreasts while breastfeeding - I dont know how that happened, the baby must have sucked moreon one side somehow so that side is making more milk and is more filled with milk. • Breast questions & answers, page 3. • Breast questions & answers, page 4. • Breast questions & answers, page 5.Or logon @ Breast 1. a. Either of two milk-secreting, glandular organs on the chest of a woman; the human mammary gland. b. A corresponding organ in other mammals. c. A corresponding rudimentary gland in the male. 2. a. The superior ventral surface of the human body, extending from the neck to the abdomen. b. A corresponding part in other animals. 3. The part of a garment that covers the chest. 4. The seat of affection and emotion: “Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breast” (Shakespeare). 5. A source of nourishment. 6. Something likened to the human breast: the breast of a hill. 7. The face of a mine or, breast·ed, breast·ing, breasts. 1. To rise over; climb: “He breasted a rise and looked down. He was at the head of a small valley” (Ken Follett). 2. To encounter or advance against resolutely; confront boldly. 3. To push against with or as if with the breast.[Middle English brest, from Old English brēost.]Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: BreastThe human mammary gland, usually well developed in the adult female but rudimentary in themale. Each adult female breast contains 15–20 separate, branching glands that radiate from thenipple. During lactation their secretions are discharged through separate openings at the base ofthe nipple.In the female, hormonal changes in adolescence cause enlargement of breast tissue, but much ofthis is connective tissue although some glandular buds form. With the advent of full menstruation Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 12
  • 14. ovarian estrogenic hormones influence breast development. If pregnancy ensues, the glandulartissue reaches full development and full lactation begins shortly after birth. After cessation oflactation the breasts regress considerably and once again reflect cyclic regulation. See alsoLactation.Breast disorders may result from congenital or developmental abnormalities, inflammations,hormonal imbalances, and, most important, from tumor formation.Congenital defects are usually unimportant except for their psychic or cosmetic implications.Supernumerary nipples and breasts or accessory breast tissue are common examples.Inflammations are not encountered frequently and usually result from a staphylococcal orstreptococcal invasion incurred during lactation. A special form of inflammation may result fromfat necrosis. Although any age is susceptible, older women show a slightly higher incidence of fatnecrosis, the commonest cause of which is injury from trauma. See also Staphylococcus;Streptococcus; Syphilis; Tuberculosis.Hormonal imbalances are believed to be responsible for the variants of the commonestnontumorous breast disorder of women, cystic hyperplasia. The changes are thought to resultfrom exaggeration or distortion of the normal cyclic alterations induced during the menstrualinterval. Although a wide range of clinical and pathologic variation is commonplace, three majortypes or tendencies prevail. The first, called fibrosis or mastodynia, is marked by an increase ofconnective tissue in the breast, without a proportionate increase in glandular epithelium. Thesecond, cystic disease, is characterized by an increase in the glandular and connective tissues inlocal areas, with a tendency toward formation of cysts varying in size. The third major type isadenosis, in which glandular hyperplasia is predominant. Each major form of cystic hyperplasiahas its own clinical characteristics, ages of highest incidence, and distribution. Each is importantbecause the breast masses which occur require differentiation from benign and malignant tumors.These lesions also have been found to predispose to the subsequent development of carcinoma.Breast cancer is the most significant lesion of the female breast, accounting for 25,000–30,000deaths in the United States each year. It rarely occurs before the age of 25, but its incidenceincreases each year thereafter, with a sharper climb noted about the time of menopause. Earlybreast cancer may appear as a small, firm mass which is nontender and freely movable. Diagnosisat this time carries a more favorable prognosis than later, when immobility, nipple retraction,lymph node involvement, and other signs of extension or spread are noted. Pagets disease of thenipple is a special form of breast cancer, in which there are early skin changes about the nipple.See also Cancer (medicine); Hormone; Oncology. World of the Body: breastThe human breasts are mammary glands — common to all mammals, by definition. There aredifferences between species in number and in structure, and also in the composition of the milkthat they produce for feeding the offspring.A pair of nipples is of course common to both boys and girls — a relic of the embryologicaldevelopment of the male having been superimposed upon the basic female. As girls approachpuberty, female sex hormones produced in the ovaries circulate in the bloodstream and causedevelopment the rudimentary breast glands, which have been present since before birth. Breastenlargement usually heralds the other changes. Progesterone promotes development of thepotentially milk-producing cells, and oestrogens promote the development of the ducts leading tothe nipple from the 15-20 ‘lobes’ of glands.When menstrual cycles begin, the mammary glands also start to undergo cyclical changes: in thesecond half of the cycle, under the increasing influence of progesterone, the glandular tissuegrows, sometimes causing ‘lumpiness’ and tenderness — one of many preparations for thepregnancy which in most months does not follow.When conception does occur, the breasts continue to develop. The accompanying increase inblood supply distends the veins under the skin — often the first outward and visible sign of Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 13
  • 15. pregnancy. The glandular tissue proliferates, taking the place of connective tissue and fat, and thebreasts progressively enlarge. Later in pregnancy, the hormones secreted from the fetal tissue ofthe placenta act on the glandular cells and on the ducts leading to the nipple: thus the fetus itself,along with the hormone, prolactin, from the mothers pituitary gland, prepares the ground for itsown later nutrition. This same prolactin would also stimulate the production of milk — butoestrogens from the placenta counteract this, so that milk is not actually made before the time isripe. After birth of the baby, this suppression stops, so prolactin activity is suddenly uninhibited.Unfortunately for ideal infant feeding, in ‘developed’ countries nowadays oestrogens are oftentaken orally, to suppress milk production in those mothers who choose to bottle-feed the baby. The female breast. After Youngson, Encyclopedia of family healthLeft to nature, the secretion is initially scanty (colostrum) but the volume of milk becomessignificant at about the third day after the birth, when the breasts become quite dramaticallyengorged. The mothers pituitary hormones remain in control of milk synthesis and secretion;under this influence, fats, proteins, and lactose (milk sugar) are made in the gland cells fromnutrients taken up from the blood. When the infant sucks, nerve impulses from the nipple reachthe hypothalamus in the brain; these stimulate nerve cells that have stores of the hormoneoxytocin in the ends of their fibres that lie in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. This causesrelease of the hormone into the circulating blood. Reaching the breasts, oxytocin activatescontractile cells, which squeeze milk from its storage sites into the channels that take it to thenipple. This whole ‘neuroendocrine reflex’ takes about 10 seconds — barely long enough for ahungry infant to show serious signs of frustration.Lactation will continue for just as long as a baby is regularly sucking away the supply of milk: themore is removed, the more is made. The volume averages about 1 litre per day, but twice thatamount can be produced for twins. Weaning of the infant leads automatically to a decrease in themilk supply, and the glandular tissue reverts to the non-pregnant state — until the next time, ifany.The breasts in history and cultureThe cultural significance of the breast revolves around its uses as a symbol both of fertility and ofsexual pleasure.Many prehistoric images represent the female body with a high level of body fat and largebreasts, the ideals when the food supply was uncertain. Breast milk, as our first and most reliablefood, has long been the subject of speculation about its nature and significance. The classicalmodel dominant in Western medicine until the nineteenth century was dependent both on the Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 14
  • 16. Greek philosopher Aristotle, who argued that breast milk was a fluid intermediate betweenmenstrual blood and semen in terms of the degree of ‘cooking’ it received in the body, and alsoon the Hippocratic medical writers. It was thought that special channels from the womb to thebreasts carried and transformed blood; this meant that, after birth, a child continued to derivenourishment from the same blood that had been its source in the womb. The medical imperative from such theories was, of course, that a mother should nurse her own child. However, in cases where the natural mother was unable to do this, or as a way of preserving the youthful appearance of the breasts, wet-nursing could be used. Contracts specifying the duties of a wet nurse, and her fees, survive from Roman Egypt, showing that this form of paid employment was available to women from early times. The second- century AD medical writer, Soranos, offered detailed, and historically influential, advice to Roman men on how to choose a good wetnurse. She should be aged between 20 and 40, have given birth two or three times, and be strongand in good health. Her breasts should be medium-sized, soft, and unwrinkled, with the nipplesalso of medium size and neither too compact nor too porous. Soranos argued that milk from largewomen is more nourishing, but regarded very large breasts as a health risk to the infant on twocounts: first, they may fall on the nursling, and second, there will be milk left over after eachfeed, which will lose its freshness and then harm the infant at the next feed. Soranos believed thatthe wet nurse transmits her own qualities to the child, so an even-tempered woman free fromsuperstition should be found; she should also be Greek-speaking, so that the nursling becomesaccustomed to hearing Greek. The wet nurse must abstain from sex and alcohol, both of whichcould damage the milk. As well as studying the body of the potential employee, a Roman manmust taste and smell her milk; after employing her, he should carefully supervise her diet. In thenineteenth century the recognition of the value of colostrum superseded the classical view that,not being ‘proper milk’, it should be withheld from the baby.The advice Soranos gives represents both a continuing unease surrounding the use of wet nurses,and a continuing conflict between the nurturing and the erotic breast. Roman writers often Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 15
  • 17. accused women of wanting to employ a wet nurse only for the sake of maintaining a sexuallydesirable figure. Medium breasts on large women may have been good for babies, but classicalart suggests that the erotic ideal was the small breasted, boyish woman.In mid-eighteenth-century Europe when Linnaeus classification of the natural world put humansamong the Mammalia — those with breasts — debate over the use of wet nurses became a stateconcern. Linnaeus was in favour of mothers nursing their own children; with philosophers,naturalists, moralists, andmedical writers, he arguedthat strong nations werebuilt up from babies fed atthe maternal breast. Usingthe maternal breast waseconomical, but alsopolitical, part of the goodwomans civic duty, andlinked to images of the statefeeding its children.When, as a result ofPasteurs discoveries,sterilization of animal milkfor bottle-feeding becamepossible, even those whocould not afford to pay awet nurse could avoidbreastfeeding. A furtherdevelopment was milksubstitutes; however, indeveloping countries there have been considerable problems following the promotion of milksubstitutes as an alternative to the real thing, due for example to the formula being made up withnon-sterile water or at the wrong strength.The patron saint of nursing mothers is St Agatha, the legendary martyr who had her breasts cutoff, shown in renaissance and baroque art carrying them on a plate. Christian religious art hasused the nurturing breast in many ways. In fourteenth-century Tuscan art, during a period of cropfailures and plague, the image of the Virgin Mary suckling a greedy Jesus became widespread.Sometimes she is shown directing a stream of milk into Jesus mouth, or into the mouth of aparticularly privileged saint; such images can emphasize the humanity of Jesus, or evoke theanalogy of the Christian sucking at the breasts of the church for spiritual nourishment. Images ofCharity personified often show a child suckling at each of her breasts.For Freud, the breast was the first erogenous zone, from which a child should move on to the analand genital stages of its developing sexuality. The babys complete satisfaction at its mothersbreast led to an identification with the mother, after which the baby needed to develop a sense ofitself as a separate being. This was achieved by a rejection of the breast, now seen as withholdingmilk. In adult life, a person therefore longs for the perfect pleasure of the breast which has beentaken away. Ideals and representations of the erotic breast show far more variation than thelactating breast. It can be large or small, with a pronounced cleavage or with the breasts entirelyseparated. The ideal in the Middle Ages was to have firm, white, apple-shaped globes, far fromthe Hollywood images of Jane Russell or Lana Turner, and even further from the pneumatic Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 16
  • 18. breasts of top-shelf magazines. Sixteenth-century kings mistresses, most notably Agnès Sorel,Diane de Poitiers, and Gabrielle dEstrées, were painted showing their breasts; Agnès was evenrepresented as the Madonna.As the size and shape of the ideal breast has varied dramatically over time and space, so fashionshave changed to reshape the normal range of breasts to fit the ideal. The breast has beencompressed, surgically reduced, padded, enhanced with silicone, pushed up, and armoured by arange of devices including bodices, corsets, bras and, most recently, the Wonderbra. Even beforethe corset or the brassiere, in the Middle Ages pouches sewn in to dresses could give uplift. Oneof the best-known aspects of the early Womens Liberation Movement was the ‘bra burning’ ofthe late 1960s, a form of liberation intended to make men face up to the reality of the breast freedfrom its fantasy underpinnings. Breast tissue is more prone than any other in the womans body to develop cancer. This accounts for about 1 in 20 deaths of British women, becoming commoner with increasing age. Early detection is assisted by regular X-ray examination (breast screening — mammography), and various combinations of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy can be effective in treatment. The very high incidence of breast cancer in the Western world has made the breast into an organ associated as much with death as with nurturing life. Fanny Burneys harrowing description of her mastectomy, performed without anaesthetic in 1811, has survived; nowadays ‘lumpectomy’ may be adequate but mastectomy is sometimes necessary, and women who have had a breast removed may choose to use a prosthesis, or to adjust to a new body shape. Theclassical myth of the Amazons presents the woman with one breast as powerful, but feared.Currently some women with a family history of breast cancer are offered elective surgery toremove both breasts before disease appears; reactions to those who accept this surgery show thatthe breast remains a potent symbol of womanhood today.— Sheila Jennett, Helen KingBibliography • Yalom, M. (1997). A history of the breast. Harper CollinsSee also infant feeding; puberty; sex hormones; wet-nursing; witchs tit.Thesaurus: breastnoun The seat of a persons innermost emotions and feelings: bosom, heart, soul. Idioms: bottom of ones heart, cockles of ones heart, ones heart of hearts. See feelings. Architecture: breast 1. A projecting part of a wall, as at a chimney. 2. That portion of a wall between the floor and a window above. 3. The underside of a handrail, beam, rafter, or the like. Veterinary Dictionary: breastIn horses and birds used only in the singular and refers to the anterior parts of the pectoral region.Used synonymously with brisket in ruminants. See also mammary gland, udder. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 17
  • 19. • b. blisters — a disease of commercial, housed poultry and turkeys comprising abscesses in the area of the carina of the sternum. They may contain pus or clear to blood-stained fluid. Usually relatable to environmental trauma. • blue b. — mastitis in domestic rabbits caused by Streptococcus, Staphylococcus or Pasteurella spp. The mammary glands are hot, hard and swollen and there is a severe systemic illness. The glands develop a blue color due to local cyanosis. • b. boil — deep abscesses in the anterior parts of the pectoral muscles in the horse. See also pectoral abscess. Called also equine sternal granuloma. • b. buttons — see focal ulcerative dermatitis. • b. muscles — well-developed muscles for wing movement of birds composed mostly of the pectoral and supracoracoid muscles. IN BRIEF: The front part of the body between the stomach and the neck; chest.Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire called conscience. — GeorgeWashington (1732-1799); U.S. statesman; first U.S. president (1789-1797); general of theRevolutionary ArmyWikipedia: BreastFor other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). For various cities in Europe pronounced in a similarway, see Brest. "Boobs" redirects here. For other uses, see boob. right|300px|thumb|Pregnant human females breast The term breast refers to the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that of mammals, including human beings. The breasts of a female mammal’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. This article deals with the human breast; for other animals, see udder and mammary gland. Breasts are more visible on adult women,but male humans also have breasts which, although usually less prominent, are structurallyidentical (homologous) to the female, as they develop embryologically from the same tissues.Anatomy See also: Human anatomyBreast schematic diagram (adult female human cross section) - Legend: 1. Chest wall 2.Pectoralis muscles 3. Lobules 4. Nipple 5. Areola 6. Duct 7. Fatty tissue 8. SkinThe breasts are modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands, producing milk in females.[1] Each breasthas one nipple surrounded by the areola. The areola is colored from pink to dark brown and hasseveral sebaceous glands. In females, the larger mammary glands within the breast produce themilk. They are distributed throughout the breast, with two-thirds of the tissue found within30 mm of the base of the nipple.[2] These are drained to the nipple by between 4 and 18lactiferous ducts, where each duct has its own opening. The network formed by these ducts iscomplex, like the tangled roots of a tree. It is not always arranged radially, and branches close to Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 18
  • 20. the nipple. The ducts near the nipple do not act as milk reservoirs; Ramsay et al. have shown that conventionally described lactiferous sinuses do not, in fact, exist. The remainder of the breast is composed of connective tissue (collagen and elastin), adipose tissue (fat), and Coopers ligaments. The ratio of glands to adipose tissues rises from 1:1 in nonlactating women to 2:1 in lactating women.[2] The breasts sit over the pectoralis major muscle and usually extend from the level ofthe 2nd rib to the level of the 6th rib anteriorly. The superior lateral quadrant of the breast extendsdiagonally upwards towards the axillae and is known as the tail of Spence. A thin layer ofmammary tissue extends from the clavicle above to the seventh or eighth ribs below and from themidline to the edge of the latissimus dorsi posteriorly. (For further explanation, see anatomicalterms of location.)The arterial blood blood supply to the breasts is derived from the internal thoracic artery(formerly called the internal mammary artery), lateral thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, andposterior intercostal arteries. The venous drainage of the breast is mainly to the axillary vein, butthere is some drainage to the internal thoracic vein and the intercostal veins. Both sexes have alarge concentration of blood vessels and nerves in their nipples. The nipples of both females andmales can become erect in response to sexual stimuli,[3] and also to cold.The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth through sixthintercostal nerves. The nipple is supplied by the T4 dermatome.Lymphatic drainageAbout 75% of lymph from the breast travels to the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. The resttravels to parasternal nodes, to the other breast, or abdominal lymph nodes. The axillary nodesinclude the pectoral, subscapular, and humeral groups of lymph nodes. These drain to the centralaxillary lymph nodes, then to the apical axillary lymph nodes. The lymphatic drainage of thebreasts is particularly relevant to oncology, since breast cancer is a common cancer and cancercells can break away from a tumour and spread to other parts of the body through the lymphsystem by metastasis.Shape and supportRelatively round breasts which protrude almost horizontally.Breasts vary in both size and shape, and their external appearance is not predictive of theirinternal anatomy or lactation potential. The shape of a woman’s breasts is in large part dependenton their support, which primarily comes from the Coopers ligaments, and the underlying chest onwhich they rest. The breast is attached at its base to the chest wall by the deep fascia over thepectoral muscles. On its upper surface it is given some support by the covering skin where itcontinues on to the upper chest wall. It is this support which determines the shape of the breasts.In a small fraction of women, the frontal milk sinuses (ampulla) in the breasts are not flush withthe surrounding breast tissue, which causes the sinus area to visibly bulge outward.In discussing the support of breasts, it is helpful to draw a distinction between breasts which reston the chest below, and those which do not. High, rounded breasts protrude almost horizontallyfrom the chest wall. All breasts are like this in early stages of development, and such a shape iscommon in younger women and girls. This protruding or “high” breast is anchored to the chest atits base, and the weight is distributed evenly over the area of the base of the approximately dome-or cone-shaped breasts. [citation needed] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 19
  • 21. In the “low” breast, a proportion of the breasts’ weight is actually supported by the chest againstwhich the lower breast surface comes to rest, as well as the deep anchorage at the base. Theweight is thus distributed over a larger area, which has the effect of reducing the strain. In bothmales and females, the thoracic cavity slopes progressively outwards from the thoracic inlet (atthe top of the breastbone) above to the lowest ribs which mark its lower boundary, allowing it tosupport the breasts.The inframammary fold (or line, or crease) is an anatomic structure created by adherence betweenelements in the skin and underlying connective tissue[4] and represents the inferior extent of breastanatomy. Some teenagers may develop breasts whose skin comes into contact with the chestbelow the fold at an early age, and some women may never develop such breasts; both situationsare perfectly normal. The relationship of the nipple position to the fold is described as ptosis, aterm also applied to other body parts and which refers in general to drooping or sagging. Due tobreast weight and relaxation of support structures, the nipple-areola complex and breast tissuemay eventually hang below the fold, and in some cases the breasts may extend as far as, or evenbeyond, the navel. The length from the nipple to the sternal notch (central, upper border) in theyouthful breast averages 21 cm and is a common anthropometric figure used to assess both breastsymmetry and ptosis. Lengthening of both this measurement and the distance between the nippleand the fold are both characteristic of advancing grades of ptosis.The end of the breast, which includes the nipple, may either be flat (a 180 degree angle) or angled(angles lower than 180 degrees). Breast ends are rarely angled sharper than 60 degrees. Anglingof the end of the breast is caused in part by the ligaments that suspend it, such that the breast endsoften have a more obtuse angle when a womanis lying on her back. Breasts exist in a range ofratios between length and base diameter, usuallyranging from 1/2 to 1.Development Main article: ThelarcheThe development of a girls breasts duringpuberty is triggered by sex hormones, chieflyestrogen. This hormone has been demonstratedto cause the development of woman-like,enlarged breasts in men, a condition calledgynecomastia, and is sometimes useddeliberately for this effect in male-to-female sexchange hormone replacement therapy.In most cases, the breasts fold down over thechest wall during Tanner stage development, asshown in this diagram.[5] It is typical for awoman’s breasts to be unequal in sizeparticularly while the breasts are developing.Statistically it is slightly more common for the left breast to be the larger.[6] In rare cases, thebreasts may be significantly different in size, or one breast may fail to develop entirely.A large number of medical conditions are known to cause abnormal development of the breastsduring puberty. Virginal breast hypertrophy is a condition which involves excessive growth of thebreasts, and in some cases the continued growth beyond the usual pubescent age. Breasthypoplasia is a condition where one or both breasts fail to develop.In Cameroon, some girls are subjected to breast ironing to stunt breast growth in order to makethem less sexually attractive in the belief that this makes them less likely to become a victim ofrape. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 20
  • 22. Changesthumb|right|Breast with visible stretchmarks.As breasts are mostly composed of adipose tissue, their size can change over time. This occurs fora number of reasons, most obviously when a girl grows during puberty and when a woman becomes pregnant. The breast size may also change if she gains (or loses) weight for any other reason. Any rapid increase in size of the breasts can result in the appearance of stretchmarks. It is typical for a number of other changes to occur during pregnancy: in addition to becoming larger, the breasts generally become firmer, mainly due to hypertrophy of the mammary gland in response to the hormone prolactin. The size of the nipples may increase noticeably and their pigmentation may become darker. These changes may continue during breastfeeding. The breasts generally revert to approximately their previous size after pregnancy, although there may be some increased sagging and stretchmarks. The size of a woman’s breasts usuallyfluctuates during the menstrual cycle, particularly with premenstrual water retention. An increasein breast size is a common side effect of use of the combined oral contraceptive pill.The breasts naturally sag through aging, as the ligaments become elongated.FunctionBreastfeeding Main article: BreastfeedingThe breasts of a woman who is six months pregnant.[7]The primary function of mammary glands is to nurture young by producing breast milk. Theproduction of milk is called lactation. (While the mammary glands that produce milk are presentin the male, they normally remain undeveloped.) The orb-like shape of breasts may help limitheat loss, as a fairly high temperature is required for the production of milk. Alternatively, onetheory states that the shape of the human breast evolved in order to prevent infants fromsuffocating while feeding.[8] Since human infants do not have a protruding jaw like humanevolutionary ancestors and other primates, the infant’s nose might be blocked by a flat femalechest while feeding.[8] According to this theory, as the human jaw receded, the breasts becamelarger to compensate.[8]Milk production unrelated to pregnancy can also occur. This galactorrhea may be an adverseeffect of some medicinal drugs (such as some antipsychotic medication), extreme physical stressor endocrine disorders. If it occurs in men it is called male lactation. Newborn babies are oftencapable of lactation because they receive the hormones prolactin and oxytocin via the mothersbloodstream, filtered through the placenta. This neonatal liquid is known colloquially as witchsmilk. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 21
  • 23. Sexual roleBreasts play an important part in human sexual behavior. They are one of most visible or obviousfemale secondary sex characteristics,[9] and play an important role in sexual attraction of partners,and pleasure of the individual. On sexual arousal breast size increases, venous patterns across thebreasts become more visible, and nipples harden. During sexual intercourse it is common practiceto press or massage breasts with hands. Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common.Some women can achieve breast orgasms. In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, markingbreasts with nails and biting with teeth are explained as erotic[10].Other suggested functionsZoologists point out that no female mammal other than the human has breasts of comparable size,relative to the rest of the body, when not lactating and that humans are the only primate that haspermanently swollen breasts. This suggests that the external form of the breasts is connected tofactors other than lactation alone.One theory is based around the fact that, unlike nearly all other primates, human females do notdisplay clear, physical signs of ovulation. This could have plausibly resulted in human malesevolving to respond to more subtle signs of ovulation. During ovulation, the increased estrogenpresent in the female body results in a slight swelling of the breasts, which then males could haveevolved to find attractive. In response, there would be evolutionary pressures that would favorfemales with more swollen breasts who would, in a manner of speaking, appear to males to be themost likely to be ovulating.Some zoologists (notably Desmond Morris) believe that the shape of female breasts evolved as afrontal counterpart to that of the buttocks, the reason being that whilst other primates mate in therear-entry position, humans are more likely to successfully copulate by mating face to face, theso-called missionary position. A secondary sexual characteristic on a woman’s chest would haveencouraged this in more primitive incarnations of the human race, and a face on encounter mayhave helped found a relationship between partners beyond merely a sexual one.[11] Cultural status In art, religion, and legend Edouard Manet, “Blonde Woman With Bare Breasts” Historically, breasts have been regarded as fertility symbols, because they are the source of life-giving milk. Certain prehistoric female statuettes—so-called Venus figurines—often emphasised the breasts, as in the example of the Venus of Willendorf. In historic times, goddesses suchas Ishtar were shown with many breasts, alluding to their role as protectors of childbirth andmothering. The legendary tribe of Amazons bared their breasts, and in some accounts removedone breast to allow better combat and archery.Some religions afford the breast a special status, either in formal teachings or in symbolism.Islam forbids public exposure of the female breasts.[12] In Christian iconography, some works ofart depict women with their breasts in their hands or on a platter, signifying that they died as amartyr by having their breasts severed; one example of this is Saint Agatha of Sicily. In Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 22
  • 24. Silappatikaram, Kannagi tears off her left breast and flings it on Madurai, cursing it, causing adevastating fire.In practiceBreasts are secondary sex characteristics and sexually sensitive. Bare female breasts can elicitheightened sexual desires from men and women. Cultures that associate the breast primarily withsex (as opposed to with breastfeeding) tend to designate bare breasts as indecent, and they are not commonly displayed in public, in contrast to male chests. Other cultures view female toplessness as acceptable, and in some countries women have never been forbidden to bare their chests; in some African cultures, for example, the thigh is highly sexualised and never exposed in public, but the breast is not taboo. Opinion on the exposure of breasts often depends on the place and context, and in some Western societies exposure of breasts on a beach may be acceptable, although in town centres, for example, it is usually considered indecent. In some areas the prohibition against the display of a woman’s breasts only restricts exposure of the nipples. Women in some areas and cultures are approaching the issue of breast exposure as one of sexual equality, since men (and pre-pubescent children) may bare their chests, but women and teenage girls are forbidden. In the United States, the topfree equality movement seeks to redress this imbalance. This movement won a decision in 1992 in the New York State Court of Appeals—“People v. Santorelli”, where the court ruled that the state’s indecent exposurelaws do not ban women from being barebreasted. A similar movement succeeded in most parts ofCanada in the 1990s. In Australia and much of Europe it is acceptable for women and teenagegirls to sunbathe topless on some public beaches and swimming pools, but these are generally theonly public areas where exposing breasts is acceptable.When breastfeeding a baby in public, legal and social rules regarding indecent exposure and dresscodes, as well as inhibitions of the woman, tend to be relaxed. Numerous laws around the worldhave made public breastfeeding legal and disallow companies from prohibiting it in theworkplace. Yet the public reaction at the sight of breastfeeding can make the situationuncomfortable for those involved.See also modesty, nudism and exhibitionism.ClothingSince the breasts are flexible, their shape may be affected by clothing, and foundation garments in particular. A brassiere (bra) may be worn to give additional support and to alter the shape ofthe breasts. There is some debate over whether such support is desirable. A long term clinicalstudy showed that women with large breasts can suffer shoulder pain as a result of bra straps,[13]although a well fitting bra should support most of the breasts’ weight with proper sized cups andback band rather than on the shoulders.Plastic surgeryPlastic surgical procedures of the breast include those for both cosmetic and reconstructivesurgery indications. Some women choose these procedures as a result of the high value placed onsymmetry of the human form, and because they identify their femininity and sense of self withtheir breasts. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 23
  • 25. After mastectomy (the surgical removal of a breast, usually to treat breast cancer) some womenundergo breast reconstruction, either with breast implants or autologous tissue transfer, using fat and tissues from the abdomen (TRAM flap) or back (latissiumus muscle flap). Breast reduction surgery is a common procedure which involves removing excess breast tissue, fat, and skin with repositioning of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Cosmetic procedures include breast lifts (mastopexy), breast augmentation with implants, and procedures that combine both elements. Implants containing either silicone gel or saline are available for augmentation and reconstructive surgeries. Surgery can repair inverted nipples by releasing ductal tissues which are tethering. Breast lift with or without reduction can be part of upper body lift after massive weight loss body contouring. Any surgery of the breast carries with it the potential for interfering with future breastfeeding,[14][15][16] causing alterations in nipplesensation, and difficulty in interpreting mammography (xrays of the breast). A number of studieshave demonstrated a similar ability to breastfeed when breast reduction patients are compared tocontrol groups where the surgery was performed using a modern pedicle surgicaltechnique.[17][18][19][20] Plastic surgery organizations have generally discouraged elective cosmeticbreast augmentation surgery for teenage girls as the volume of their breast tissue may continue togrow significantly as they mature and because of concerns about understanding long-term risksand benefits of the procedure.[21] Breast surgery in teens for reduction of significantly enlargedbreasts or surgery to correct hypolasia and severe asymmetry is considered on a case by casebasis by most surgeons.DisordersInfections and inflammationsThese may be caused among others by trauma, secretory stasis/milk engorgement, hormonalstimulation, infections or autoimmune reactions. Repeated occurrence unrelated to lactationrequires endocrinological examination.A 1930 Soviet poster. Are you taking care of your breasts? Harden your nipples with dailywashing in cold water. • Mastitis o bacterial mastitis o mastitis from milk engorgement or secretory stasis o mastitis of mumps o chronic intramammary abscess o chronic subareolar abscess o tuberculosis of the breast o syphilis of the breast o retromammary abscess o actinomycosis of the breast o Mondor’s disease o duct ectasia syndrome o breast engorgement Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 24
  • 26. Benign conditionsBenign conditions include: • Congenital disorders o inverted nipple o supernumerary nipples/supernumerary breasts (polymazia / polymastia) /duplicated nipples • Aberrations of normal development and involution o cyclical nodularity o breast cysts o fibroadenoma - benign tumor o gynecomastia (males) o nipple discharge, galactorrhea o mammary fistula • Fibrocystic disease / Fibrocystic changes o cysts o epithelial hyperplasia o epithelial metaplasia o papillomas o adenosis • Pregnancy-related o galactocoelePre-malignant diseases • Carcinoma in situ, a pre-malignant condition which can progress to a malignant cancerMalignant diseasesMalignant diseases include: • Breast cancer • Paget’s disease of the nipple, also known as Paget’s disease of the breastSee also • Cleavage (breasts) • Breast fetishism • Breast self-examination • Intimate part • Mammary intercourse • Teat • Milk line • Wonderbra • Breast bondageReferences 1. ^ Introduction to the Human Body, fifth ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 2001. 560. 2. ^ a b Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging, D.T. Ramsay et al., J. Anat. 206:525-34. 3. ^ 4. ^ Boutros S, Kattash M, Wienfeld A, Yuksel E, Baer S, Shenaq S. The intradermal anatomy of the inframammary fold. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep; 102(4):1030-3. PMID 5. ^ A.R. Greenbaum, T. Heslop, J. Morris and K.W. Dunn, An investigation of the suitability of bra fit in women referred for reduction mammaplasty, Br J Plast Surg 56 (2003) (3), pp. 230–236 Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 25
  • 27. 6. ^ C.W. Loughry, et al (1989). "Breast volume measurement of 598 women using biostereometric analysis". Annals of Plastic Surgery 22 (5): 380 – 385. 7. ^ A Womans Body: Breasts are Not Just for Filling Sweaters. Available online 8. ^ a b c Bentley, Gillian R. (2001). "The Evolution of the Human Breast". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 32 (38). 9. ^ secondary sex characteristics 10. ^ Sir Richard Burtons English translation of Kama Sutra 11. ^ Morris, Desmond (1967). The Naked Ape: a zoologists study of the human animal. Canada: Bantam Books, 64–68. N3924. 12. ^ “They shall cover their chests” or “they should draw their khimar (veils) over their bosoms”, depending on the translation, Quran (24:31). Available online 13. ^ Ryan, EL, Pectoral girdle myalgia in women: a five-year study in a clinical setting. Clin J Pain. 2000 Dec; 16(4):298-303. 14. ^ Neifert, M; DeMarzo S, Seacat J, Young D, Leff M, Orleans M (1990). "The influence of breast surgery, breast appearance and pregnancy-induced changes on lactation sufficiency as measured by infant weight gain". Birth 17 (1): 31—38. PMID 2288566. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 15. ^ FAQ on Previous Breast Surgery and Breastfeeding. La Leche League International (2006-08-29). Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 16. ^ West, Diana. Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery. Australian Breastfeeding Association. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 17. ^ Cruz-Korchin, N; Korchin L (2004-09-15). "Breast-feeding after vertical mammaplasty with medial pedicle". Plast Reconstr Surg 15 (114): 890–94. PMID 15468394. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 18. ^ Brzozowski, D; Niessen M, Evans HB, Hurst LN (February 2000). "Breast-feeding after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty". Plast Reconstr Surg 105 (2): 530–34. PMID 10697157. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 19. ^ Witte, PM; van der Lei B, van der Biezen JJ, Spronk CA (2004-06-26). "Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148 (26): 1291–93. PMID 15279213. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 20. ^ Kakagia, D; Tripsiannis G, Tsoutsos D (2005-10). "Breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty: a comparison of 3 techniques". Ann Plast Surg 55 (4): 343–45. PMID 16186694. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 21. ^ Plastic Surgery: Policy Statements Index.Documentary film • Breasts, directed by Meema Spadola, 1996External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to:Breasts • Images of female breasts • Pregnancy and your breasts • Stages of breast development, from Puberty101 • “Are Women Evolutionary Sex Objects?: Why Women Have Breasts”Human anatomical features Skull · Forehead · Eye · Ear · Nose · Mouth · Tongue · Teeth · Jaw · Face · Cheek ·HEAD ChinNECK Throat · Larynx · Adams apple Shoulders · Spine · Breast · Chest · Ribcage · Abdomen · NavelTORSO Sex organs (Clitoris/Vagina/Ovary/Uterus/Penis/Scrotum/Testicle) – Hip · Anus · Buttocks Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 26
  • 28. Arm · Elbow · Forearm · Wrist · Hand · Finger (Thumb/Index/Middle/Ring/Little) ·LIMBS Leg · Lap · Thigh · Knee · Calf · Heel · Ankle · Foot · Toe (Hallux)SKIN HairFemale reproductive systemOvaries/Oogenesis Germinal epithelium • Tunica albuginea • cortex (Cumulus oophorus, Stroma) • Medulla corpus (hemorrhagicum, luteum, albicans) • Theca folliculi (externa,Follicles/Folliculogenesis interna) • Follicular antrum (Follicular fluid) • Corona radiata • Zona pellucida • Membrana granulosa (Granulosa cells) Proper • Suspensory • Round • Broad (Mesovarium, Mesosalpinx,Ligaments Mesometrium) • CardinalFallopian tubes Isthmus • Ampulla • Infundibulum • Fimbria cervix/neck (External orifice, Canal of the cervix, Internal orifice) •Uterus corpus/body (Cavity of the body, Fundus) • layers (Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium) Labium (Labial commissures, Frenulum labiorum pudendi, Labia majora, Cleft of venus, Labia minora, Vulval vestibule, interlabial sulci)Vulva/mons pubis Clitoris (Clitoral hood, Clitoral glans, Frenulum clitoridis, Clitoral crura, Corpus cavernosa, Vestibular bulbs) Vagina (Bartholins glands, Bartholins ducts, Skenes glands, Skenes ducts, Fossa of vestibule of vagina, Vaginal fornix, Hymen)Breast Mammary glands • Nipple • Areola • Lactiferous ductOther G-spot • Urethral spongezh-yue:This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not havebeen reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer)Breast Self Exam (BSE) Examining your breasts is an important way to find a breast cancer early, when its most likely to be cured. Not every cancer can be found this way, but it is a critical step you can and should take for yourself. No woman wants to do a breast self-exam (or "BSE"), and for many the experience is frustrating—you may feel things but not know what they mean. However, the more you examine your breasts, the more you will learn about them and the easier it will become for you to tell if something unusual has occurred. BSE is an essential part of taking care of yourself and reducing your risk of breast cancer.Studies show that regular breast self-exams, combined with an annual exam by a doctor,improves the chances of detecting cancer early.Try to get in the habit of doing a breast self-examination once a month to familiarize yourselfwith how your breasts normally look and feel. Examine yourself several days after your period Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 27
  • 29. ends, when your breasts are least likely to be swollen and tender. If you are no longer havingperiods, choose a day thats easy to remember, such as the first or last day of the month.Dont panic if you think you feel a lump. Most women have some lumps or lumpy areas in theirbreasts all the time. Eight out of ten breast lumps that are removed are benign, non-cancerous.Breasts tend to have different "neighborhoods." The upper, outer area—near your armpit—tendsto have the most prominent lumps and bumps. The lower half of your breast can feel like a sandyor pebbly beach. The area under the nipple can feel like a collection of large grains. Another partmight feel like a lumpy bowl of oatmeal.Whats important is that you get to know the look and feel of YOUR breasts variousneighborhoods. Does something stand out as different from the rest (like a rock on a sandybeach)? Has anything changed? Bring to the attention of your doctor any changes in your breaststhat: • last over a full months cycle, OR • seem to get worse or more obvious over timeKnowing how your breasts usually look and feelmay also help you avoid needless biopsies—aprocedure in which the doctor takes a small sampleof breast tissue and examines it under a microscope.A journal can helpSome women find it helpful to keep a record of theirbreast self-exam on paper. This can be like a small map of your breasts, with notes about whereyou feel lumps or irregularities. Especially in the beginning, this may help you remember, frommonth to month, what is "normal" for your breasts. It is not unusual for lumps to appear at certaintimes of the month, but then disappear, as your body changes with the menstrual cycle. Onlychanges that last beyond one full cycle, or seem to get bigger or more prominent in some way,need your doctors attention.Secondary sex characteristicFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. They are believed to be the product of sexual selection for traits which give an individual an advantage over its rivals in courtship, and aggressive interactions. They are distinguished from the primary sexual characteristics: the sex organs. Well known secondary sex characteristics include facial hairs of male lions, and longfeathers of peacock. In humans, the most visible are breasts of females and beard and moustacheof males. Secondary sex characteristics include the tusks of sea lions, the plumage of many malebirds, the chemical indicators of many insects, etc.In humans Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 28
  • 30. Sexual differentiation begins during gestation, when the gonads form. General habitus and shapeof body and face, as well as sex hormone levels, are similar in prepubertal boys and girls. Aspuberty progresses and sex hormone levels rise, differences appear, though puberty causes somesimilar changes in male and female bodies.Male levels of testosterone directly induce growth of the testicles and penis, and indirectly (viadihydrotestosterone (DHT)) the prostate. Estradiol and other hormones cause breasts to developin females. However, fetal or neonatal androgens may modulate later breast development byreducing the capacity of breast tissue to respond to later estrogen.In males, testosterone directly increases size and mass of muscles, vocal cords, and bones,deepening the voice, and changing the shape of the face and skeleton. Converted into DHT in theskin, it accelerates growth of androgen-responsive facial and body hair, but may slow andeventually stop the growth of head hair. Taller stature is largely a result of later puberty andslower epiphyseal fusion.In females, breasts are a manifestation of higher levels of estrogen; estrogen also widens thepelvis and increases the amount of body fat in hips, thighs, buttocks, and breasts. Estrogen alsoinduces growth of the uterus, proliferation of the endometrium, and menses. female sex characteristics male sex characteristicsIn humans, secondary sex characteristics include: • Male o growth of body hair, including underarm, abdominal, chest, and pubic hair o growth of facial hair o enlargement of larynx and deepening of voice[1] o increased stature; adult males taller than adult females, on average o heavier skull and bone structure o increased muscle mass and strength o broadening of shoulders and chest; shoulders wider than hips[2] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 29
  • 31. o increased secretions of oil and sweat glands, often causing acne and body odor [3] o coarsening of skin texture o a prominent Adams apple o fat deposits mainly around the abdomen and waist[citation needed] o higher waist to hip ratio than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males, on average o on average, larger hands and feet than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males[citation needed] o lower digit ratio, on average[citation needed] • Female o enlargement of breasts[4] o growth of body hair, including underarm and pubic hair o vaginal and uterine growth [5] o decreased stature; adult females shorter stature than adult males, on average o widening of hips[6]; lower waist to hip ratio than adult males, on average o increased secretions of oil and sweat glands, often causing acne and body odor [7] o changed distribution in weight and fat; more subcutaneous fat and fat deposits mainly around the buttocks, thighs and hips o higher digit ratio, on average[citation needed]See also • Puberty • Virilization • Sex differences in humans • Sexual dimorphismNotes 1. ^ Sexual reproduction 2. ^ Secondary Characteristics 3. ^ Sexual reproduction 4. ^ breasts - [1] 5. ^ [ 6. ^ Hips widen as part of the female pubertal process. [2] 7. ^ Sexual reproductionReferences"Sexual Maturity." Technical Issues in Reproductive Health. Columbia University. May 2, 2008.<>.Steinhardt, A. "Sexual Reproduction." Hartnell College. May 2, 2008.<>. • • from ""Categories: Secondary sexual characteristicsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statementssince June 2007 | Articles with unsourced statements since July 2007 | Articles with unsourcedstatements since October 2007 | Articles needing additional references from June 2007 Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 30
  • 32. Breast Budding in GirlsIt’s an exciting time for your daughter when her breasts finally start growing. And often ananxious time, with lots of worries. Often, the child is embarassed to talk about their concerns:How big will they get, will they look good, and is anything wrong with mine? So here is the basicinformation you will need to talk to your daughter about her breast development.The development of tender breast “buds” is usually the first sign of puberty in girls. Some girlsnotice breast growth as early as age 7 or 8, while others don’t start until age 13 or so. The timingis determined by your own biologic “clock” that tells your body to start producing high levels offemale hormones. Breasts go through five “stages” of growth over the next five to six years, untiltheir full maturity is reached by age 17 or 18. The final size of a girl’s breasts is determined byheredity and can range from very small (like bra size AA) to very full (such as size EE). Breastsize varies greatly among women, and all sizes and shapes are normal and healthy.The breast made up of milk glands and ducts, connective tissue and fat. In teenagers and youngwomen the breast tissue is firm and dense, and then becomes softer and more fatty with age.There is no muscle tissue in the breast, which is why there are no exercises to make them bigger.However, the pectoral muscles that lie underneath the breasts can be firmed up to provide lift andshape (think of the “pecs” on male body builders.) Since the breasts do contain lots of fat cells,women will notice their bra size increases with weight gain.Nature designed a woman’s breast to produce milk for her baby. In our society however, thebreast is often viewed as a symbol of femininity and sexual attractiveness, so it is normal for ayoung woman to have lots of questions about her breasts. FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) My breasts are starting to grow. They hurt and are very tender. They also itch a lot and I’m getting red stretch marks. How long will this last? What you are experiencing is very normal. Hormones cause your breasts to start “budding,” and the new tissue is very tender at first. Because the skin is stretching, it may also itch. Usually the pain and itching last less than a year (even though your breasts will continue to grow over five to six years.) It sounds like it’s time to get your first bra, which will protect the tender new breastgrowth and help minimize any pain. Any time the skin expands rapidly, the delicate underlyingtissue can tear, causing thin scars (stretch marks) to form. The marks are pink or reddish at first,but they will fade and become pale or skin colored in about a year or so. There is no evidence thatany treatment will prevent the stretch marks of puberty, but many women like to moisturize theskin with creams containing cocoa butter, vitamin E, vitamin K or aloe vera.Is breast size hereditary? I heard it is, but I’m nowhere near the size of my mom.Yes, breast size is primarily determined by heredity. However, genetics can be very complicated,and the genes for your breast size may have come not just from your mom, but also from yourfather’s side, or from more distant relatives you don’t even know. So many girls will have abreast size different from their mother or their sisters. Remember that breasts are normal whethersmall, large or in between. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 31
  • 33. When do your breasts stop growing?Your breasts usually continue to grow for about four years after your first period. But what wemean medically by breast “growth” can be very subtle. Breast tissue develops through five“stages” during puberty. Stage 1 is the flat, childhood chest. Stage 2 is breast “budding”, whenthe nipples swell and become tender. In Stage 3, breast tissue enlarges from gland and fatdevelopment. Young teens usually start their first period about this time. During Stage 4, thebreasts may change only in contour (shape) rather than size, and the nipples protrude. Then inStage 5, breast growth is completed. By age 17 or 18 you’ll know your final breast size.I want my breasts grow bigger. Is there anything I can do to make them grow faster withoutsurgery?No, there is nothing you can do to make your breasts grow bigger or faster than nature intends.Don’t be misled by advertisements for special creams or “natural” herbs or supplements. If youread the fine print, you’ll see “results vary with individuals” or “works until full maturity isreached” – meaning they won’t do anything more than your own genetics have already pre-determined.My breasts are too big. Are there exercises I can do to reduce them?There are no exercises you can do to reduce breast size. Your breasts are made up mostly ofglandular and fat tissue, rather than muscle, so exercising won’t help. A common side effectmentioned by teens with very full breasts is back pain. Sometimes this is due to hunching forwardin an effort to hide the size of your breasts, so practicing good posture and doing stretching exercises to strengthen your back muscles will help minimize the pain. You might also visit the undergarment section of the best department store in your town, and ask for help selecting a correctly fitted good support bra. Since there are a few rare medical conditions that can cause explosive breast growth, if you haven’t had a health check-up recently, make an appointment with your doctor. An annual physical examination is recommended for all girls your age, and this would be a good opportunity to ask any questions you have about your development. Eventually if your breast size continues to be a problem for you, your doctor can refer you to a breast surgeon who can discuss the pros and cons of breast-reduction surgery.One of my breasts is bigger than the other. Is thisnormal?Yes, it is completely normal to have one breast be adifferent size from the other. Many young teens willnotice this while their breasts are growing duringpuberty, and often it will even out with time. Butabout 25% of adult women will continue to havepersistent visible difference in their breast sizes (thisis called asymmetry.) If one breast is growingmarkedly larger than the other, see your pediatricianfor a check-up. Otherwise it is natural and nothing toworry about. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 32
  • 34. My breasts have been sore lately and my nipples are getting bigger. Is this another one ofthose stages my body is going through or is something wrong?Breast tenderness and changes in the nipples and areola are commonly caused by hormonestimulation. Early puberty is the first time to usually notice this. Pregnancy is another typical timewhen this happens. The hormones in birth control pills may also be the cause. Many other drugscan also cause breast tenderness, including antidepressants, marijuana and many street drugs. Tellyour doctor about the breast changes you are noticing, and ask if the pill or some other conditionmay be the explanation.Reprinted with permission from TeenGrowthTM.A newborn baby has nipples, areolas, and the beginnings of breast tissue but most of the breastdevelopment occurs in two different periods of time in a womans life: first in puberty, thenduring pregnancy.Breast development during pubertyThe beginnning of breast development is one of the earliest signs of puberty in girls, theappearance of pubic hair being the other. In other words, pubic hair and breast buds appear closetogether.Breast development normally begins about 1 year before the mestrual period begins. Thedevelopment takes several years. • In the first stage (during childhood) the breasts are flat. • Next comes the breast bud stage. In it, the nipple and breast are slightly raised as milk ducts and the fat tissue begin to form. Also, the areola begins to enlarge. The very very early breast bud of a 11-year old girl. You might almost miss it, the change from The only difference is that now the nipple area flat breasts is so slight. looks a little puffy. • • Then the breast starts to get bigger. Often this happens initially in a conical shape, and later on in a rounder shape. The areola begins to darken. A few months later the areola is puffier and darker. 11 months after the first picture. You can see her breasts are growing in size. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 33
  • 35. • In these initial stages of breast development, it is the hormone estrogen that drives the development, causing fat to be deposited in the breast, and the milk ducts to grow. This is the time for the biggest growth in size. • After the girl gets her period, the ovaries start producing progesterone, and that changes things. Progesterone causes the milk glands to develop at the ends of the milk ducts. This development causes less visible growth size-wise, but is very important for the job! Some − but not all − girls go through a stage where the nipple and the areola form a separate mound from the actual breast ("mound on mound"). The same girl about 17 months after the bud picture. The breasts have filled out some more. She had her first menstruation a month before this picture was taken, which means that most of the estrogen-driven fat depositing is now Same time - sideview. You can see a slight over. From this time on, breasts start growing mound on mound" effect. the milk glands at the end of the milk ducts. The same girl about 2 years after the first picture, at 13 years of age. The breasts are slightly rounder than in the previous picture.During breast growth, you may experience some pain and hurt or tenderness in your breasts. Thatis normal. Also, the skin may be itching, which is a sign that the skin is stretching.The whole process from the breast bud stage till the pubertal development is over usually takesabout 3-5 years, but for some girls it may take close to 10 years.Note also that after breast development during puberty, the breast is still NOT considered matureor fully developed. Only pregnancy brings about the fullness of breast growth and development.The breast development can start as early as 8 years or as late as 13 years. If a girl does not havebreast buds nor pubic hair, which are the first signs of puberty, by age 14, it is recommended that Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 34
  • 36. she see a doctor. The same is true if a girl does not get her period by age 15 - this is calleddelayed puberty, and there are several possible reasons for it. It is advisable to visit a doctor.Though most of this development is over in a few years after getting your period, many girls getslightly rounder and fuller breasts in their early twenties. It is the time whey they naturally geteven more feminine and mature appearance with "curves", leaving the skinny teenage lookbehind.Occasionally, a girls breasts keep growing and keep growing past the typical developmenttimeframe, and become very large. This condition where the breasts dont stop growing is calledvirginal (or juvenile) hypertrophy of the breasts (see a picture).What about those "Tanner stages"?In medical circles, breast development is sometimes divided into five stages according to Tanner.These stages of Tanner describe the physical appearance of the breast and do NOT describe "whatis going on inside", or the development of milk ducts and glands.They are just some general notions of how growing breasts often look like – something that adoctor can easily observe from the outside when he needs to judge the pubertal development.HOWEVER, since the Tanner stages only describe the outside appearance and have little do withthe inside development, you should not worry about these. Womens breasts vary SO MUCH inappearance that you simply cannot apply Tanner stages to every girls breasts.Question about small breastsHi, I have a question. I got my period when I was 10 1/2, and Im 15 now. Starting puberty soyoung, I thought I was going to have DDs by now... Ha, ha, thats definitely not the case. I donteven fit into a 32A bra, and I was wondering if Im going to be "flat chested" forever or if theresstill time to develop... If there is still time, I was wondering, how can I know if theyre growing?Will there be soreness or something? How can I tell if they are already fully developed?Thank you so much, CJBasically you cannot really know. While breast tissue is developing, there may be soreness andthe skin may from stretching. But not all girls experience those signs.Also, it is very difficult to tell if you are truly fully developed because that would involveexamining the actual glandular tissue. See, the difference between the various cup sizes is mostlyfat (and some connective tissue). A-cup size breasts can be just as fully developed as DD cupbreasts, containing the same milk-making apparatus, but just different amounts of fatty andconnective tissue. So if your puberty started early and you are 15 now, your breasts may be fullydeveloped by now − as fully as they can be for this time. In reality, the milk-making system onlydevelops fully during pregnancy.Not everyone gets B or C cup breasts. It varies just like our height varies. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 35
  • 37. Breast development during pregnancy Breasts grow in size considerably during pregnancy because of further growth of the milk ducts and milk producing glands. Teenagers breasts are mostly fat, but during pregnancy that fat gradually disappears and gives space for the milk-producing system. Also the areola enlargens and becomes darker, making a big contrast with the surrounding skin, as if really pointing out where the "nutrition center" is. Thus the breasts will be fully mature and ready for their job, producing milk for the child. Breasts during breastfeeding and weaning During breastfeeding, the breasts are larger than before pregnancy and can appear quite full (they are full of milk). Of course, after a nursing session the fullness is much less. In general they are about the same size as during pregnancy, just varying in fullness according to the babys feedings. With weaning, the milk glands atrophy or shrink to almost nothing. This will make the breast look very empty. Remember, at lot of the fat left the breasts during pregnancy. After weaning, over the course of several months, the body will start depositing fat into the breasts again, and so gradually the breasts will regain their pre- pregnancy size or close to it. However, that "fat back to breasts" does not happen to all women. Some women do end up with empty-looking breasts after weaning. You can consider it a mark of motherhood! That is, until the next pregnancy possibly comes along, and the cycle starts again: the milk glands develop, the ducts grow in length, etc. Changes during menopause In menopause, the milk producing system – ducts and milk glands – shrink, and are replaced by fat (just like after weaning). That makes the breasts softer. Also the connective tissue loses strength, which makes the breasts sag more. Teens worry if their breasts are normal As the following comments sent to this website show, teenagers do worry a lot about their breast size/shape/development, and many teen girls wish for bigger breasts: Visitor comments: "Hi. I am 15 years old. My breasts have started growing but not like my other friends. Can you please give me a solution to make them bigger." "I REALLY LIKE YOUR PAGE BECAUSE ITS VERY INFORMATIVE BUT I HAVE A PERSONAL QUESTION. I WAS JUST WONDERING BECAUSE I HAD MY PERIOD FOR ALMOST A YEAR NOW AND MY BREASTS ARE STILL IN THE BREAST BUD Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 36
  • 38. STAGE AND ITS VERY EMBARASSING BECAUSE IM 13 AND HAVE TO GO TO HIGH SCHOOL NEXT YEAR SO DO YOU HAVE ANY NATURAL WAYS TO ENLARGE BREAST WITHOUT PILLS OR PLASTIC SURGERY." "I feel that the size of my breasts is too big which gives me a bad figure. What should I do to reduce it? My age is 20. What should I do?" "Thanks for your site. Im 10 years old and I thought I had normal breasts but all the other girls make fun of me. Only one other girl has breasts but not like me. They say my breasts are too big for me (I’m 48 and 84 pounds) and now I wear sweaters a lot to hide it. When is the normal age to have breasts and will they get smaller again? I like your site but I don’t see any pics of women that look like me:(" "Thank you so much. I was very concerned about my development. I am still unsure, I am 16 years old and one of my breasts is larger than the other one. Is this normal?" "My niece is 9 and only one of her breast is starting to develop. Is this normal or should both start developing at the same time. My sister is a little concerned that it might be some type of deformity. Can you give me any answers? Thank you. "Im a 16 year old who is still in high school. I was embarrassed all the time because I have small breasts. It runs in my family, and all my friends have large breasts. I was afraid to wear bathing suits, dresses, tank tops, and pretty much any cute shirt. But because of this site I have a new confidence in myself. I play volleyball, soccer, surf, snowboard, and love dancing. But my small breasts held me back, and yes I did think ALL THE TIME about getting implants. All the girls on my teams had nice large breasts and they bragged about them and showed them off in revealing shirts. Now that I really think about it, it is the people who mark you for your breast size who need to grow up. THANKS!" ~*~*Gillian*~*~First of all, it is very normal and usual for one breast to bud before the other, or the breaststo develop at different rates so that they are lopsided for a while. They usually even outeventually, so that the uneven sizes are not very noticeable. However, a big portion of adultwomen do have different sized breasts; usually one is just slightly bigger than the other, ormaybe has a different shape.Secondly, many teenagers get concerned when they see their friends breasts growing andtheirs are not. There is usually absolutely NO REASON TO WORRY because the timingvaries greatly from girl to girl. Some start developing breasts as early as 8 years old, someas late as 18, though in most girls the breasts start budding between 9 and 12 years. In anycase, your breasts WILL develop in time for their purpose of feeding your baby! "Im scared my boobs are tubular or whatever. They dont really look like the boobs you have in the picture you have of tubular breasts, but the nipples on mine are really Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 37
  • 39. weird, like they form a second little mound. Its really hard to tell though, because my boobs are a 32A so theyre incredibly puny which makes me depressed. But anyway, when theyre erect they look normal but when theyre not they look weird." "My breasts are kind of small. But are starting to take a round shape. However they are still pointier than those of my friends... my nipples always seem to be puffy and look like the photos form "mound on mound stage of puberty". But Im 17 and ... have had my period for a long time... I dont think it is puberty.... they are always puffy and swollen looking, like one big mound rather than that of a nipple and its areola... any ideas?"These are probably describing a flat nipple. When the nipple is not erect, it is called a flatnipple. That is fairly common, and more so among teenagers. It is nothing to worry about.Most flat nipples start sticking out during pregnancy. See also the links on our nipplespage. "Im 13 and in my school girls have big breasts and it seems that Im the only one flat chested. People say that I still have time to grow. And this site has helped me see that I do have time to grow." Lisa "Wow- this site sure helped me feel a bit better and more informed! I am 18 and never really had any breasts. All the fat cells that I would love to have in the right place went to the hips and butt. But you helped me realize that medium big and perky just isnt the norm." KirstinIn fact, you might be lucky if you develop later! It used to be that the average age ofbeginning of menstruation (menarche) in the 1800s was 16-17 years, whereas now it isbetween 12-13 years. So girls are maturing much earlier than they used to. Something inmodern life has made this change, and probably the girls in ages past were better off. It iseasier to deal with the raging hormones and other changes of puberty when your mind hashad time to develop.We also get lots of requests for help from girls who have A-cup size breasts: "Im 12 and I had my period I think as 11 years old. My breast are hard around the nipple and are a 32 A barely. What can I do to make them bigger? Everyone else has bigger ones. My cousin is 2 months younger than me and she is 36 A no problem. Im scared because Im small still and she is young but has bigger breasts. Please help me !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Im embarrassed to wear a bathing suit. I weigh 101 and I dont know what I can do to make them bigger!!!! Please help me ASAP!!!!!!!!!!!" "I am 14 yrs. old and had just gotten my period 2 months ago. I have gotten signs of Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 38
  • 40. puberty such as pubic hair, growth spurt (Im 5 9"), and mild acne. The only thing is my breasts DONT GROW!!!!! I barely fit into a 32A!!!! I heard that you should look at your relatives but its confusing. My mom and oldest sister are Cs, my 2nd oldest sister in a DD, and my aunt is an A!!!!! I am so confused! Puberty seems like it is working except it is skipping the breast stage! Will my breasts get bigger and how much longer do I have until they stop growing? PLEASE HELP!!!! Katie Im a 32 A and I got my period back in 7th grade (Im going into 10th now) and Im sick of it. My boobs are all pointy but round underneath. Its weird, and the nipples are puffy and they make this little mound above my boob except when its cold then they look normal. I got these sports bra tops from Target the other day and I dont even fill those out... and it was a size small for crying out loud!!! I really want breast implants and it doesnt matter if it messes up my breastfeeding things or whatever because guys hate me and theyll never talk to me much less get me pregnant or marry me or even like me. They hate me. I just want some self-esteem with having bigger boobs. Not to impress guys since they hate me and never want to talk to me. So do you have any tips on how to make boobs bigger or something before I go all the way and have surgery? Actually those puffy nipples that look "normal" in the cold are flat nipples that become erect when cold... that is normal. Since these girls have gotten their period already, it sounds like they are going to be small-breasted as adults. Or, if they are skinny, they may get somewhat fuller and rounder breasts later when they gain a little weight. But why is it such a catastrophe to have an A-cup as breast size? It is normal; many women have it. It only seems distressing when the media has brainwashed us into believing that "breasts make a woman" or that breast size is the main thing that makes a girl attractive to guys. Not so. While guys usually do want to see breasts - they are often just plain curious about it, sincethey are kept so well hidden from their view - they are far less concerned about breast sizethan girls and women are! Remember, what makes a woman attractive is her generalappearance, behavior, personality, attitudes, sense of humor... and that can include a lot ofvariety in the actual physical attributes.And if youre worried about clothes fitting - if you have some special occasion to wearsome special dress for example - check this link about Small bust can be beautiful! - anexample how a bra is used to create a fuller look.And next, if you have large breasts, it is very normal that they start sagging or drooping Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 39
  • 41. some already during your teen years. It is a natural process that happens to everybody atsome point, and there really isnt anything you can do to prevent it - for example bras wontkeep breasts from sagging (except while you wear them). Below you can see whatcomments some teens have left on our breast gallery page about this fact. If youre teenand have sagging breasts, you are NOT alone! I normally thought I was abnormal as at the age of sixteen I have sagging breats. But now I know that I am normal. thank u pooh bear Is there anyway that you can prevent your boobs from sagging when youre around 13 Ghina Im 18 and my breasts are already pretty saggy. They resemble the breasts of a 40- year old mother of two. Although, I appreciated seeing normal breasts, I was wondering if it is common to have overly saggy breast at this young an age? Erin I have a question, Im 15 years old and Im at a D bra now and my breast without my bra are sagging or I think they are sagging. How do I know if they are sagging when they are so big and what can I do about it? Ashley I am only 16 but I worry about my breasts. I have natural size C-cup breasts and I have worries that are are too big, already. My breasts have already began to sag and it worries me but Im beginning to see that breasts of all sizes are normal and this site has helped me to see this. Shari Thank you. Until I saw this website I was convinced that my saggy, lopsided breasts were absolutely abnormal and hideously ugly. Working on a college campus, Im surrounded by the perky breasts of girls in their late teens and early 20s and this has distorted my perception of "normal." Growing up overweight, my breasts developed (and began to sag) earlier than most. I never experienced "perky", or at least was too young and asexual at that point to enjoy them. Thank you for helping me understand and appreciate my body for what it is. :o) Danielle I think this web site is great, I am 19 and being a 32H they are sagging a bit and thought I was too young for this to start happening to me, but seeing these picutres of other people it has made me feel alot better about my self, thank you. lucySometimes you may think you have sagging breasts when in reality you really dont, or it isvery minimal. You can read What causes sagging breasts? to find out more about droopybreasts. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 40
  • 42. Breast size Breast size is determined by your genes. You can look to your mom and other female relatives and get somewhat of an idea of what your breast size might end up being, though this is NOT a guarantee. Another factor in breast size is how skinny/fat you are. As mentioned already, breasts have a lot of fat in them. The skinnier you are, the less fat your breasts contain and smaller they are.When you gain weight (or fat) in general, some of that fat will get deposited in yourbreasts, so that is why obese people will have bigger breasts. And if you lose weight (fat)from your body, some of that fat will be lost from your breasts, too. This explains whyathletic girls often have small breasts - their bodys fat content is fairly small. The same isof course true for anorexic girls.Unfortunately, when you lose weight and your breasts will be smaller, they often end upsagging more, as the skin is already stretched but now there is less "stuff" to fill it. There isno sure way to prevent this (try to study which nutrients best preserve skin elasticity).Exercise wont make breasts bigger because breasts dont have any muscles. Nor willsleeping position, wearing bras or not wearing them, milk or any other foods - but of courseit is important to eat a healthy diet so your body can develop as it is supposed to.There are no reliable means of increasing your breast size other than breast implants. But you should know those carry with them very serious health risks. Some girls end up being flat-chested - for reasons we do not know. Flat- chested girls lack the fat in breasts but they have the milk producing system in there and can breastfeed. Please read our page about being flat-chested to learn more. Being flat- chested doesnt mean you have to get worried - but if you dont get your period by age 15, that is a sign ofdelayed puberty.Read also our breast questions page fo r more details and links about what affects breastsize and about herbal breast enhancement pills.We hope knowing these facts will ease your mind off from worrying. You may have heardor read these same facts about breast development elsewhere, too. They are commonlyknown and commonly noted. So the chances are you are developing just normally andtheres no reason to be concerned. this is such a good site. it has made me feel so much better. I used to think I was abnormal. now I know... im normal :) a teenager Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 41
  • 43. I am 21 years old and ever since my teens I have thought my breasts were ugly and deformed. I have recently tried to commit suicide and as a result was a patient in a mental health ward, all due to the way I perceive my breasts. This site has helped me to understand that I am a normal woman. I hope it will stop other women from suffering the way I have over the years. Thankyou! kateAnorexia and breastsAnorexia, bulimia, or severe dieting will cause the fat to disappear from breasts, and that iswhy breasts of an anorexic girl will look very small, or shrunken.When such a girl is recovering and gaining weight again, fat gets deposited back to thebreasts. However, it wont always be the same amount of fat as was there before.The milk ducts and glands shouldnt be affected - if they had already developed! But ifanorexia hits while the breasts are growing ducts and glands, then that development willstop since the starved body will stop producing hormones that drive that growth.With anorexia, it is hard to say how things will go afterwards. Most girls become fertileagain and resume menstruation, or continue their pubertal development if it wasnt finished,but some girls never gain their menstruation and fertility back even after recovery.The following letters show how after anorexia, breasts wont necessarily be the same sizeas before: Hi. I stared my period when I was 9 years old. Sadly, during 8th grade, I was anorexic and lost my breast fat. I am not anorexic anymore and am healthy so my breasts grew back. I am worried that I wont grow big as they are supposed to grow. Right now, the size of my breasts are the same size when I was in 7th grade... I am an 18 year old female I just turned 18 about 4 mnths ago and I got my period when I was 14 , but then when I was about 16 years old I was anorexic for about a year, then I lost all the breat tissue I had and now Im back to being healthy but Im a 32 B , Is there anyway my breasts will still grow? My mom and every woman in my family had a 36B or bigger breasts, yet somehow I dont think mine will grow or they are taking long, or do you think my anorexia a while back had an effect on their growth? hello! Im 15 years old, and im really worried about my breasts. I started my period at age 9 and by that time my breasts were developing and also pubic hair. However pple teased me because I was overweight and I got depression and I felt very bad about myself. So by the time I got to middle school I decided to stop eating. At the time I was about 13 almost 14. I wouldnt eat much for a time then i stopped and only drank Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 42
  • 44. water. I was afraid to eat and I became anorexic.I would read the food labels and keep note of how many calories I consumed. I quit that after I began to feel numb and nearly had a heart attack and had to go to the hospital twice. Now im eating better and I feel better. Except, I dont know if not eating well for half a year could have affected my breasts and im worried that they wont grow anymore. Im a 32A . When I had anorexia, my period did stop. But now that I started to eat again, its back again.Its been about 8 months now that I have gotten my period. Will my breast continue to grow, or am I done? please help me I would really like to know. When I was 14 I became anorexic. The anorexia stopped when I was 17. I noticed that my breast size went from a 34C to a 32A. Im now 19 and am now at the high end of normal weight. However, I have a problem which is that the weight has gone to my bum, and not back to my breasts. Why are my breasts not growing back? and what can I do in order to help them get back the way they were. I dont want to put on any more weight as im at the high end of my normal weight range; any more and ill become obesse.Mostly this difference compared to earlier breast size would be because the breasts nowhave less fat. Unfortunately, its hard to tell if the breasts will gain their previous size, ornot, and if the duct and gland development was completed. However, if and when thesegirls get pregnant, the breast development during pregnancy will quite likely be normal.If you have a story to tell about this, or have more information on how breasts are affectedby eating disorders, please click here - scroll down to fill the form. Why do teenagers worry so much about breasts? But it might be worth your while still consider this one thing: WHY is it that teenage girls worry so extremely about their breasts? Is it just normal human nature? Do you worry equally much about the shape of your lips or eyes? Usually not. So something else enters the picture. The culture that surrouds you - especially magazines, TV, music videos, internet - has influenced your (and your friends and your parents) thinking. The media images leave the impression that normal kind of breasts are fairly big and perky with small areola - the ones you see supermodels have. But remember that those photos in magazines are retouched - THE PHOTOS ARE NOTREAL!Hollywood has promoted a "big breast" image to the modern world - BUT it was alsoHollywood that in the 1920s was promoting the flat-chested look. Women in that timetried to bind their breasts to make them look smaller.So what you see in media does NOT reflect the reality of womens breasts! Femalebreast is the one body part that varies most of any body parts in size and shape. You can besmarter than to fall into this trap and think for yourself! There is NO precise rule as to Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 43
  • 45. what is "normal" when it comes to breasts. The North American culture also makes breasts to be primarily a sexual body part, and does not emphasize their feeding function. Remember, breasts are for breastfeeding, and when the time comes, your baby will LOVE your milk and the closeness of being held next to moms bosom no matter what size or shape your breasts or areola or nipple are. The best thing to do is just try to learn to be GLAD YOU ARE YOU, instead of trying to copy other people. When/if the time comes that you find yourself a husband someday, he will hopefully fall for YOU - and not for some Hollywood stereotype!!!!!!!! See also: What causes sagging? Teenage girls, breast size & body image Normal Breasts Gallery Who needs breast implants? Breast taboo explained Breast Size, Shape & Concerns - Questions and Answers from TeenHealthFX Finding objective information on herbal breast enlargement pills Breast Enhancement products Stages of breast development with pictures Flapper Fashion 1920s In the 1920s, the fashions dictated a flat-chested look For More Teenage Girls, Adult Plastic Surgery Rise in Breast Implants and Other Procedures Raises Doubts About Long-Term Effects Teens and Breast Implants To learn more about puberty in general, please visit: TeenHealth TeenGrowth.comOther peoples commentsDisclaimer: Information here is not medical advice. It is not intended to diagnose or treat anydisease, nor to replace the advice you could get from a health professional. If you are in doubt,please see a doctor (or several). So if youre in doubt, and especially if you have some othersymptoms, please see a doctor.The following comments are made by visitors of our site, and may or may not agree with theviewpoints presented on this website. The comments and opinions below belong to thecommenters who made them. They are posted here because they might further help andencourage men and women who visit this website; however 007 Breasts is not responsible for thiscontent or any loss/damage caused by reading these.Hi. Im a smaller framed girl. ...My sister developed early, shes more from my dads side, whohave big boobs, shes got double ds. I always was insanely jealous of her. But now I figure, itdoesnt mean all that much. ... I used to be so insanely obsessed with my body, and now I figure, Iam lucky, I am healthy and I do look good! Ive never felt that way about myself before.I have about an a/b cup. I look small, but not completely flat you know. If it was up to me, I likemy perky boobs! And my body is small. I think Ill grow a bit more, just because Ive grown inthe past years overall. I know my boobs have gotten a little bit bigger, I had mosquito bites 2years ago. I guess thats normal, lol. I got my period when I was 13, I remember I was in 7th Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 44
  • 46. grade. Im assuming I wont grow all that much more, but my ma says she grew into her 20s. Shegrew alot like right when she was twenty, she said like a cup size! And recently my breasts havebeen really tender and something I never knew was the whole "mound on mound" thing thathappens to the nipples? Well, you said not all girls go through that stage, but anyways, mynipples JUST got that. They get a little tender during my period all the time, but recently more,and they are also more veiny. Does this mean they are growing more? Or is this just normal, thiscontinuely happens?Anyways, like I mentioned, Ive grown to liking my body the way it is. I have to, right? And Im abeautiful person, even though Im petite/slim slender. I really hate when guys say, "REALwomen/girls have curves" though. My curves are small, but I still am all woman! Paha, or girlanyway. I really appreciate your site, I like the message about breasts not being really sexual,because when you think about it they arent at all, thats something people should put moreemphasis on. Thank you for reading :)Im not sure about the veininess, but tenderness is a typical sign of breast growth.Hi. Im 17 year old European I guess I havent been affected in the same way that most Americanshave of breast obsession. Though, I have never felt too comfortable about my breasts anyways,thinking they were too small. I got my period when I was 13 and my breast only grew a bit afterthat I had 32A until just recently when they grew to 32B arent my breast supposed to havestopped growing? I know feel the same pain in my breast as I used to feel when I was in my earlyteens and they started to grow, can they keep on growing at such a high age? I dont think I havethe shape of a grown breast either, my nipples are large and puffy compared to my breast size. Iwould really appreciate an answer. Thanks for a great site, it really helped me get more confidentseeing normal breasts and I think it does for many other women as well!KochanaYes, this kind of "growth spurts" do sometimes happen. I dont think its anything to worry about -UNLESS they keep on growing for years and years.Weve had women write in whose breasts still grew some even in their early twenties.But youre right, the usual way is that they grow during those few years of puberty, then stop.I am only 15 years old and am extremely body consious. I always have been. I have really largenipples and sagging breasts. It is hard to believe that at the age of 15, I know. But I am notexaggerating. I found your website and think its great! I feel alot better about myself after seeingthat what I have is normal. I have a gorgeous boyfriend and after 7 months, Im still terrified ofhim seeing my breasts. He says he would never be that shallow to ever leave me beacause of mybreasts (I have had that in the past, and as a 15 year old, it hurts). I have a new outlook, you onlylive once and life is too short to dwell on the tiny imperfections of things. You are given whatyouve got, so make full use of it. Thank you so much.JessOk, Im 14 years old and I was so unhappy with my breasts. When my breasts started to grow,they sorta sagged down, and now they are sagging and uneven too. I felt so conscious about mybreasts that I kept away from guys. I used to think that with my saggy and uneven breasts, Iwould never hav a boyfriend that would appreciate me no matter what. I feel so much betterknowing that Im not the only one. I just thought that having weird breasts at an early age meantthat something was wrong with me. I still feel a little embarassed, but i think Ill get over it. Ifinally realized that breasts were never intended for sexual purposes.LeeLeeDear Maria, Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 45
  • 47. Im just writing to let you know how wonderful I think your site is. Im 19 years old and a 34Aand I am finally at ease with my breast size after years of feeling awful.I would like to address the issue of bullying, which some other people have talked about on thecomments page. I used to be friends (I use this term lightly!) with a girl who would constantlybelittle me because of the size of my breasts. We worked in a variety store together at theweekends and a lot of the time when we were working on the lingerie section she would point to kiddies training bras and mock me for being the same size. She used to always try to incorporate my breast size into any conversation we had, it would often be silly little remarks such as: "Oh I better not jump around because my boobs will bounce all over the place, but you dont have to worry about that do you!" then she would laugh. It sounds daft looking back, but I always knew that her comments were malicious and it really hurt and damaged my self-esteem. She made me feel abnormal and because of her I hated the way I felt about myself and cursed my small breasts. She herself was about a C/D cup for a long time. She then lost a lot of weight and her breasts shrunk to a 32B. Suddenly, after this, the nasty comments from her about my size became less frequent. She started telling people how much happier she was about her new,smaller breasts and how much more comfortable it was. It was upon hearing this that I knew, tomy greatest shock, that she had actually all that time resented me for having small breasts andwas perhaps even jealous. I have never understood how anyone can be jealous of smaller breasts,but I believe that her change of heart proved that, bizarrely, she was. In fact, she had been jealousof me for years. She had also made nasty remarks about my academic capability for years...I evenwent to visit her one day and found a drawing she had done of my face with arrows pointing to itcalling me nasty names!Last Christmas I finally got fed up with her silly attitude and jealousy and I havent spoken to hersince. Now this toxic person is out of my life I feel a lot happier and my self-esteem is muchmuch higher. I think my story proves that women can be unhappy with their breast size whethertheyre small or large. What I think is strange about my experience is that men seem to actuallyreally like my breasts and I have never had any nasty remarks from them, from what Ive seen itsusually women who become fixated upon what they see as perfection in the media and because ofthis they become irrationally obsessed with obtaining the perfect size and shape. I dont think thatany women should feel that her breasts are abnormal or that they deserve to be belittled, becausewe are all different and our differences should be celebrated.Anyway, thanks for a great site, I think its very inspirational!Alicemy breasts were really small untill this past year. i am 14 and i have 32cs. last year i was a noteven a, but you young girls need to know that just cuase your small now doesnt mean you arealways going to be that way. you have support from me and just so you know you are beautifulwithout big breasts! Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 46
  • 48. salinaI am an 18 year old female with asymmetrical breasts. I dont mind that my breasts are small, andI dont mind that they are uneven. However, I have become very insecure with my body becausemy breasts do not look like fully developed breasts. My areola is very large and it protrudes awayfrom my chest. It basically looks like I have small mounds. There is little or no breastdevelopment around my areola. I dont know if this makes sense. But I dont know how else todescribe my breasts. Do you think I am a late bloomer? My breasts look like they just stoppeddeveloping before it ever got the chance to finish. They have looked like this for about 5 yearsand I also got my period when I was 12. Do you think my breasts will continue to develop or am Istuck with my little uneven nubs?It sounds like all is well and normalYour breasts probably developed just fine and finished developing back years ago. This moundthing is very common and normal, nothing to worry about. Im guessing your nipples are flat. Golook at the pics on our gallery page and see the VARIETY. Maybe yours are the size of someoneelse there, and have nipples that look like somebodys nipples there. Dont worry. All it is, is themedia images make us think that breasts are supposed to look this way, whereas in reality thereis a LOT of variation.Im thirteen and I was afraid my breasts were deformed.... I thought they were small, but besidesthat, well lets just say there was some hair there. Thanks to your site, Ive learned that a few hairswere ok. I feel so much more confident about my breasts too. I mean, Im not scared or afraid ofthem being small or my friends laughing at them. Im not very tall (411") plus Im not donegrowing yet, so I know my breasts will mature as I do. I cant thank you enough!Im an 18-year-old with small, sagging breasts and large areolas, and I always thought that therewas something wrong with my breasts sagging so early in my life. I never seemed to match whatthe media told me was "normal" for girls my age and even women older than me. We girls getfew chances to see what other girls breasts look like (in normal settings), so we have to see whatis normal for women with what is available - super-models and actresses, which can foster thebelief that that there is something wrong with girls like me. So, thank you again for having yoursite, with pictures, so that I now know that there is nothing wrong with my breasts. This hadgreatly boosted my self-confidence, so, thanks again!I was feeling really low about my breasts and my body image, i had lost a lot of weight and i wasmore miserable then ever because of my breasts. I had always had this vision growing up andhaving a perfect little body like my mother enjoyed in her youth or having perky breast like myfriends, but when i looked at my own, i thought something had gone terribly wrong. Since theonly breast id ever seen were those of my young friends, i had no idea, until i saw your web-sitethat i am perfectly normal. I have a much more possitive body image now, and even though mybreasts may be bigger and sagging for someone of a young age, they are mine, given to me tofeed an nuture my children and i wont trade them.Thanks a lot!!!! Im 13 years old and Im a 34A. My breasts are starting to get rounder but are stilla bit pointy. I was really worried that the *pointyness* wasnt normal until I found your site andstarted reading. Now I know that it is normal and know that they will continue to get fuller androunder!! Thx again!!!Keep up the good work.Jezz Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 47
  • 49. Hi there!I am a 21 year old female with 32D breasts (sounds big but theyre not, really) and large areolas,Im only 52" and I have an hourglass figure. I also have a strong upper body because Im aglassblower (the amount of jokes Ive heard about that. All from men. Funny that.). I went to thegym once to see what the fuss was about and HATED it so I never went back. I do not countcalories and I do not do fad diets! I love curvy women and think that skinny women need acheeseburger.When I read some of the problems some girls - particularly young teenagers - have about theirbreasts it made me so sad I felt compelled to write you a story:I had never been embarrassed about my body: I always believed the human body is a beautifulthing. After I split with my first love (because of distance) when I was 18 I went out with this guyas a rebound who turned out to be a complete punk. He put me down in anything I did and themost horrible thing he said to me was my breasts were ugly, that my nipples were too big and myactual breasts were a horrible shape. I wont even tell you what else he said about the rest of mybody. Anyway after I got rid of that guy I met someone else, a friend I had known for a long time.I told him what that guy had said to me and he looked puzzled.What he said next made me cry:He told me I was a goddess, that I had the most perfect body he had ever seen and my breastswere amazing. After that my confidence came back and I just soared. Now I have no inhibitionsabout nudity: Ive got what Ive got and I have a man I love that thinks Im the most beautifulwoman in the world.What Im trying to say is that as long as you have confidence, anything you do is beautiful. NeverEVER think youre not beautiful and NEVER let anyone tell you otherwise. Anyone who tries tobelittle the way you look are just taking their own insecuritiesout on you. Give them a slap and tell them to grow up and dealwith it. Thats what I did - literally! ;)I hope this helps. Thank you for such a great site!Kira x xScotlandhey, im 14 and my breasts are diffrernt sizes. i wouldunderstand if they were not obvious but they is like a34b and the other a 32c i am really worried. will they grow tobe the same? shall i change my diet to help the other onegrow? please help me!I understand you can feel worried with your situation. I reallydont know if they will grow to be the same or not. Only timewill tell. They may end up being about how they are now - it just happens to some women. Or, thedifference may even out somewhat but not completely.Diet will not help, because anything youd try do, would affect the other breast also. Plus, therereally isnt much you could do anyway, as far as diet goes.You can study into gel inserts people put into bras if you wish to hide this from others. But, itsbest for your OWN mental health if you can accept your body as it is - Im afraid the situationwith your breasts will not go away completely. Why feel unhappy about it? Its your life, yourbody. You will feel better if you accept the situation even if you dont "like" it - see most of ushave something about our body we dont like. Live your life, be happy about other things, and trynot think too much about this one thing. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 48
  • 50. Thank you for such a wonderful site! The pictures are good to see, but for me it was wonderful to read the comments, to know that there are so many other women like me with a deep, painful insecurity about their breasts but who are still strong enough not to go through surgery. I have always been a 34AA (training bra size) and am now 20 years old. I spent my entire teenage years waiting for my breasts to grow, wishing and crying and thinking I was ugly or unwomanly. To all you young girls out there who have gone through this or are going through it now, you are beautiful in so many ways, and no guy who wants a girl for her boobs, or who complains about your chest size, is EVER worth it. I am now going out with a wonderful, attractive man, and my small chest does not bother him. And once guys and girls get past their hormone driven immaturity, there are few people who judge you on the size of your chest, and those who do are still not worth your time.Angelahelp im 14 im only 8 stone and slim, im a dancer and very fit but im coming up with stretchmarks all over my bum and thighs, i have put on a stone within the last year could this be why?what shall i do im so self concoius about itanomonousi just notieced stretch marks on my boobs... im a 34B.... 16 yrs old.... they have [not] "grown"suddenly, nor have i been pregnant/gained a great deal of weight suddenly..... great nutrition aswell... so whats the deal!? how can i make them go away??? katieHi Katie, Im not sure why the stretch marks have come. Please bear in mind that the tendency toget stretch marks is largely hereditary, though diet plays a role too. Also people with dry skin getthem easier. Stretch marks typically appear if the skin stretches in short period of time, likeduring rapid growth. Once you get them, they dont go away but they do fade a lot over time andcan become practically invisible in untanned skin. Please read also the page Picture of stretchmarks on breasts & links to other resources.WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT PIMPLES OR LITTLE BUMPS ON YOUR BREASTS? ISNTTHERE A WAY TO GET RID OF THEM WUTHOUT SURGERY?PRINCESSIf you mean bumps on the skin of your breasts, those are no different than bumps on skin in otherparts of your body. Good diet with antioxidants and good fats and avoidance of junk food andtrans fats might help. But if you mean bumps on your areola, those are called Montgomeryglands, and they produce a special oil that lubricates the nipple/areola complex. Montgomeryglands will become even more visible during pregnancy. You certainly need them and wouldntwant to get rid of them!I had my son at 18 and even though all the young moms I knew formula feed I was determined tonever have a bottle touch my sons lips. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 49
  • 51. When my son was born he was small and didnt take to the breast that easily, everyone for theexception of my husband wanted me to give up and formula feed. But it was my strong will thatmade it happen and now my son is 2 years old and loves his boo-boos as he so calls them.I never once had complications with my breast and I must admit now that he is weaning awayfrom them I begin to miss that comfortable feeling of having him on them.It is amazing on the strong bond you feel when nurishing your child, I wouldnt trade it for theworld and I know for a fact any other children I have will always be breastfeed.Tanya is it alright to wear a bra to bed? I dont want to make my breasts smaller because there already small but what exercises should i avoid so my boobs dont get smaller? oh yeah does sleeping on your stomach or with a bra make your boobs bigger? laura my friend stuffs her bra and i was wondering does that slow down or stop her breast from growing? really important! confused hi ! im 19 and im really worried about my breast size they are one cup and i dont know what to do! i really have lost my confidence in myself im a nervous person and always sad because of this!!! is it true if a girl doesnt wear a bra then the breasts grow better or bigger? or when wearing bra while sleeping will increaze their size??? is all that true? please help me! do you think am normal so? am i attractive this way?? and what kind of food will maybe increase their size or be good to breast ??? there must be some food, please name some. MaryThese are just myths. Exercising or not should not make any difference in breast size ordevelopment. Of course it is good to exercise for your general healths sake. You can sleepwhatever way is comfortable to you.Bra wearing or not also should not affect breast development at all, or stuffing your bra or not. Now, it is good not to wear a bra to bed and at home so that your breasts will get some free time so the lymph can flow freely within the breasts. If you wear bras, they should not be tight anywhere, and you should preferaly get them fitted with a professional. In general, you should eat a healthy diet and avoid junk foods so your body has all the building blocks it needs for its development, but otherwise normal foods or normal eating doesnt affect breast development. It is determined by your genes. See also the answer about milk and breast growth. Cup size one (or size A) is just fine and normal! Your breasts are fine and theres NOTHING wrong with them. Some women have cup size A, some have B, some have C, some have D. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 50
  • 52. Breasts come in all different sizes, just like some people are tall and some are short. The finalbreast size is determined by your genes and theres nothing you can do about it. And, breasts ofall sizes produce milk!Every girl can be attractive - regardless of breast size. Attractiveness has a lot to do about beinghappy and joyful, helpful, showing positive attitudes to others. Its that kind of persons that otherpeople like to be around. And many men actually think small-breasted women are attractive. Butif a man ONLY likes you because of your breast size (small or big), and doesnt really care aboutYOU, what you are inside, then hes not worth it - and is likely to dump you oh so soon whensomething changes about your breasts (like during pregnancy).hi my name is kaitlyn and I have a question! I was wondering if it is normal that I have basicallyno breasts (size AA34). I am 13 years old and have not started my period yet. I was wonderinghow long it would take for them to grow and how much time I have left! My mom is kindaoverweight and I only weigh 70 pounds. I dont think that I will look a thing like my mom I amreally skinny and short (46"). I get really embarassed about my breats and wearing a swimmingsuit because everyone makes fun of me. I really like this site!! Thank you!KaitlynIt can be normal that you dont have any breasts yet. Breast growth can take 5 years or longertotal, and the development continues for several years AFTER you start your period. You dontmention if you have any signs of puberty (pubic hair or breast buds). It sounds like you haventyet started the puberty growth spurt though. It is recommended to see a doctor if a girl doesnthave ANY signs of puberty by 14 years. See also Puberty - What happens When?.im 13 years old and my breasts are 38 inches. they are much bigger than my sisters and she is afraid they are going to get too big and are going to sag A LOT when im older.jennaI want to know about most girls my age. I am gonna be 12 in september... School is going to start,and I already know the girls are going to have breasts. Not me... I feel left out, I get asked out byboys, lol, but I get told ALL the time about breasts. Everytime one of my friends that I hanged outwith last year, and on and off this year, they talk about that. AshGirls vary a lot as to when their breasts develop. You are not behind in development becauseNOT everyone develops at the same time. There is a variation: some start early, some later, somein between and everyone is developing in their own time. It depends on your genes and youcannot change it. You may time your development somewhat by asking when your mom startedbreast development and when she had her first menstrual period. Typically girls develop in thesame age range as their mom or a little earlier.You didnt mention if you have pubic hair or if your breast development has already started.These are the first signs of puberty. Puberty in girls typically starts anywhere between 9 and 13years of age.The breast deveopment starts with a bud stage, which is that your nipples are enlarged orswollen and there is a small elevation of the breast from the surrounding skin. Breastdevelopment typically takes 4-5 years or even more. see also Budding Breasts in FemalesSo dont worry about your development as compared to others - it will happen in its time whetheryou worry or not.OKAY I AM ABOUT 51 AND I ONLY WEIGH ABOUT 84 POUNDS AND I AMWONDERING IF I GOT TO ABOUT A 100 POUNDS WOULD I HAVE BIGGER BOOBSBECUASE I THINK ITS BECUASE THAT I AM SO SKINNY THAT I HAVE NOTDEVELOPED. I AM 13 BY THE WAY. IS MY WEIGHT CAUSING ME TO HAVE SMALLBOOBS? BECASUE EVEN WHEN MY FRIEND WAS 70 SOMETHING POUNDS SHE HAD Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 51
  • 53. BIG BOOBS.ARE THERE ANY FOODS THAT YOUR BREAST LIKE?OH YEAH SOMETIMES MY BREAST ITCH AND MY MOM SAYS ITS BECUASE THE SKIN ISSTRECHING IS THAT TRUE? THANK YOU SO MUCH THIS WILL TELL ME WHAT ISHOULD DO,LAURAYes, itching is usually a sign of skin streching, so sounds like your breasts are starting to develop.Just eat healthy foods (unless allergic) like whole grains, vegetables, some omega-3 fats, fish,low-fat meat, eggs, fruits, nuts, olive oil, and other natural foods, and avoid candy, pop, frenchfries and other junk food, and refined foods like sugar and white bread and margarine, andprocessed ready-made foods, so you will have plenty of good nutrients as the building blocks foryour body, and waitI cannot tell if your weight is a problem, but if you think so, you could see a nutritionist. Butplease do not try to increase your weight with junk food or sugary foods; those foods will lackminerals and vitamins, and have instead harmful substances in them. im 16 and my breasts are really flat not even the size of 32 a.. can i use any method lk drinking papaya milk shake can make my breast bigger.. i heard ppl say 16 is the last stage... evelyn No, you cant make your breasts bigger with any specific foods. But it is important to eat a healthy, balanced diet, and avoid sugar and junk foods, so your body will have all the nutrients it needs when its growing.well i am 13 and i have a little breast and i want to know well they grow over the summer orduring the summeranitaYour breasts are probably still developing and will probably grow with time.I know Im only fourteen years old and all but are my breasts going to get any bigger? I wear a34A but I also havent started my period yet and I stopped growing in height as much as I used to.Is this normal? Have my breasts stopped grwoing for good?Unsureif you havent started your period yet, then your breasts will still develop for several years fromnow. Hi Im 15 years old, my boobs are not very big at all and I was getting really worried, but when I came to this page I started feeling much better. I went to this one site that said that you should have your adult breast by 15, and it had me really freaked out cause mine aint big right now. But it says on here that the normal age is between 16-17 and I really hope its right. (but I think it is). I am just slow thats all. And all the things I have read on here about sagging, I am sort of glad I aint getting them fast. So I am really just giving a thank you to this site bye bye Sarahhi my name is steph and ive looked through your site and i havent been able to find theinformation to stop me from worrying about my breasts. this is probably like most questions youget and i dont know if youll be able to help me or not... Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 52
  • 54. lately i have been worrying a lot about the rate of development of my breasts, i have very largeswollen areola areas that have been this size for about a year. i am getting worried that no fat willstart to build up around this area nd my breats will stay this shape, the picture of the tubularhypoplastic breats look a lot like mine. i am 15 years old and i have had my period for 2-3 years,as well as pubic hair, only my breasts havent developed at all. its stupid that im feeling quitedepressed about this, i know, but seeing girls much younger than me with fully developed breastsmakes me feel like a child, and i hate not being able to fill out any bra properly or not being ableto wear certain clothing. i am too embarassed to ask my mum when she started develping, and iam not close enough to any other female family members to ask them. please can you reassure methat my breasts will start to fill out soon, otherwise i will seriously consider plastic surgery.If I understood you right, you said your breasts look a lot like the pic of tubular hypoplasticbreasts. In other words you are not flat-chested but just would like your breasts to be rounderand fatter in shape, right?Well, like mentioned many times on the site, many girls do get a rounder and more femininecurvy look OVERALL, everywhere in their body, around their early 20s. So your breasts mayround out at that time.Clothing... Try dress up in clothing that de-emphasizes the chest area. That can still be stylish.You dont have to follow the latest trends in fashion to be stylish, do you? Find your own style!Like one woman commented on our page, she had found theflapper style from the 20s to suit her real well. And as you can imagine, flat-chested women canfeel even more frustrated with bras and clothing in todays world. Not that it would need to be so-it is just that women feel pressured to dress as everybody else, or follow the same fashionseverybody else instead of wearing what is comfortable and looks good on them. See Selectingfashions that present you at your bestSoYouWanna dress properly for your body type (for women)? And if your breasts should stay that way.... Try to imagine what is the worst possible scenario foryour life because of that. What would that cause? Is it going to keep you from college? Or fromyour favorite hobby? Or from getting a husband someday? Or from having children? Or fromgetting a job?Your breasts per say wont do any of those things, but your mental attitude can have a devastatingeffect on your life. If the idea of plastic surgery soothes you, so to speak, go ahead and consider itas a (remote) possibility in your mind. You cant really get it done anyway till youre 18 or 20,depending on the surgeons opinion. And in the meantime (you have three years till you hit 18,right?), try to live your life. You dont want to WASTE three full years of your life, right, thinkingabout your chest, when there are so many other, more important and more interesting things todo! Read more questions/comments from teens about breast development One pair of teen breasts Check also the article ONE SMALL STEP FOR TOPFREEDOM by a 14- year old girl.Normal adult breast pictures - see how varied they are! Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 53
  • 55. See BREAST GALLERY for more breast pictures This Spanish webpage has many breast pics of 19-year old girls: Pautas Saludables para sus Mamas - Encuesta Fotográfica - 19 años An older baby is often distracted from nursing by whatever is going around her. Every girl should have a breastfeeding doll instead of them skinny barbies. Nursing an 1-month old infant This mom is nursing her newborn right after giving birth - just like all moms should! My small baby preferred to Breast From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). For various cities in Europe pronounced in a similar way, see Brest. BreastHuman females breast mamma (cf. mammal f. L mammalis "of Latin the breast"[1]) Artery internal thoracic artery Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 54
  • 56. Vein internal thoracic veinThe term breast refers to the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that ofmammals, including human beings. The breasts of a female primate’s body contain the mammaryglands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. This article deals with the human breast; for otheranimals, see udder and mammary gland.Breasts are more visible on adult women, but male humans also have breasts which, althoughusually less prominent, are structurally identical (homologous) to the female, as they developembryologically from the same tissues.Contents[hide] • 1 Anatomy o 1.1 Lymphatic drainage o 1.2 Shape and support o 1.3 Development o 1.4 Changes • 2 Function o 2.1 Breastfeeding o 2.2 Sexual role o 2.3 Other suggested functions • 3 Cultural status o 3.1 In art, religion, and legend o 3.2 In practice o 3.3 Clothing o 3.4 Plastic surgery • 4 Health o 4.1 Pre-malignant and malignant diseases o 4.2 Infections and inflammations o 4.3 Benign conditions • 5 See also • 6 References • 7 Gallery • 8 External links Anatomy See also: Human anatomy Breast schematic diagram (adult female human cross section) - Legend: 1. Chest wall 2. Pectoralis muscles 3. Lobules 4. Nipple 5. Areola 6. Duct 7. Fatty tissue 8. Skin The breasts are modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands, producing milk in women, and in some rare cases, men.[2] Each breast has one nipple surrounded by the areola. The areola is colored from pink to dark brownand has several sebaceous glands. In women, the larger mammary glands within the breastproduce the milk. They are distributed throughout the breast, with two-thirds of the tissue foundwithin 30 mm of the base of the nipple.[3] These are drained to the nipple by between 4 and 18lactiferous ducts, where each duct has its own opening. The network formed by these ducts iscomplex, like the tangled roots of a tree. It is not always arranged radially, and branches close tothe nipple. The ducts near the nipple do not act as milk reservoirs; Ramsay et al. have shown thatconventionally described lactiferous sinuses do not, in fact, exist. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 55
  • 57. The remainder of the breast is composed of connective tissue (collagen and elastin), adiposetissue (fat), and Coopers ligaments. The ratio of glands to adipose tissues rises from 1:1 innonlactating women to 2:1 in lactating women.[3]The breasts sit over the pectoralis major muscle and usually extend from the level of the 2nd ribto the level of the 6th rib anteriorly. The superior lateral quadrant of the breast extends diagonallyupwards towards the axillae and is known as the tail of Spence. A thin layer of mammary tissueextends from the clavicle above to the seventh or eighth ribs below and from the midline to theedge of the latissimus dorsi posteriorly. (For further explanation, see anatomical terms oflocation.)The arterial blood supply to the breasts is derived from the internal thoracic artery (formerlycalled the internal mammary artery), lateral thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, and posteriorintercostal arteries. The venous drainage of the breast is mainly to the axillary vein, but there issome drainage to the internal thoracic vein and the intercostal veins. Both sexes have a largeconcentration of blood vessels and nerves in their nipples. The nipples of both women and mencan become erect in response to sexual stimuli,[4] and also to cold.The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth through sixthintercostal nerves. The nipple is supplied by the T4 dermatome.Lymphatic drainageAbout 75% of lymph from the breast travels to the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. The resttravels to parasternal nodes, to the other breast, or abdominal lymph nodes. The axillary nodesinclude the pectoral, subscapular, and humeral groups of lymph nodes. These drain to the centralaxillary lymph nodes, then to the apical axillary lymph nodes. The lymphatic drainage of thebreasts is particularly relevant to oncology, since breast cancer is a common cancer and cancercells can break away from a tumour and spread to other parts of the body through the lymphsystem by metastasis.Shape and supportBreasts vary in both size and shape, and their external appearance is not predictive of theirinternal anatomy or lactation potential. The shape of a woman’s breasts is in large part dependenton their support, which primarily comes from the Coopers ligaments, and the underlying chest onwhich they rest. The breast is attached at its base to the chest wall by the deep fascia over thepectoral muscles. On its upper surface it is given some support by the covering skin where itcontinues on to the upper chest wall. It is this support which determines the shape of the breasts.In a small fraction of women, the frontal milk sinuses (ampulla) in the breasts are not flush withthe surrounding breast tissue, which causes the sinus area to visibly bulge outward. Relatively round breasts which protrude almost horizontally. In discussing the support of breasts, it is helpful to draw a distinction between breasts which rest on the chest below, and those which do not. High, rounded breasts protrude almost horizontally from the chest wall. All breasts are like this in early stages of development, and such a shape is common in younger women and girls. This protruding or “high” breast is anchored tothe chest at its base, and the weight is distributed evenly over the area of the base of theapproximately dome- or cone-shaped breasts.[citation needed]In the “low” breast, a proportion of the breasts’ weight is actually supported by the chest againstwhich the lower breast surface comes to rest, as well as the deep anchorage at the base. Theweight is thus distributed over a larger area, which has the effect of reducing the strain. In bothmales and females, the thoracic cavity slopes progressively outwards from the thoracic inlet (atthe top of the breastbone) above to the lowest ribs which mark its lower boundary, allowing it tosupport the breasts. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 56
  • 58. The inframammary fold (or line, or crease) is an anatomic structure created by adherence betweenelements in the skin and underlying connective tissue[5] and represents the inferior extent of breastanatomy. Some teenagers may develop breasts whose skin comes into contact with the chestbelow the fold at an early age, and some women may never develop such breasts; both situationsare perfectly normal. The relationship of the nipple position to the fold is described as ptosis, aterm also applied to other body parts and which refers in general to drooping or sagging. Due tobreast weight and relaxation of support structures, the nipple-areola complex and breast tissuemay eventually hang below the fold, and in some cases the breasts may extend as far as, or evenbeyond, the navel. The length from the nipple to the sternal notch (central, upper border) in theyouthful breast averages 21 cm and is a common anthropometric figure used to assess both breastsymmetry and ptosis. Lengthening of both this measurement and the distance between the nippleand the fold are both characteristic of advancing grades of ptosis.The end of the breast, which includes the nipple, may either be flat (a 180 degree angle) or angled(angles lower than 180 degrees). Breast ends are rarely angled sharper than 60 degrees. Anglingof the end of the breast is caused in part by the ligaments that suspend it, such that the breast endsoften have a more obtuse angle when a woman is lying on her back. Breasts exist in a range ofratios between length and base diameter, usually ranging from ½ to 1.Development Main article: ThelarcheThe development of a girls breasts during puberty is triggered by sex hormones, chiefly estrogen.This hormone has been demonstrated to cause the development of woman-like, enlarged breastsin men, a condition called gynecomastia, and is sometimes used deliberately for this effect intranswomen who receive hormone replacement therapy.In most cases, the breasts fold down over the chest wall during Tanner stage development, asshown in this diagram.[6] It is typical for a woman’s breasts to be unequal in size particularlywhile the breasts are developing. Statistically it is slightly more common for the left breast to bethe larger.[7] In rare cases, the breasts may be significantly different in size, or one breast may failto develop entirely.A large number of medical conditions are known to cause abnormal development of the breastsduring puberty. Virginal breast hypertrophy is a condition which involves excessive growth of thebreasts, and in some cases the continued growth beyond the usual pubescent age. Breasthypoplasia is a condition where one or both breasts fail to develop.In Cameroon, some girls are subjected to breast ironing to stunt breast growth in order to makethem less sexually attractive in the belief that this makes them less likely to become a victim ofrape. Changes Breast with visible stretchmarks. As breasts are mostly composed of adipose tissue, their size can change over time. This occurs for a number of reasons, most obviously when a girl grows during puberty and when a woman becomes pregnant. The breast size may also change if she gains (or loses) weight for any other reason. Any rapid increase in size of the breasts can result in the appearance of stretchmarks. It is typical for a number of other changes to occur duringpregnancy: in addition to becoming larger, the breasts generally become firmer, mainly due tohypertrophy of the mammary gland in response to the hormone prolactin. The size of the nipplesmay increase noticeably and their pigmentation may become darker. These changes may continueduring breastfeeding. The breasts generally revert to approximately their previous size afterpregnancy, although there may be some increased sagging and stretchmarks. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 57
  • 59. The size of a woman’s breasts usually fluctuates during the menstrual cycle, particularly withpremenstrual water retention. An increase in breast size is a common side effect of use of thecombined oral contraceptive pill.The breasts naturally sag through aging, as the ligaments become elongated.FunctionBreastfeeding An infant breastfeeding Main article: Breastfeeding The primary function of mammary glands is to nurture young by producing breast milk. The production of milk is called lactation. (While the mammary glands that produce milk are present in the male, they normally remain undeveloped.) The orb-like shape of breasts may help limit heat loss, as a fairly high temperature is required for the production of milk. Alternatively, one theory states that the shape of the human breast evolved in order to prevent infants from suffocating while feeding.[8] Since human infants do not have a protruding jaw like human evolutionary ancestors and other primates, the infant’s nose might be blocked by a flat female chest while feeding.[8] According to this theory, as the human jaw receded, the breasts became larger to compensate.[8] Milk production unrelated to pregnancy can also occur. Thisgalactorrhea may be an adverse effect of some medicinal drugs (such as some antipsychoticmedication), extreme physical stress or endocrine disorders. If it occurs in men it is called malelactation. Newborn babies are often capable of lactation because they receive the hormonesprolactin and oxytocin via the mothers bloodstream, filtered through the placenta. This neonatalliquid is known colloquially as witchs milk.Sexual roleBreasts play an important part in human sexual behavior. They are one of most visible or obviousfemale secondary sex characteristics,[9]. Compared to other primates, human breasts areproportionately large throughout adult females lives and may have evolved as a visual signal ofsexual maturity and fertility.[10] On sexual arousal breast size increases, venous patterns across thebreasts become more visible, and nipples harden. Breasts are sensitive to touch as they have manynerve endings, and it is common to press or massage breasts with hands during sexualintercourse. [11] Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common. Some women can achievebreast orgasms. In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, marking breasts with nails and bitingwith teeth are explained as erotic.[12]See also: Mammary intercourse.Other suggested functionsZoologists point out that no female mammal other than the human has breasts of comparable size,relative to the rest of the body, when not lactating and that humans are the only primate that haspermanently swollen breasts. This suggests that the external form of the breasts is connected tofactors other than lactation alone.[citation needed]Some zoologists (notably Desmond Morris) believe that the shape of female breasts evolved as afrontal counterpart to that of the buttocks, the reason being that whilst other primates mate in therear-entry position, humans, because of their upright posture, are more likely to successfullycopulate by mating face to face, the so-called missionary position. Morris suggested in 1967 thata secondary sexual characteristic on a woman’s chest would have encouraged this in moreprimitive incarnations of the human race, and a face on encounter may have helped found arelationship between partners beyond merely a sexual one.[13] However, this theory has since been Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 58
  • 60. generally disregarded due to the discovery that other primates, such as orangutans, routinely matein the face-to-face position even though the females do not have prominent breasts.Cultural statusIn art, religion, and legend The "Snake Goddess" statuette of ancient Minoan Civilization represents a woman in clothing that exposes the breasts. Historically, breasts have been regarded as fertility symbols, because they are the source of life-giving milk. Certain prehistoric female statuettes—so-called Venus figurines — often emphasised the breasts, as in the example of the Venus of Willendorf or the "Snake Goddess" of Minoan civilization. In historic times, goddesses such as Ishtar were shown with many breasts, alluding to their role as protectors of childbirth and mothering. The legendary tribe of Amazons bared their breasts, and in some accounts removed one breast to allow better combat and archery. Some religions afford the breast a special status, either in formal teachings or in symbolism. Islam forbids public exposure of the female breasts.[14] In Christian iconography, some works of art depict women with their breasts in their hands or on a platter, signifying that they died as a martyr by having their breastssevered; one example of this is Saint Agatha of Sicily. In Silappatikaram, Kannagi tears off herleft breast and flings it on Madurai, cursing it, causing a devastating fire. A woman wearing traditional clothing in Southern Ethiopia. Many societies have no cultural proscriptions on women going bare-breasted. In practice Breasts are secondary sex characteristics and sexually sensitive. Bare female breasts can elicit heightened sexual desires from men. Cultures that associate the breast primarily with sex (as opposed to with breastfeeding) tend to designate bare breasts as indecent, and they are not commonly displayed in public, in contrast to male chests. Other cultures view female toplessness as acceptable, and in some countries women have never been forbidden to bare their chests; in some African cultures, for example, the thigh is highly sexualised and never exposed in public, but the breast is not taboo. Opinion on the exposure of breastsoften depends on the place and context, and in some Western societies exposure of breasts on abeach may be acceptable, although in town centres, for example, it is usually considered indecent.In some areas the prohibition against the display of a woman’s breasts only restricts exposure ofthe nipples.Women in some areas and cultures are approaching the issue of breast exposure as one of sexualequality, since men (and pre-pubescent children) may bare their chests, but women and teenagegirls are forbidden. In the United States, the topfree equality movement seeks to redress thisimbalance. This movement won a decision in 1992 in the New York State Court of Appeals—“People v. Santorelli”, where the court ruled that the state’s indecent exposure laws do not banwomen from being barebreasted. A similar movement succeeded in most parts of Canada in the1990s. In Australia and much of Europe it is acceptable for women and teenage girls to sunbathetopless on some public beaches and swimming pools, but these are generally the only public areaswhere exposing breasts is acceptable.When breastfeeding a baby in public, legal and social rules regarding indecent exposure and dresscodes, as well as inhibitions of the woman, tend to be relaxed. Numerous laws around the world Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 59
  • 61. have made public breastfeeding legal and disallow companies from prohibiting it in theworkplace. Yet the public reaction at the sight of breastfeeding can make the situationuncomfortable for those involved.See also modesty, nudism and exhibitionism.ClothingSince the breasts are flexible, their shape may be affected by clothing, and foundation garments inparticular. A brassiere (bra) may be worn to give additional support and to alter the shape of thebreasts. There is some debate over whether such support is desirable. A long term clinical studyshowed that women with large breasts can suffer shoulder pain as a result of bra straps,[15]although a well fitting bra should support most of the breasts’ weight with proper sized cups andback band rather than on the shoulders.Plastic surgery Breast implant patient, pre-operative (left) and post-operative (right) Plastic surgical procedures of the breast include those for both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery indications. Some women choose these procedures as a result of the high value placed on symmetry of the human form, and because they identify their femininity and sense of self with their breasts. After mastectomy (the surgical removal of a breast, usually totreat breast cancer) some women undergo breast reconstruction, either with breast implants orautologous tissue transfer, using fat and tissues from the abdomen (TRAM flap) or back(latissiumus muscle flap).Breast reduction surgery is a common procedure which involves removing excess breast tissue,fat, and skin with repositioning of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Cosmetic proceduresinclude breast lifts (mastopexy), breast augmentation with implants, and procedures that combineboth elements. Implants containing either silicone gel or saline are available for augmentation andreconstructive surgeries. Surgery can repair inverted nipples by releasing ductal tissues which aretethering. Breast lift with or without reduction can be part of upper body lift after massive weightloss body contouring.Any surgery of the breast carries with it the potential for interfering with futurebreastfeeding,[16][17][18] causing alterations in nipple sensation, and difficulty in interpretingmammography (xrays of the breast). A number of studies have demonstrated a similar ability tobreastfeed when breast reduction patients are compared to control groups where the surgery wasperformed using a modern pedicle surgical technique.[19][20][21][22] Plastic surgery organizationshave generally discouraged elective cosmetic breast augmentation surgery for teenage girls as thevolume of their breast tissue may continue to grow significantly as they mature and because ofconcerns about understanding long-term risks and benefits of the procedure. Breast surgery inteens for reduction of significantly enlarged breasts or surgery to correct hypoplasia and severeasymmetry is considered on a case by case basis by most surgeons.Health Main article: Breast health This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. Please help recruit one or improve this article yourself. See the talk page for details. Please consider using {{Expert-subject}} to associate this request with a WikiProject This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (December 2007) Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 60
  • 62. Pre-malignant and malignant diseasesIllustration of the early warning signs of breast cancer • Carcinoma in situ, a pre-malignant condition which can progress to a malignant cancerMalignant diseases include: • Breast cancer • Paget’s disease of the nipple, also known as Paget’s disease of the breastAmong women worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death.[23] Breast self-examination (BSE) is an easy but unreliable method for finding possible breast cancer,[24] which is recommended once every month. Infections and inflammations These may be caused among others by trauma, secretory stasis/milk engorgement, hormonal stimulation, infections or autoimmune reactions. Repeated occurrence unrelated to lactation requires endocrinological examination. • Mastitis o bacterial mastitis o mastitis from milk engorgement or secretory stasis o mastitis of mumps o chronic intramammary abscess o chronic subareolar abscess o tuberculosis of the breast o syphilis of the breast o retromammary abscess o actinomycosis of the breast o Mondor’s disease o duct ectasia syndrome o breast engorgementBenign conditionsBreast with an inverted nipple.Benign conditions include: • Congenital disorders o inverted nipple o supernumerary nipples/supernumerary breasts (polymazia / polymastia) /duplicated nipples • Aberrations of normal development and involution o cyclical nodularity o breast cysts o fibroadenoma - benign tumor o gynecomastia (males) o nipple discharge, galactorrhea o mammary fistula • Fibrocystic disease / Fibrocystic changes o cysts Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 61
  • 63. o epithelial hyperplasia o epithelial metaplasia o papillomas o adenosis • Pregnancy-related o galactocoeleSee alsoLook up breasts in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. • Brassiere • Breast bondage • Breast fetishism • Breast self-examination • Cleavage (breasts) • Intimate part • Mammary intercourse • Milk line • Teat • WonderbraReferences 1. ^ mammal - Definitions from 2. ^ Introduction to the Human Body, fifth ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 2001. 560. 3. ^ a b Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging, D.T. Ramsay et al., J. Anat. 206:525-34. 4. ^ "". 5. ^ Boutros S, Kattash M, Wienfeld A, Yuksel E, Baer S, Shenaq S. The intradermal anatomy of the inframammary fold. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep; 102(4):1030-3. PMID 6. ^ A.R. Greenbaum, T. Heslop, J. Morris and K.W. Dunn, An investigation of the suitability of bra fit in women referred for reduction mammaplasty, Br J Plast Surg 56 (2003) (3), pp. 230–236 7. ^ C.W. Loughry, et al (1989). "Breast volume measurement of 598 women using biostereometric analysis". Annals of Plastic Surgery 22 (5): 380 – 385. doi:10.1097/00000637-198905000-00002. 8. ^ a b c Bentley, Gillian R. (2001). "The Evolution of the Human Breast". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 32 (38). 9. ^ secondary sex characteristics 10. ^ Anders Pape Møller, et al (1995). "Breast asymmetry, sexual selection, and human reproductive success". Ethology and Sociobiology 16 (3): 207–219. doi:10.1016/0162- 3095(95)00002-3. See abstract here. 11. ^ "The entire breast is a network of nerve endings" link 12. ^ Sir Richard Burtons English translation of Kama Sutra 13. ^ Morris, Desmond (1967). The Naked Ape: a zoologists study of the human animal. Canada: Bantam Books, 64–68. N3924. 14. ^ “They shall cover their chests” or “they should draw their khimar (veils) over their bosoms”, depending on the translation, Quran (24:31). Available online 15. ^ Ryan, EL, Pectoral girdle myalgia in women: a five-year study in a clinical setting. Clin J Pain. 2000 Dec; 16(4):298-303. 16. ^ Neifert, M; DeMarzo S, Seacat J, Young D, Leff M, Orleans M (1990). "The influence of breast surgery, breast appearance and pregnancy-induced changes on lactation sufficiency as measured by infant weight gain". Birth 17 (1): 31–38. doi:10.1111/j.1523- 536X.1990.tb00007.x. PMID 2288566. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 62
  • 64. 17. ^ "FAQ on Previous Breast Surgery and Breastfeeding". La Leche League International (2006-08-29). Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 18. ^ West, Diana. "Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery". Australian Breastfeeding Association. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 19. ^ Cruz-Korchin, N; Korchin L (2004-09-15). "Breast-feeding after vertical mammaplasty with medial pedicle". Plast Reconstr Surg 15 (114): 890–94. PMID 15468394. 20. ^ Brzozowski, D; Niessen M, Evans HB, Hurst LN (February 2000). "Breast-feeding after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty". Plast Reconstr Surg 105 (2): 530–34. PMID 10697157. 21. ^ Witte, PM; van der Lei B, van der Biezen JJ, Spronk CA (2004-06-26). "Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148 (26): 1291–93. PMID 15279213. 22. ^ Kakagia, D; Tripsiannis G, Tsoutsos D (2005-10). "Breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty: a comparison of 3 techniques". Ann Plast Surg 55 (4): 343–45. PMID 16186694. 23. ^ World Health Organization (February 2006). "Fact sheet No. 297: Cancer". Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 24. ^ Breast Self Examination at The Breast SiteGallery This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (June 2008)Front view of womans Illustration of saggitalbreasts Side view of a womansNormal variation in section of a human breasts shape breast Women topless on Himba women fromEuropean beach Woman in brassiereDiagram showingshowing cleavage Africa, whoinframammary fold traditionally go topless Breasts with pierced Nipple shield piercingBreast bondageWoman wearing pasties nipples on a womans painted Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 63
  • 65. breast Diagram of dissectedInternational Wax cast of a lactating lactating breast Breast pumpbreastfeeding symbol human breast Diagrams of cross sections of breastBreasts of a woman in15th century tortureimplants, subglandularSilicone breast implantslate pregnancy instrument designed to(left) and submuscular rip off breasts (right) Maxi Mounds, adultRuptured silicone Grade IV capsularentertainer withimplant with removedSaline breast implants contracture in breastPolypropylene breastcapsule implant patient implants. These implants are banned in the United States and in the European Union.The common inferiorpedicle breast reductionprocedure with final Mammography Woman undergoingpictures, normal (left)result (red indicates Breast self exam mammogram and cancerous (right)incision lines) Breast prostheses used by some mastectomyDrawing of Mastectomy patient patients inflammatory breastMammogram cancerdisplaying breast Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 64
  • 66. cancer, indicated withan arrow (click forlarger view) Typical macroscopicExcised human breast (gross) appearance oftissue, showing a Mastectomy specimenthe cut surface of a stellate area of cancerPatient with advancedcontaining a very largemastectomy specimen2cm in diameter. Thelocal-regional cancer of the breast (incontaining a cancer, inlesion could be feltrecurrence of breastthis case, an invasivethis case, an invasiveclinically as a hardcancer with anductal carcinoma) ductal carcinoma of themobile lump, notulcerating axillary mass breast, pale area at the attached to skin or chest center wall. Benign granular cell Breast cancer Infiltrating ductal tumor removed from a (Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the BreastInfiltrating ductal womans breast. carcinoma of the breast) assayed with anti Mucincarcinoma of the breast Granular cell tumors of1 antibody assayed with anti HER- the breast represent one 2 (ErbB2) antibody of the few lesions that can impersonate an invasive breast cancer on gross examination. Histopathology of Histopathologic imageInvasive lobular invasive ductal from ductal cellcarcinoma of the breastMetaplastic carcinoma of the breast carcinoma in situdemonstrating a(sarcomatoid) representing a scirrhous (DCIS) of breast.predominantly lobularcarcinoma of the breast. growth. Core needle Hematoxylin-eosingrowth pattern biopsy. Hematoxylin stain. and eosin stain. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 65
  • 67. Histopathology ofinvasive ductal Histopathology ofcarcinoma of the breast intraductal papilloma ofrepresenting a scirrhous the breast by excisionalgrowth. Core needle Histopathology ofbiopsy.biopsy. HER-2/neu Breast cancer intraductal papilloma ofImmunostaining foroncoprotein expression(Infiltrating ductal the breast by excisionalalpha-smooth muscleby Ventanacarcinoma of the breast)biopsy. Hematoxylinactin.immunostaining system. dyed with H&E and eosin stain.Histopathology ofBreast fibroadenoma Breast fibroadenoma Histopathologic imageintraductal papilloma of of breast fibroadenoma.the breast by excisional Core needle biopsy.biopsy. Immunostaining Hematoxylin & eosinfor p63 protein. stain. Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisionalHistopathology ofHistopathologic imageHistopathology ofbiopsy. Immunostaining intraductal papilloma ofof breast fibroadenoma.intraductal papilloma offor alpha-smooththe breast by excisionalCore needle biopsy.the breast by excisionalmuscle actin. biopsy.Hematoxylin & eosinbiopsy. Hematoxylin Immunostaining forstain. and eosin stain. p63 protein.External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Breasts • Images of female breasts • Pregnancy and your breasts • Stages of breast development, from Puberty101 • “Are Women Evolutionary Sex Objects?: Why Women Have Breasts”Retrieved from ""Categories: Human anatomy | Breast | Exocrine system | Female reproductive system | Mammalanatomy | Glands | Secondary sexual characteristics | Integumentary systemHidden categories: Semi-protected | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles withunsourced statements since August 2007 | Articles with unsourced statements since June 2008 |Pages needing expert attention | Uncategorized pages needing expert attention | Cleanup fromDecember 2007 | All pages needing cleanup | Cleanup from June 2008 Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 66
  • 68. This is a social rather than a biological problem. Many women feel inadequate and self-conscious about what they consider undersized breasts. It is a myth that the size of the women’s breasts is an indication of her femininity, her sexual capacity, or her ability to bear children or nurse them. The fact is that the main content of the breast i.e. the fat tissue gives the breast it’s size and shape. The number of milk producing glands is not less in women with small breasts. (Anatomy) Another myth is that breast-feeding causes breasts to decrease in size with each child nursed. This myth has resulted in western women, nursing their children less and less ………… WHY DO SOME WOMEN HAVE SMALL BREASTS? 1. Whether the breast is small or large can only be decided if considered according to the body proportions. In women who themselves are thin, the breasts will naturally be small. Unless she gains some weight herself, increasing her breast size by artificial methods will only make them look out of proportion to the rest of the body. 2. After surgery to remove a lump.CAN I DO ANYTHING TO INCREASE MY BREAST SIZE? 1. Thin women with small breasts can increase their breast size merely by gaining some weight. Otherwise there is no known preparation, exercise plan, or mechanical device that can affect breast size. Then again, if you are already on the heavier side and put on more weight, breasts may still appear smaller. Small sized breasts do not matter, it is the embarrassment on your face that shows. 2. If you want your breasts enlarged, see a plastic surgeon. An operation called breast augmentation is the only way to increase breast size to any significant degree. Implanted breasts feel firmer than normal breasts, especially if you have little breast tissue of your own. The more tissue over the implant, the more natural it feels. The same procedure is used in part of the relief for breast sagging.Small BreastMany girls face concerns with small breast. In today’s media driven world image is everything. Ifyou don’t wear the right clothes, shop at the right stores, or hang out with the right crowd youroften ridiculed and made fun of. For a girl with small breast it is even harder. Even if she hasn’tbeen made fun of, or compared with her large breasted friend or sister, she will often be selfconscience of her image. After all doesn’t Hollywood portray large breasted women as being themost sought after, and drooled over?First things first; are your breast still growing? A girl’s breast can grow until the age of 19, andeven then her breast size can change! To help you understand your breast development, visit Some girls are early bloomers, and othergirls won’t fully develop breast until later in their teenage years.The size of your breast depends a lot on heredity; your breast will often be similar in size to yourmother, but that is not always the case. Breast size is determined by many factors, and no one canknow for sure how small, or large your breast will be. The question is; does it really matter if you Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 67
  • 69. have small breast?First of all small breast won’t sag as easily as large breast, you will have less back problems, lesstrouble finding a comfortable bra, and less need to wear one. Small breast won’t prevent breastfeeding (hopefully no time soon!), and will perform for the purpose they were designed for.Some surveys indicate that when teenage guys were asked the question “Do you prefer girls withsmall breast, or large breast?” more of them preferred small breast, but admitted to goggling overgirls with large breast. When asked why, they said “Girls with large breast catches their attentionwhen they walk past, but without clothes small breast just look better.” Others said “I can’texplain it; I just like girls with smaller breast”.Everyone has different taste, and small or large your breasts are a beautiful part of you. No mater who you are, everyone has an outstanding quality that is sexy, and attractive to others. A guy with a preference for skinny girls may find a heavyset girl attractive because of her eyes, lips, breast, or personality. Believe me when I say that personality, confidence, and attitude are the most important attributes a girl can have!!! I have seen the prettiest girls get the guy, only to lose him to someone with a better attitude. Once a girl realizes that looks aren’t everything, and sets her mind to it, the world is hers. So stop worrying about having small breast, and realize that they are beautiful, and sexy. Then take your best qualities (the ones others often comment on), and emphasize them, and utilize them. Finally; proceed with confidence, knowing that it doesn’t matter what others think, because you are better than that. And don’t forget that small breasts are sexy!!!Breasts and body image in pubertyTeenage years, or puberty, is the time of many changes, and of course for girls, one of thosechanges is they develop breasts. Many teenagers worry about their breasts not developing earlyenough or at the same pace as their friends. For them, developing (or the lack of it) becomes asource of anxiety and stress - and some teens have even committed suicide over it! Yet for othergirls, seeing their breasts budding makes them feel embarrassed and uncomfortable about theirown body. They may not want to undress in front of other girls or even their own mom.And its not just the teenagers. By age thirteen, 53 percent of American girls are unhappy withtheir bodies; but by age seventeen, 78 percent are dissatisfied. By far the majority of adultwomen in the US are not happy with their breasts. The proof of that is that so many women (wellover 200,000 in year 2002) choose breast implants, a risky procedure that can impair their healthand forces them to have several surgeries afterwards and eventually have the implants removed.Why is this so? What causes teens to agonize over their breast development instead of observingit with thrill and joy, with the realization, "Im maturing!"? What causes women to worry so muchabout their breast size as part of their body image?The answer is laid out on the billboards, magazine ads, media and television. Practically everysingle woman you see in advertisements is extremely slim and has huge breasts, which aredepicted as a sexual organ that catches the males attention. Women and girls in the United Statesare bombarded by those pictures all day long, so it is no wonder most girls and women thereforestart believing (at least subconsciously) it is the ideal form of female body and that they shouldstrive for it too.But those models have had everything possible done to make their breasts appear bigger: first ofall many of them get breast implants and use pads in bras. Then after that, the photographer canuse a special lense to make one body part show up bigger than the rest, and you can also be sure Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 68
  • 70. that if need be, all those photograps in advertisements are retouched and made to look just rightwith the help of computer.IT IS NOT REAL! Media also always depicts breasts as something guys supposedly want to see. That is the way the whole society, including probably your mother, believes in North America. However, things are different in many other countries and cultures around the world. In Europe women can walk on topless beaches, and men dont look at their breasts with special interest. It is a no big deal type of thing. Seeing a breastfeeding mom does not cause people to become offended or embarrassed. In some cultures, like native Indians or most Africans, women are or were topless on everyday basis. To them, breasts are like elbows or ankles to us: just a body part that everybody has, nothing that special, nothing to hide about. About a 100 years ago, womans ankles were considered sexual, so they were hidden from view, and men anxiously wanted to see a bare ankle. Isnt that funny? Just think if in todays world all women suddenly covered their noses withsome kind of piece of fabric, just leaving the bottom open for breathing. Then soon everybodywould be curious about noses and would want to see a bare nose. And, believe it or not,eventually some men would desperately want to peek in because they would normally never beallowed to see a womans nose, whereas all women would at least see their own. It could turn intoan obsession even.But we know theres nothing about noses that would make them especially interesting body partsfor men and boys to look at. Some noses are big, some are small, some are more curved this wayor the other way, but they all are just plain ol noses, weve all seen plenty of them and we dontthink anything special about seeing a nose.Maybe you think my illustration is silly. But its not that far-fetched. It is happening EVENNOW. In muslim countries women are required to cover their whole face with a vail, except foreyes. A womans face (including the nose) is a taboo. Men cant see it, and are then extremelycurious. Whatever you make to be a taboo, then becomes a source of curiosity and obsession.The purpose of the nose is to be a passageway for the air we breathe in, to filter impurities out,and to be a house for the sense of smell. Do you know what is the purpose of female breast? Ifyou have studied breast anatomy, you know that inside, breast is filled with milk lobules thatproduce milk, and milk ducts that carry the milk to the nipple. Then there is fatty and connectivetissue to fill the breast, and thats it. Breasts are intended to make milk for the baby that thewoman has born into this world. Its that simple.Many people argue at this and say that breasts have a dual function: being a sexual object ANDfor breastfeeding. But anatomically or physiologically there is nothing in the breast to make it apart in human procreation. Its just the image created by television and magazines that almosteverybody in the USA believes. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 69
  • 71. Now, breasts are of course a very feminine body part. Just like long hair and curved hips, theysignal that a person is of the female sex. In fact, the word "sexual" can simply mean "pertainingto either male/female sex", and in that sense you could say breasts are sexual. It is just fine andcommendable that men view female breasts as feminine, as something that accentuates that theperson is mature and capable of feeding her children as God intended. Breastfeeding is awonderful and beautiful process of nourishing and comforting your offspring with your ownbody. There is nothing wrong if men and boys appreciate breasts for their real purpose andsee them as sexual in the sense of pertaining to the feminine sex, something making the personvery much female, a woman who cares about her chilren.Breasts of practically all shapes and sizes can breastfeed justfine, because the amount of fatty tissue in breast has nothing todo with the milk making. Even women with totally flat chestcan breastfeed. They just didnt have the fat and connectivetissue develop as most women do. In fact, Im sury youve seenpictures of dogs and cats nursing their babies, the little puppiesor kittens. They just have protruding nipples, and the milkmaking apparatus is just underneath the skin without any bigmount outside. But then take for example the cow. She has abig huge udder with several teats for her one calf to suck onWhen it comes to animals, everybody thinks that breastfeeding isjust the normal way to go, nothing to hide about. If women inUnited States and other western societies influenced by it wouldbreastfeed more openly in public, it would help so much to doaway with this secrecy and hiding aspect of breasts. Kids andteenagers growing up NEED to see the real function of breasts! If they dont seebreastfeeding moms, they might get the impression that bottle-feeding is the normal way or thatthere is something bad and dirty about breastfeeding. Nothing could be further from truth!Tons of scientific studies show how bottle-feeding is inferior to breast-feeding: it makes babiesmore sick, less intelligent, more prone to die etc.As a young unmarried girl, try to see your breasts, however much they have or have notdeveloped, simply as a future source of milk and comfort for your baby. It wont matter whatshape or size they are at all! Even men, if normal, appreciate the woman more for her character than for the exact shape or size of her breasts (or her elbow/nose/waist/etc). True, men like women who appear feminine instead of tough and masculine, and breasts are a part of that femininity. Breasts signal that you have matured, that you can be a mother and feed your babies (but remember the flat- chested women can breastfeed as well). However, in teenage years marriage is still probably quite far fromyour thoughts - and it should be. For now, just concentrate on your studies, hobbies, and otherinterests, because when you do get married and have babies, first of all you wont have time forthose anymore, and secondly your interests WILL suddenly totally change - youll fall in lovewith your baby!See also:Normal breast development and teenagers worriesMore questions and answers about breast developmentNormal breasts photos - pictures of natural womens breastsWho needs breast implants? Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 70
  • 72. Sources and resources:I want to highly recommend the article Breasts and self-image by Mary D. Brown.Mirror, mirror - A summary of research findings on body imageFemale dissatisfaction with appearance - poor body-image - begins at a very early age. Up to 8out of 10 women are dissatisfied by what they see in the mirror.Body Image & the Media... Whats the connection?The Media trends from 1890s till today. What all is done to make the images in the media toappear flawless.An interview with Sharleen Jonasson, the author of "Its My Body and Ill Cry If I Want To"."I was recently in the U.K., and I took the opportunity to peruse a few British editions ofmagazines on every North American news stand. ... One of the first things I noticed was adifferent attitude toward nudity. Take, for example, an ad I mustve seen a hundred times inwomens magazines here, where a model stands, presumably in front of a mirror, with nothing onbut a mans shirt that is open but covering most of her breasts. In the British version of the samead, the models breasts are fully exposed. (Do we have a no-nipple policy over here?)Something else I noticed was a photo spread of naked women, a regular-readers-of-the-magazinekind of group ordinary women, naked, women with breasts and buttocks and waists of varyingsizes and shapes, thighs with dimples it was startling! And why? Because we almost never seebodies of ordinary women in the pages of magazines. Full frontals and rear-views of thesewomen, pages and pages of women posing happily naked, not looking a bit apologetic. Thepurpose of this realistic nudity? To show examples of different body types. ...But the thing was, I was amazed at how, immediately, I felt better about my own body. Because Idefy any woman to look at a model in a magazine and not, on some level, compare herself to thatmodel."Their Bodies, Ourselves: Mothers and Daughters Looking GoodHow to help your daughter to develop a healthy body image.Body Image & AdvertisingArticle with lots of statistics relating to body image.Mammary glandFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (November 2007) Mammary gland Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 71
  • 73. Cross section of the breast of a human female. Dissection of a lactating breast. 1 - Fat 2 - Lactiferous duct/lobule 3 - Lobule 4 - Connective tissue 5 - Sinus of lactiferous duct 6 - Lactiferous duct Latin glandula mammaria Grays subject #271 1267 Dorlands/Elsevier g_06/12392474Mammary glands are the organs that, in mammals, produce milk for the sustenance of theyoung. These exocrine glands are enlarged and modified sweat glands and give mammals theirname. The mammary glands of domestic mammals containing more than two breasts are calleddugs. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 72
  • 74. Contents • 1 Humans o 1.1 Structure o 1.2 Development and hormonal control o 1.3 Breast cancer • 2 Other mammals • 3 Evolution • 4 Gallery • 5 See also • 6 External links • 7 References Humans Main article: breastStructureThe basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimetreslarge) lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Thesealveoli join up to form groups known as lobules, and each lobule has a lactiferous duct that drainsinto openings in the nipple. The myoepithelial cells can contract, similar to muscle cells, andthereby push the milk from the alveoli through the lactiferous ducts toward the nipple, where itcollects in widenings (sinuses) of the ducts. As the infant begins to suck, the hormonallymediated "let down reflex" ensues and the mothers milk is secreted into – not sucked from thegland by – the babys mouth.All the milk-secreting tissue leading to a single lactiferous duct is called a "simple mammarygland"; a "complex mammary gland" is all the simple mammary glands serving one nipple.Humans normally have two complex mammary glands, one in each breast, and each complexmammary gland consists of 10–20 simple glands. The presence of more than two nipples isknown as polythelia and the presence of more than two complex mammary glands as polymastia. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 73
  • 75. Development and hormonal controlMammary glands exist in both sexes, but are rudimentary until puberty when, in females, theybegin to develop in response to ovarian hormones. Estrogen promotes formation, whereastestosterone inhibits it.At the time of birth, the baby has lactiferous ducts but no alveoli. Little branching occurs beforepuberty when ovarian estrogens stimulate branching differentiation of the ducts into sphericalmasses of cells that will become alveoli. True secretory alveoli only develop in pregnancy, whererising levels of estrogen and progesterone cause further branching and differentiation of the ductcells, together with an increase in adipose tissue and a richer blood flow.Colostrum is secreted in late pregnancy and for the first few days after giving birth. True milksecretion (lactation) begins a few days later due to a reduction in circulating progesterone and thepresence of the hormone prolactin. The suckling of the baby causes the release of the hormoneoxytocin which stimulates contraction of the myoepithelial cells.Breast cancerAs described above, the cells of mammary glands can easily be induced to grow and multiply byhormones. If this growth runs out of control, cancer results. Almost all instances of breast canceroriginate in the lobules or ducts of the mammary glands.Other mammalsThe number and positioning of complex and simple mammary glands varies widely in differentmammals. The nipples and glands can occur anywhere along the two milk lines, two roughly-parallel lines along the ventral aspect of the body. In general most mammals develop mammaryglands in pairs along these lines, with a number approximating the number of young typicallybirthed at a time. The number of nipples varies from 2 (in most primates) to 16 (in pigs). TheVirginia Opossum has 13, one of the few mammals with an odd number[1][2]. The following tablelists the number and position of glands normally found in a range of mammals: Anterior Intermediate Posterior Species [3] Total (thoracic) (abdominal) (Inguinal) Goat, sheep, horse 0 0 2 2 guinea pig Cattle 0 0 4 4 Cat 2 2 2 6 [4] Dog 4 2 2-4 8-10 Mouse 6 0 4 10 Rat 6 2 4 12 Pig 6 6 4 16 Elephants, primates 2 0 0 2Male mammals typically have rudimentary mammary glands and nipples, with a few exceptions:male mice dont have nipples, and male horses lack nipples and mammary glands.[citation needed] Themale Dyak fruit bat has lactating mammary glands. [5]Mammary glands are true protein factories, and several companies have constructed transgenicanimals, mainly goats and cows, in order to produce proteins for pharmaceutical use. Complexglycoproteins such as monoclonal antibodies or antithrombin cannot be produced by geneticallyengineered bacteria, and the production in live mammals is much cheaper than the use ofmammalian cell cultures.Evolution Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 74
  • 76. Please help improve this section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page or at requests for expansion.It is believed that the mammary gland is a transformed sweat gland, more closely related toApocrine sweat glands[citation needed]. There are many theories of how they evolved, but since theydo not fossilize well, supporting such theories presents a major difficulty for the researcher. Onetheory proposes that mammary glands evolved from glands that were used to keep the eggs ofearly mammals moist.[1][edit] Gallery Cow Cat Pig Sheep Goat Elephant Mouse HumanSee also • Teat • Breast • Udder • Milk line • Breastfeeding • Mammary tumor for mammary gland tumors in animals • Witchs milk • gynaecomastiaExternal links • Comparative Mammary Gland Anatomy by W. L. Hurley • On the anatomy of the breast by Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1840). Numerous drawings, in the public domain. • mammary+gland at eMedicine DictionaryReferences 1. ^ With the Wild Things - Transcripts 2. ^ Raising Orphaned Baby Opossums 3. ^ Merle Cunningham, Animal Science and Industry ISBN 9780130462565 4. ^ Dog breeds vary in the number of mammary glands: larger breeds tend to have 5 pairs, smaller breeds have 4 pairs. 5. ^ Francis, Charles M.; Anthony, Edythe L. P.; Brunton, Jennifer A.; Kunz, Thomas H. (1994-02-24). "Lactation in male fruit bats". Nature 367: 691–692. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/367691a0. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. [hide] v•d•e Female reproductive system Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 75
  • 77. corpus (hemorrhagicum, luteum, albicans) • Theca folliculi Follicles/Folliculogenesis (externa, interna) • Follicular antrum (Follicular fluid) • Corona radiata • Zona pellucida • Membrana granulosa (Granulosa cells) Germinal epithelium • Tunica albuginea • cortex (Cumulus Ovaries/Oogenesis oophorus, Stroma) • Medulla Fallopian tubes Isthmus • Ampulla • Infundibulum • Fimbria Broad (components: Mesovarium, Mesosalpinx, Mesometrium Ligaments contents: Round of uterus, Proper of ovary) • Suspensory of ovary • Cardinal cervix/neck (External orifice - Canal of the cervix, Internal Uterus orifice) • corpus/body (Cavity of the body, Fundus) • layers (Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium) • Uterine horns Labium: commissures (Anterior • Posterior) • Frenulum labiorum pudendi • Labia majora • Cleft of venus • Labia minora • Vulval vestibule • interlabial sulci Clitoris: Vestibular bulbs • Clitoral crura • Corpus cavernosa • Vulva/mons pubis Clitoral glans (Frenulum, Hood) Vagina: vestibular glands/ducts (Bartholins glands/Bartholins ducts, Skenes glands/Skenes ducts) • Fossa of vestibule of vagina • Vaginal fornix • Hymen • Orifice Wolffian (Gartners duct, Epoophoron, Paroöphoron) • Canal of Vestiges Nuck Other G-spot • Urethral spongeBrassiereFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Bra - frontA brassiere (Brit. /bɹæzɪə(ɹ)/; U.S. /bɹəziɹ/, commonly referredto as a bra, /bɹɑ/) is an article of clothing that covers, supports,and elevates the breasts. Bra - back Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 76
  • 78. The bra is considered a foundation garment, as well as an undergarment, because of its role in shaping the wearers figure. It was originally developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to replace the corset, and has now become, in many parts of the world, the defacto method for supporting a womans breasts.[1] The bra may be worn to support and enhance breast shape during everyday activities and a specialized bra, the sports bra to support and restrain breasts during exercise. The bra may also be worn to observe modesty or to present a certain image of femininity. Bras are typically designed to lift the breasts into a particular position, for a more youthful look or for enhancing cleavage. These roles are sometimes conflicting. Some designers aim at producing a garment that fulfills a practical role as well as making it look attractive. Bras are also used during pregnancy (when breasts are enlarged and more sensitive), and for nursing(see nursing bra) to support and provide access for breast feeding.Some have questioned the practical need for the bra given that some women prefer not to wear abra and go braless on a regular basis. The bra has become charged with political and culturalmeanings that overlay its practical purpose. Traditionally it is viewed as symbolic of a younggirls coming of age. It can also be interpreted as a feminine icon. On the other hand, somefeminists consider brassieres symbols of the repression of womens bodies.[1]Contents • 1 Etymology • 2 History • 3 Construction and fit o 3.1 Fitting o 3.2 Mechanical principles • 4 Size and measurement o 4.1 Measurement systems o 4.2 Fitting difficulties • 5 Types of bra • 6 Therapeutic role of the bra o 6.1 Countering the aging process o 6.2 Pain relief and comfort • 7 Cultural significance o 7.1 Feminist comment o 7.2 The bra as a fashion item o 7.3 Social pressures and trends • 8 Health problems o 8.1 Mastalgia Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 77
  • 79. o 8.2 Shoulder pain o 8.3 Back pain o 8.4 Bra size • 9 See also • 10 References o 10.1 Patents o 10.2 Other sources 10.2.1 Books 10.2.2 Book reviews 10.2.3 Journal articles 10.2.4 Research papers 10.2.5 Documentaries 10.2.6 Relevant articlesEtymology Support of the bosom by a bodice (French: brassiére from 1900) The French word brassière refers to a babys vest (undershirt) or lifebelt, underbodice or harness. The word brassière derives from bracière, an Old French word meaning "arm protector" and referring to military uniforms (bras in French means "arm"). This later became used for a military breast plate, and later for a type of womans corset. The current French term for brassière is soutien-gorge, literally, "held under the neck" or "throat-support". In French, gorge (throat) was a common euphemism for the breast. This dates back to the garment developed by Herminie Cadolle in 1905. The term "brassiere" seems to have come into use in the English language as early as 1893.[2] Manufacturers were using the term by about 1904, Vogue magazine first used it in 1907, and by 1911 the word had made its way into the Oxford English Dictionary.[3] On November 13, 1914, the newly formed US patent category for "brassieres" was inaugurated with a patent issued to Mary Phelps Jacob. In the 1930s, "brassiere" gradually came to be shortened to "bra." In the French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec, both soutien-gorge and brassière are used interchangeably.The claim that the brassiere was invented by a man named Otto Titzling (phonetically tit-sling)who lost a lawsuit with Phillip de Brassiere (fill up de brassiere) is an urban legend thatoriginated with the 1971 book Bust-Up: The Uplifting Tale of Otto Titzling and the Developmentof the Bra and was propagated in a song from the movie Beaches.[4] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 78
  • 80. HistoryElastic brassiere from 1907 Main article: History of brassieres During recorded history, women have used a variety of garments and devices to cover, restrain, or elevate their breasts. Brassiere or bikini-like garments are depicted on some female athletes in the 1400s BC during the Minoan civilization era. Similar functionality was achieved by both outerwear and underwear. From the 1500s (AD) onwards, the undergarments of wealthier women were dominated by the corset, which pushed the breasts upwards. In the latter part of the 1800s, clothing designers began experimenting with various alternatives to the corset, trying things like splitting the corset into multiple parts: a girdle-like restraining device for the lower torso, and devices that suspended the breasts from the shoulder for the upper torso. By the early 1900s, garments more closely resembling contemporary bras had emerged, although large-scale commercial production did not occur until the 1930s. Since then, bras have replaced corsets (although some prefer camisoles), and bramanufacture and sale has become a multi-billion-dollar industry. Over time, the emphasis on brashas largely shifted from functionality to fashion.[5][6]In China during the Ming dynasty a form of foundation cloth complete with cups and strapsdrawn over shoulders and tied to the girth seam at the lower back called a dudou was in vogueamong the rich women. [7] While they first arose in the Ming Dynasty, were also common in theQing Dynasty (1644-1911). In English they are known as "stomach protectors" or "tummycovers."[8]Construction and fitA brassiere usually consists of two cups for breasts, a centre panel (gore), a band running aroundthe torso under the bust, and a shoulder strap for each side. Brassieres are typically made of afabric, such as cotton or polyester. Spandex and lace are also often used for various parts of thebra. The cups for the breasts may be supported by underwires made of metal sometimes coated inplastic. The bra is usually fastened with a hook fastener on the band, typically at the back. Insome bras the fastener is in the front, between the cups. Others are pulled on over the head andhave no fasteners at all.Some bras contain padding, designed either to increase comfort, to conceal the nipples, or tomake the breasts appear larger. Breast pads, commonly known as "falsies," "cookies" or "chickenfillets," are sometimes worn between the breasts and the bra to create the illusion of a larger cupsize. Push-up bras in particular are designed to enhance the cleavage and use padding and the cutof the pattern to achieve this effect.FittingThe backstrap (underband) and cups should provide most of the support, rather than the shoulderstraps, which are responsible for a number of health problems (see Mechanical principles,below). • When viewed from the side, the underband that runs around the body should be horizontal, should not ride up the back, and should be firm but comfortable. • The underwires at the front should lie flat against the sternum (not the breast), along the infra-mammary fold, and should not dig in to the chest or the breasts, rub or poke out at the front. • The breasts should be enclosed by the cups and there should be a smooth line where the fabric at the top of the cup ends. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 79
  • 81. • There should not be a ridge or any bulging over the top or sides of the cups, even with a low-cut style such as the balconette bra.[9][10]Mechanical principlesThe average breast weighs about 0.5 kg (~1 lb),[11][12]. One of the principal functions of a bra is toelevate and "support" the breasts, that is, to raise them from their normal position lying againstthe chest wall. This is considered the defining characteristic of the bra: supporting the weightfrom the back and shoulders, as opposed to lift solely from below (as corsets do).[1] Over-relianceon the shoulder straps for support can lead to poor posture, back pain and neck pain due topinched nerves. In a well fitted bra, 80% of the breast weight is supported by the chest band,something which is particularly important for larger breasts.[10]The major engineering weakness of the bra, particularly if poorly fitted, is that it acts as a pulley,transferring the weight of the breasts from the lower chest wall to higher structures such as theback, shoulder, neck, and head. This can result in pain and injury in those structures, especiallyfor women with pendulous breasts.[13]Size and measurementThe comfort and function of any given bra is highly dependent on the correct size and fit. A largerange of sizes are available to cater to the wide variety in the size of womens breasts and bodies.Bra sizes typically vary in two ways: the volume of the cups that fit over the breast, and thelength of the back strap that goes around the body. It is essential that the bra fit correctly in bothof these dimensions. There is typically some ability to adjust the band size, since bras usuallyhave three or four alternative sets of fastening hooks. The shoulder straps of a bra are also almostalways adjustable. The size of womens breasts is often expressed in terms of her usual bra size.Measurement systemsAlthough all bras are labeled by size, many women find that the only way to obtain a bra that fitsproperly and achieves the effect they want is by trying a bra on with each bra type, model andbrand.There are several methods which may be used to provide an approximate size by takingmeasurements.[14] However, bra sizing systems differ widely between countries, betweenmanufacturers, and between brands and designs, which can create many problems. Manyresearchers have demonstrated that these problems arise because fit requires knowing the breastvolume, not the body circumference (the distance around the body), which is what is actuallymeasured. Although bra sizing uses the circumference to estimate the volume, this has beenshown to be highly unreliable.[5]The size of a bra is commonly described by two values. The first is the band size (underband), anumber based on the circumference of the chest under the bust, excluding the breasts. The secondis the cup size given by a letter of the alphabet, and relating to the volume of the breaststhemselves. For example, a 75D/30D bra has a 75cm/30in-size band and a D-size cup. Cup sizestypically start with AA, the smallest, and increase alphabetically. Double or triple letteringsystems are also used, e.g. DDD for F or AA for a size smaller than A.To provide women with better fitting bras, manufacturer Playtex recently introduced a range ofhalf-sizes between cup sizes A and D. These half sizes are denoted by fractions, so that Playtexnow provides bras in A, A½, B, B½, C, C½, and D cups. Another manufacturer, Faveo, makesbackless and strapless bras and therefore only uses the backsize and cupsize as a reference. Theyare the only manufacturers that use a measurement system based on the actual volume of breasttissue. This has then been converted back into regular bra sizes to be able to choose ones size.Band size is usually determined by measuring body circumference under the breasts as tight aspossible. A second measurement is a loose fit taken of the chest circumference over the fullestpart of the breasts (overbust). The cup size can then be calculated with tables or a conversion toolfrom the difference between these two measurements.The mean underband circumference in the UK is 86 cm (34in). For the overbust measurement,this is 100cm (40in), for women 18–64 years.[15] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 80
  • 82. Fitting difficultiesWomen often find it difficult to find the correct bra size. To achieve perfect sizing consistently, abra would have to be custom made, because a "one-size-fits-all" manufacturing process is fraughtwith difficulties. Breasts vary in the position on the chest, and in their diameters.A number of stores have certified professional bra-fitters specialists. However, even bra fittershave been shown to be quite variable in their recommendations.[14][6]A 2004 study by Which? found that 80% of department store bra fittings resulted in a poorfit.[16][17] Buying "off-the-shelf" or "online" bras is unwise if the buyer has never tried on the brand and type of bra that they are interested in buying. Some bra manufacturers and distributors state that trying on and learning to recognize a proper fit is the best way to determine a correct bra size, much the same as with shoes. Some critics observe that measuring systems such as the one described above often lead to an incorrect size, most commonly too small in the cup, and too large in the band. For anyone, especially cup sizes larger than a D, one should get a professional bra fitting from the lingerie department of a clothing store or a specialty lingerie store.[18] Some women intentionally buy larger cups and pad them, while yet others buy smaller cups to give the appearance of being "full". Finally, the elastic properties of the bandmake band size highly unreliable, and in one study the label size was consistently different fromthe measured size.[19][14]Fashion and image drive the bra market, and these factors often takeprecedence over comfort and function.[20][21]As already noted, there is no agreed standard across all manufacturers for measuring andspecifying bra size. Obtaining the correct size is further complicated by the fact that the size andshape of a womans breasts fluctuate during her menstrual cycle, [22]and also with weight gain orloss. Even breathing can substantially alter the measurements.[21] It is frequently stated, from theresults of surveys and studies in many different countries, that between 70 and 100% of womenwear incorrectly fitted bras.[23][24][25][26][27][28] [22]Larger breasted women tend to wear bras that are too small, and smaller breasted women, onesthat are too large. Larger women are more likely to have an incorrect bra fit.[22] This may bepartly due to a lack of understanding of how to correctly determine bra size; it may also be due tounusual or unexpectedly rapid growth in size brought on by pregnancy, weight gain, or medicalconditions including virginal breast hypertrophy.As breasts become larger, their shape and the distribution of the tissues within them changes,becoming ptotic and bulbous rather than conical. This makes measurements increasinglyunreliable, especially for large breasts. Similarly the heavier a build the woman has, the moreinaccurate the underbust measurement as the tape sinks into the flesh more easily.[14]Finally, most women are asymmetrical (10% severely), with the left breast being larger in 62%,especially when the breasts are large. [29] Many of the health problems associated with bras are due to fitting problems and are discussed further below, under health problems. However, finding a comfortable fit is described as very difficult by many women, which has affected sales. [5][1][30] Medical studies have also attested to the difficulty of getting a correct fit.[21]Scientific studies show that the current system of bra sizing is quite inadequate.[31] Types of bra Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 81
  • 83. A plunge, push-up bra Main article: brassiere designsWomen may now choose from wide range of brassiere styles to match different body types,situations, and outer garments. The degree of shaping and coverage of the breasts varies betweenstyles, as do functionality, fashion, fabric, and colour.Therapeutic role of the braCountering the aging process See also: Breast Anatomically, the breasts are non- rigid areas of glandular tissue, with few support structures, such as connective tissue. Breasts are composed of the mammary glands, which remain relatively constant throughout life, as well as the adipose tissue or fat tissue that surrounds the mammary glands. It is the amount and distribution of adipose tissue and, to a lesser extent, glandular tissue that leads to variations in breast size. In addition,the breasts contain internal ligaments, although their exact function as related to breast support iscontroversial. These ligaments, and the overlying skin (referred to as the dermal brassiere)[32]help determine the resulting breast shape.As the breasts mature, they fold over the lower attachment to the chest wall (infra-mammaryfold), and their lower (inferior) surface lies against the chest wall when vertical. In popularculture, this maturation is referred to as "sagging" or "drooping", although plastic surgeons referto it as ptosis, and recommend mastopexy (breast lift) for correction.[33][34]Although the exact mechanisms that determine breast shape and size remain largely unknown,[35]it has long been claimed that this occurs because the normal anatomical support is inadequate,especially in older women and those with larger breasts. Hence the bra is often proposed as ameans of providing artificial support, based on the presumption that the breasts cannot supportthemselves.[36] Health professionals have, however, found no evidence to suggest that the brachanges the natural process of aging of the breasts.[37] Bra manufacturers have also stated thatbras only affect the shape of breasts while they are being worn.[38]"There is no medical reason to wear a bra. ... The decision is yours, based on your own personalcomfort and aesthetics. And even though, as little girls, we were told that bras save us fromhanging breasts, ... whether you have always worn a bra or always gone bra-less, age andbreastfeeding will naturally cause your breasts to sag." Dr. Niels Lauersen[39]"Breasts were fine before the invention of the brassiere. ... This is similar to the myth that womensupposedly need corsets to support their stomach muscles...wearing a bra...has no medicalnecessity whatsoever. ... Except for the women who find bras especially comfortable oruncomfortable, the decision to wear or not wear one is purely aesthetic — or emotional ... If youdont enjoy it, and job or social pressures dont force you into it, dont bother. ... A mistakenpopular belief maintains that wearing a bra strengthens your breasts and prevents their eventualsagging. But you sag because of the proportion of fat and tissue in your breasts, and no brachanges that. ... If you dont like wearing a bra, dont wear one." Dr Susan Love[40] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 82
  • 84. Indeed, there are indications that wearing a bra may have an effect opposite to that which wasintended. In a Japanese study, 11 women were measured wearing a standardised fitted bra for three months. They found that breasts became larger and lower, with the underbust measurement decreasing and the overbust increasing, while the lowest point of the breast moved downwards and outwards. The effect was more pronounced in larger-breasted women. This may be related to the particular bra chosen for the experiment. There was some improvement after changing to a different model.[41] These findings were confirmed in a much larger French study of 250 women who exercised regularly and were followed by questionnaires andbiometric measurements for a year after agreeing not to wear a bra. While there was some initialdiscomfort at the first evaluation, this gradually disappeared and by the end of the year nearly allthe women had improved comfort compared to before the study. The measurements showedfirmer, and more elevated and youthful breasts. One example of a woman who had breasts thatwere uncomfortably large, and who had improvement after two years of being without a bra isgiven.[42][43]While some may dispute the reasons why breasts change in shape with age and argue overwhether or not the process can be delayed or reversed by wearing a bra, it is a natural process ofbodily change. Health ethicists are concerned that plastic surgery and implants have altered ourconcept of what is "normal" and medicalised womens bodies by making a normal process a"disease."[44]Pain relief and comfortWearing a bra can offer relief of breast pain (mastodynia, mastalgia), particularly when womenare performing strenuous physical activity or exercise. Indeed, the sports bra is an example of abra which has been specifically designed for this purpose.[45][14] An underwire bra can also helpsupport breasts and keep them from bouncing (for example, during running), which is painfulwhether the breasts are large or small. Recently the requirement for a bra during exercise at allhas been questioned following extensive studies on athletes and sportswomen.[42]In the specific case of larger breasts, the bra lifts the breasts away from the chest and can preventtwo skin surfaces from rubbing together. Without the bra, maceration (loss of skin), intertrigo(rash) and fungal infections are possible.[14]Cultural significanceFeminist commentMany feminist writers have interpreted the bra as an example of how womens clothing hasshaped and even deformed womens bodies to historically aesthetic ideals, or shaped them toconform to male expectations of what is desirable. Germaine Greer, for example, has oftendepicted bras as symbols of oppression,[46] and it was views like these, considered radical bysome, which perhaps gave rise to the urban legend of bra-burning ceremonies.[47]The bra as a fashion itemWoman in designer bra. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 83
  • 85. Breasts which have not undergone sagging, and which present a "pert" or "perky" appearance, are widely considered to be a marker of youth. Bras are therefore used, particularly within Western cultures which place great value upon youth, to promote what is considered a more desirable youthful appearance by lifting the breasts from their natural position. Furthermore, the modern bra is often more decorative than its predecessors, and therefore has become both a fashion statement and an adornment, and even an icon of sensuality. The design of bras which aim to be fashionable, rather than functional, has been driven by changing fashions in outerwear, which has often dictated what could be worn underneath. Hence its shape has evolved through flat, round, pointed, conical, to "natural". Although in popular culture the invention of the bra is frequently attributed to men, in fact women have played a large part in bra design and manufacture, accounting for half of the patents filed.[1]Social pressures and trendsThe average American woman today owns six bras, one of which is a strapless bra, and one in acolour other than white. While reliable data are hard to obtain, it is thought that in the Westernworld about 90% of women wear bras. Some women wear bras based on modesty; others becausethey believe that it is part of their cultural norm and that not wearing a bra would lead toostracism. Some wear bras because they believe it improves the appearance of their figures; stillothers because they find wearing a bra more comfortable than going without.Bras are a relatively recent invention and are by no means universally worn around the world. Ina cross-cultural study of bra size and cancer in 9,000 in the 1960s, a Harvard group found 93% ofwomen wore bras (from 88% in the UK to 99% in Greece), but could not find enough women inJapan with bras to complete their study.[48] In a number of cultures, women are quite comfortableto sunbathe or swim without any external support.The prevalence of the bra, and perceived social expectation to wear one, does not imply thatopenly displaying it is encouraged. On the contrary, it is often not considered suitable to exposeones brassiere in public in western cultures, even partially, despite the fact that it is similar inappearance to the upper part of a bikini; to do so may be considered sexually provocative.However more young people are doing so, and bra straps are a common sight. Occasionally theymay wear a bra as outerwear. An attractive bra can be considered partly as an accessory, just as acamisole might; more women, particularly in Eastern Europe, are now wearing translucent topswhich reveal the underlying bra.Even considering this relative cultural taboo, being seen in ones bra is still more sociallyacceptable than exposing the bare breasts, except at the beach. Indeed, women may choose to beseen in just a bra to make a specific point. For instance, bras have recently been used byorganisations like breast cancer charities to raise money, either by sponsored walks[49] or to sellbras owned or decorated by celebrities.An increasing number of women and health professionals[50][51] are challenging the traditionalvalues that suggest that that bras are either medically necessary or required socially and areadopting bralessness (also known as topfreedom, or breast freedom).[52][53] One survey found that20% of women over 50 were not wearing bras (Farell-Beck and Gau p.171).[1]Some men also choose to wear bras. This may because they have large breasts due to a conditionknown as gynecomastia or simply obesity. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 84
  • 86. Many entertainers, actresses and members of the fashion industry have chosen not to wear bras.Susan Stranks who presented the Thames TV childrens programme, Magpie between 1968 and1974 chose not to wear a bra, even on camera. Another well known woman who regularlyappears braless on TV is the presenter of BBC Gardenings Ground Force, Charlie Dimmock.[54]Health problems Many of the statements about the benefits of bras are actually situations where they can make things worse, because the vast majority of women wear bras that are ill-fitting. For instance, rather than keeping the breasts away from the chest wall, bras that are too tight can actually compress them against the chest even further. This also pulls the upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae (spine) forward and down, interfering with back, shoulder and chest movement.[14] Others believe that wearing a bra can actually increase the downward movement of the breasts with age, because the chest (pectoralis) muscles that support breasts are used less and atrophy from lack of use.[39] As they did with corsets, health professionals have also had concerns about the constricting effects of brassieres, although this variesconsiderably with design and the relative size of the bra and the breast. While at least sports brasdo not usually cause any significant impairment in respiration,[55] some bras may put pressure onnerves.[56][57]MastalgiaUse of a properly fitting bra is regularly recommended for reduction of mastalgia (breast pain)from exercise or other activities which cause the breasts to bounce, or for pain related tofibrocystic breast disease.[58][59] A trial comparing the effectiveness of danazole versus use of a sports bra for treatment of mastalgia found the sports bra to be much more effective, and avoided the side effects experienced by 42% of those taking danazole.[60] Sports bras were also found most effective at reducing mastalgia caused by exercise.[61] Shoulder pain When the shoulder straps transfer most of the weight of the breast, a deep groove can be seen over the shoulder.[62][5] Use of thin straps, such as spaghetti straps, can exert pressure on the trapeziusmuscle, resulting in temporary symptoms such as neck and shoulder pain; numbness and tinglingin the arm; and headaches.[63]This seems more common in women whose activities require them to lift their arms above theshoulders. In a study of 100 women with painful shoulders, they were asked to not wear their brasfor two weeks, by which time their symptoms had improved but returned within an hour ofreplacing the bra. 84% did not elevate their arms, and in these symptom relief was complete.Three years later, 79% of the women were still bra free; the remainder preferred pain to notwearing a bra. 16% worked in occupations requiring elevating their arms, and only achievedpartial improvement. 13 of the 16 decided to become bra-free, and by six months all werecured.[64] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 85
  • 87. Back pain Back pain is particularly common among large-breasted women who wear bras offering insufficient support. In extreme cases, such discomfort can lead to a woman seeking breast reduction surgery. However, the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Hospital found after consulting bra fitting experts from large cup size specialists Bravissimo, that 100% of patients referred for breast reduction surgery had been wearing the wrong size bra, "overestimating the width of their back and underestimating cup size. This results in the weight of the breasts being carried by the shoulders rather than supported around the chest, and contributes to back pain." [65] Bra size Based on their research, many physicians believe that bra size is meaningless, when breast volumes are calculated accurately. "The current popular system of determining bra size is inaccurate so often as to be useless. Add to this the many different styles of bras and the lack of standardization between brands, and one can see why finding a comfortable, well-fitting bra is more a matter of educated guesswork, trial, and error than of precise measurements."[19][66] See alsoWikimedia Commons has media related to:BrassiereLook up Brassiere in Wiktionary, the freedictionary. • Bikini • Brassiere measurements • Bustier • Corset • Brassiere designs • History of brassieres • Lingerie • Male bra • Mammary gland • Undergarment • Victorian dress reform • Wonderbra • La Brassiere (2001), a comedy about the design of the "ultimate brassiere" • Dressed to Kill (book)References 1. ^ a b c d e f Uplift: The Bra in America. Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002 xvi, 243 pp. ISBN 0-8122-3643-2. 2. ^ Evening Herald (Syracuse) March 1893. “Still of course the short waisted gowns mean short waisted corsets and those ladies who wish to be in the real absolute fashion are adopting for evening wear the six inch straight boned band or brassiere which Sarah Bernhardt made a necessity with her directoire gowns.” Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 86
  • 88. 3. ^ Michael Quinion: World Wide Words4. ^ Brassiere (origin of name) Urban Legends5. ^ a b c d Jessica Seigel. Bent out of shape: Why is it so hard to find the perfect bra? Lifetime Magazine May/June 20036. ^ a b Choice: Buying a bra. 20057. ^ Oriental Clothing and Modern Fetishism, various authors, ed. Partho Shanner, 1996, Yeti, Hong Kong.8. ^ ^ Bravissimo - The Perfect Fit: a b10. ^ Fitting Room: ^ Victor L. Katch, Barbara Campaigne, Patty Freedson, Stanley Sady, Frank I. Katch, Albert R. Behnke. Contribution of breast volume and weight to body fat distribution in females. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Vol 53 198012. ^ Breasts - Ten Facts You May Not Know About13. ^ Tyrer, John. cited in Seigel 2003 q.v.14. ^ a b c d e f g Greenbaum AR, Heslop T, Morris J, Dunn KW. An investigation of the suitability of bra fit in women referred for reduction mammaplasty. Br J Plast Surg. 2003 Apr;56(3):230-615. ^ L. Peebles and B. Norris. Adult data: the handbook of adult anthropometric and strength measurements, Department of Trade and Industry, London (1998).16. ^ Which? Report - Bra fitting services, published 01/09/200417. ^ Which? - Not enough support from bra fitting services: support_from_bra_fitting_services_571_56093.jsp18. ^ King, Stephanie A short history of lingerie: Doreen the bra that conquered the world The Independent June 2 2005. For comment, see Victoria Hiley Bra-burning a myth June 4. Commentary on Stephanie King A short history of lingerie June 219. ^ a b Pechter EA A new method for determining bra size and predicting postaugmentation breast size. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep;102(4):1259-6520. ^ Bras and Pants. Mintel International Group Ltd., 2001, 200521. ^ a b c McGhee DE, Steele JR. How do respiratory state and measurement method affect bra size calculations? Br J Sports Med 2006 40: 970-97422. ^ a b c Wood K, Cameron M, Fitzgerald K. Breast size, bra fit and thoracic pain in young women: a correlational study Chiropr Osteopat. 2008; 16: 1.23. ^ Playtex Fitting Guide24. ^ Boyes K. Buying the perfect bra. Good Housekeeping. August 1996 p5025. ^ Lipton B. Are you wearing the wrong size bra? Ladies Home Journal March 1996 p4626. ^ Hinds J If the bra fits, buy it. Ganett News Service May 25 199427. ^ Oprah Winfrey: Oprahs Bra and Swimsuit Intervention28. ^ Right bra could halt breast ops BBC April 11 200829. ^ Losken A., Fishman I., Denson D., Moyer H., Carlson, G. An Objective Evaluation of Breast Symmetry and Shape Differences Using 3-Dimensional Images Annals of Plastic Surgery Volume 55(6), December 2005, pp 571-530. ^ Phillips, Jeanne. (Van Buren, Abigail) Dear Abby: Women tired of shouldering burden of bad bra design. May 11 2004.31. ^ Rong Zhenga, Winnie Yu, Jintu Fan. Development of a new chinese bra sizing system based on breast anthropometric measurements. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics Volume 37, Issue 8, August 2007, Pages 697-70532. ^ Female Intelligence Agency: Basic breast anatomy33. ^ emedicine: mastopexy Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 87
  • 89. 34. ^ Dr. R. Scott Smith. Fuller Breasts: A Womans Guide to Breast Augmentation35. ^ Page K.A., Steele J.R. Breast motion and sports brassiere design. Implications for future research. Sports Med. 1999 Apr;27(4):205-11.36. ^ Female Intelligence Agency: Why do women wear bras?37. ^ Female Intelligence Agency: What causes sagging of breasts?38. ^ Bras, the bare facts 2000 vid. inf.39. ^ a b The Complete Book of Breast Care. 447 pages Fawcett; 1st edition October 1, 1996. ISBN 0-449-90903-440. ^ Susan Love, Karen Lindsey, Marcia Williams. Dr. Susan Loves Breast Book. Paperback: 632 pages. HarperCollins Publishers; 3rd rev edition (September 20, 2000) ISBN 073820235541. ^ K Ashizawa Breast form changes resulting from a certain brassiere Journal of Human Ergology, June 1990 19(1): 53-6242. ^ a b Le soutien-gorge en question43. ^ Le port du soutien-gorge déconseillé par un médecin bisontin44. ^ Meredith Schwartz: Choice and Autonomy - Ethical issues in womens health. Case study: breast implants45. ^ Hadi MS. Sports Brassiere: Is It a Solution for Mastalgia? Breast J. 2000 Nov;6(6):407- 40946. ^ Kleinfelter, Rebecca. Burning the bra: Feminist pop culture revisited. Womens Studies, University of Alberta November 200547. ^ ^ Hsieh CC, Trichopoulos D. Breast size, handedness and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer. 1991;27(2):131-5.49. ^ BBC News 19 June, 2005: Bra walkers tackle night marathon.50. ^ Dr Elizabeth Vaughan, M.D. Brafree.org51. ^ Dr. Robert Mansel. Bras, the bare facts. Channel 4 vid. inf.52. ^ Dickinson, Amy. Its a wonder why women still wear bras. Chicago Tribune October 27, 200653. ^ The Breast Site: Going Braless54. ^ BBC Gardening Presenter Biographies: Charlie Dimmock55. ^ Bowles, K.A.; Steele JR, Chaunchaiyakul R.. "Do current sports brassiere designs impede respiratory function?". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Sep (37(9)): 1633–40. PMID 16177619. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.56. ^ Miyatsuji, A.; Matsumoto T, Mitarai S, Kotabe T, Takeshima T, Watanuki S.. "Effects of clothing pressure caused by different types of brassieres on autonomic nervous system activity evaluated by heart rate variability power spectral analysis.". J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2002 Jan (21(1)): 67–74. PMID 11938611. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.57. ^ Lee, Y.A.; Kikufuji N, Tokura H.. "Field studies on inhibitory influence of skin pressure exerted by a body compensatory brassiere on the amount of feces.". J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2000 Jul (19(4)): 191–4. PMID 11037693.58. ^ Norlock, FE.. "Benign breast pain in women: a practical approach to evaluation and treatment.". J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2002 Spring (57(2)): 85–90.. PMID 11991427. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.59. ^ Tserotas, K.; Morán Villota C.. "Fibrocystic disorders of the breast". Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1998 Sep (66): 362–6.. PMID 9789408. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.60. ^ Hadi, M.S.. "Sports Brassiere: Is It a Solution for Mastalgia?". Breast J. 2000 Nov (6(6)): 407–409.. PMID 11348400. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.61. ^ Mason, B.R.; Page KA, Fallon K.. "An analysis of movement and discomfort of the female breast during exercise and the effects of breast support in three cases.". J Sci Med Sport. 1999 Jun (2(2)): 134–44. PMID 10476977. Retrieved on 2007-07-14. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 88
  • 90. 62. ^ Dr Simon Cawthorne. Bras, the bare facts. Channel 4 2000 vid. inf. 63. ^ Dr. Karen Kowalske. Bra Straps Health Watch. Office of News and Publications & the Library at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas August 2006 64. ^ Ryan E. Pectoral Girdle Myalgia in Women: A 5-year Study in a Clinical Setting Clinical Journal of Pain 16(4) December 2000, pp298-303 65. ^ Bravissimo sizes up staff - Royal Free Hampstead: 66. ^ Ringberg A., Bageman E., Rose C., Ingvar C., Jernstrom H. Of cup and bra size: Reply to a prospective study of breast size and premenopausal breast cancer incidence. Int J Cancer. 2006 Jul 13Patents • US PAT No. 2,433 — 1859 Combined breast pads and arm-pit shield • US PAT No. 844,242 — 1907 Bust supporter • US PAT No. 1,115,674 — 1914 Jacobs BrassiereOther sourcesBooks • Yu W., Fan J T., Ng S P and Harlock S C, Innovation and Technology of Women’s Intimate Apparel, Woodhead Publishing Limited, August 2006, ISBN-13: 978 1 85573 745 7. • Ewing, Elizabeth and Webber, Jean. Fashion in Underwear (Paperback) Batsford 1971 ISBN 0-7134-0857-X • Farrell-Beck, Jane and Gau, Colleen. Uplift: The Bra in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002 xvi, 243 pp. $35.00, ISBN 0-8122-3643-2. (for reviews, see next section) • Greer, Germaine. The Female Eunuch (1970). 2002 edition Farrar Straus Giroux ISBN 0- 374-52762-8 • Love, Susan; Lindsey, Karen; Williams, Marcia. Dr. Susan Loves Breast Book. Paperback: 632 pages. HarperCollins 3rd Rev edition (September 20, 2000) ISBN 0- 7382-0235-5 • Pedersen, Stephanie. Bra: A Thousand Years Of Style, Support & Seduction. Hardcover: 127 pages. David & Charles Publishers (November 30, 2004). ISBN 0-7153-2067-X • Steele, Valerie. The Corset: A Cultural History Paperback: 208 pages Yale University Press (February 8, 2003) ISBN 0-300-09953-3 • Stoppard, Miriam. The Breast Book. 224 pages DK ADULT 1st American edition April 4, 1996 ISBN 0-7894-0420-6 • Summers, Leigh. Bound to Please: A history of the Victorian corset. Berg Publishers (October 1, 2003) ISBN 1-85973-510-X • Warner LC. Always starting things. Warner Brothers, Bridgeport, Connecticut 1948Book reviewsFarrell-Beck and Gau. Uplift • Fischer, Gayle V. Journal of American History; 2003; Mar 89(4): 1539-40 • Murphy, Michael. Winterthur Portfolio; 2003 38(2/3): 151-9Journal articles • Steele, Valerie. Le Corset: A Material Culture Analysis of a Deluxe French Book. The Yale Journal of Criticism - Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1998, pp. 29-3 • Freeman S.K. In Style: Femininity and Fashion since the Victorian Era. Journal of Womens History; 2004; 16(4): 191-206 • Casselman A. The physics of bras. Discover November 22 2005Research papers • Kim Lovel, Chad Seastrunk, Timothy Clapp. The Application of TRIZ to Technology Forecasting. A Case Study: Brassiere Strap Technology. January 9 2006. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 89
  • 91. Documentaries • Bras, the Bare Facts. Channel 4 (UK), November 2000Relevant articles • Seigel, Jessica. The Cups Runneth Over. NY Times February 13, 2004 • Intelligent bra battles bounce. 10 December 2007WonderbraFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search A Canadian WonderBra branded plunge, push-up bra - c. 1975 The Wonderbra is a type of push-up brassiere that gained worldwide prominence in the 1990s. Although the Wonderbra name was first trademarked in the U.S. in 1935,[1] the brand was developed in Canada. Moses (Moe) Nadler, founder and majority owner of the Canadian Lady Corset Company, licensed the trademark for the Canadian market in 1939. By the 1960s the Canadian Lady brand had become known in Canada as "Wonderbra, the company." In 1961 the company introduced the Model 1300 plunge push-up bra. This bra became one of the best-selling Canadian styles and is virtually identical to todays Wonderbra. In 1968 Canadian Lady changed its name to Canadian Lady-Canadelle Inc., was sold to Consolidated Foods (now Sara Lee Corporation), and later became Canadelle Inc. During the 1970s Wonderbra was repositioned as thecompanys fashionable and sexybrand, and became the Canadianmarket leader.[2]In 1991 the push-up Wonderbrabecame a sensation in the UK,although it had been sold there since1964 under license by the Gossarddivision of Courtaulds Textiles. SaraLee Corporation did not renewGossards license and redesigned thepush-up style for the reintroduction ofthe Wonderbra to the U.S. market in1994.[3]Since 1994, the Wonderbra hasexpanded from the single push-updesign into a full-range lingeriefashion label in most of the world. Inmost countries, the brand emphasizessex-appeal. In its native Canada, the Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 90
  • 92. brand however promotes the functional qualities of its products—a departure from the strategythat made Wonderbra the top-seller in the 1970s.[4]Contents • 1 Original "Wonder-Bra" design • 2 History o 2.1 Development of the push-up bra o 2.2 Canadian product, 1964 to 1980 o 2.3 Brand development o 2.4 Popularity in Canada • 3 Worldwide reintroduction, 1991 to 1994 • 4 Recent developments • 5 See also • 6 References • 7 Footnotes • 8 External linksOriginal "Wonder-Bra" designBefore the Second World War broke out, elastic materials were rationed and unavailable forclothing. Israel Pilot designed an improved cup with a diagonal slash, shoulder strap attachment.This innovation on existing bra design provided more comfort and freedom of movement for thewearer.[5] He also coined the name "Wonder-Bra" in 1935.[6]Israel Pilots US patent 2245413, granted in 1941, allowed for greater shoulder strap elasticity bycutting the fabric so that the weave has the greatest stretch (cutting on the "bias"). Thephotographs show the original patent sketches and close-ups of a bra made in the U.S. byD’Amour. The model is wearing a rare 1950s version of this original Wonder-Bra design.Original 1941 Patent 1950 "Wonder-Bra" Diagonal Slash / Label Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 91
  • 93. HistoryCanadian Lady Logo - c. 1964In 1939, Moe Nadler founded the Canadian Lady Corset Company. He created a small sewingshop in the heart of Montreal to make a well fitting, good quality bra in the mid-priced range(from $1.00 to $1.50 retail). As part of this effort, he traveled to New York City and met with Israel Pilot and licensed the Wonder-Bra trademark and [6] diagonal slash patent. In Canada, the trademark lost the hyphen, and became "WonderBra," and "Wonderbra" at the U.S. reintroduction. During the wartime years, Canadian apparel manufacturers were subject to quotas on materials. Elastics were unavailable, affecting the comfort and design of womens underwear. The diagonal slash offered a better fitting brassiere without elastics, and became a competitiveadvantage.[6]From 1939 to 1955, Canadian Lady marketed several lines of intimate apparel including girdles,panties, slips, swimsuits, and brassieres under the Wonderbra brand. The Company also createdsub-brands to target different socioeconomic and lifestyle segments of the consumer market. Incontrast, the U.S. market for Wonder-Bra stagnated while the brand was owned by Israel Pilot’scompanies. In 1952, Canadian Lady launched Petal Burst with anticipation of tough negotiationswith DAmour—Israel Pilots U.S. company—around the expiration of the patent in 1955.This new line also adapted to a new fashiontrend towards a pointed bust, inspired byChristian Diors " New Look". The PetalBurst by Wonderbra line was successful anddelivered 50% of bra sales by 1957.[7]The post-patent negotiations were led by MoeNadler. DAmour no longer had leverage witha patent, but still demanded that CanadianLady stop using the designs, and return thepattern templates. Moe Nadler ignored thisdemand and instead successfully acquired theCanadian, European, and Asian rights to theWonderbra trademarks. This allowed thecompany to move forward into the 1960s with Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 92
  • 94. the brand intact. By the mid 1960s Canadian Lady was exporting and licensing the Wonderbraline to Western Europe, Australia, South Africa, Israel and the West Indies.[8] In the 1970s,Canadelle acquired the remaining worldwide rights to the trademark, and licensed Giltex (aCanadian pantyhose manufacturer acquired by Sara Lee in the 1980s) to use the Wonderbra brandon hosiery in Canada.Development of the push-up braIn the late 1950s Moe Nadler started traveling to Europe to find new styles to bring to theCanadian market. In 1960, Wonderbra introduced a lacy, half push-up bra described in Europe asPigeonnant (meaning "pigeon-breasted" in French). In 1961 Nadler directed Louise Poirier todevelop a deeply plunged, laced push-up design, numbered the 1300. Canadian Lady licensedthese models, among others, to Gossard in 1964. It was this Wonderbra Model 1300 design thatbecame first a UK success in the early 1990s, a European sensation in 1993, and then the "Oneand Only Wonderbra" that was finally launched in the U.S. in 1994.[9]Canadian product, 1964 to 1980Source: Canadian government industry statistics. N.B., during the period sales figures werecompiled by Industry Canada, panties were considered "lingerie," rather than so-called"foundation undergarments" and are not part of this data set.In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the majority of women were still wearing highly-structuredundergarments.[10] Girdles were considered the ladylike norm and represented close to 40% ofindustry sales by volume. The 1960s also brought to Canadian Lady the challenges of feminism,fashions and the sexual revolution. The feminist movement—cultured by thought leaders likeBetty Friedan and Germaine Greer—questioned the mores that defined women’s roles andappearance. Changes in fashion trends, such as pantyhose and the rise of the miniskirt, renderedthe girdle unattractive and obsolete to a generation of women.[11] While the intimate apparelindustry fretted about bra-burning as a precursor to the decline of all foundation garment sales,women reserved their animosity for their girdles. The Canadian sales data for foundationundergarments, from 1960 to 1971, vividly demonstrates the shift in tastes.It was against this backdrop that the Canadian Lady Corset Company had to act. In 1964, MoeNadler died and his son, Larry Nadler inherited control of the company.[12] Larry Nadler was aHarvard-trained MBA and brought modern marketing strategies to the industry.[13] Hecommissioned market research that identified womens feelings about intimate apparel. Womendid not hate their bras. Rather, they saw bras as a means to feel and look beautiful, to befashionable and sexy, and to attract men. While women sometimes went bra-less, they weremaking a fashion choice and not a political statement. Canadian Ladys management knew thatgirdles were out, but bras would remain an essential part of womens wardrobes. So during the Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 93
  • 95. 1960s, while competitors were cutting back on their bra marketing and diversifying into otherproducts, Canadian Lady aggressively pursued bra market share.[14]Later, Larry Nadler identified an age based bifurcation in the market. Younger women (aged 15to 20) regarded their bras as an enhancement to their sexuality but were not interested in a heavilystructured garment.[15] Nadler learned that women wanted "less bra," not "no bra."[14] In 1974,they introduced a new line of brassieres for teens called Dici (by Wonderbra), and invented newhot fabric molding technologies to shape the cup.[16] These bras were seamless and simplydesigned with less support than the typical bra of the period. The company designed specialpackaging in the shape of a die (with holes).[17]Brand development In 1966, Canadian Lady made several important changes to their advertising strategy. They introduced television advertising and changed the emphasis from the product to the brand. Ads attempted to build consumer awareness of the single brand name: Wonderbra. Market research showed that women did not want girdles advertised on television—girdles were seen as armor against sex, while bras provided a means of attraction.[18] Our Montreal office got the Wonderbra account. This was a Canadian company which held down the Number Two position in womens garmentwear. One of our copywriters came up with the line: "We care about the shape youre in." Larry Nadler, who headed the family business, was a risk-taker. He loved the line and so did we. We had it set to music and prepared a television campaign around it. The CBC turnedit down, not because of the line, but because we had the audacity to show a woman in a bra. CTVhad no such qualms, which proves how arbitrary the world can be. Eventually, the CBC recantedand ran the campaign. .... The result of the campaign—not just in TV, but other media as well—moved Wonderbra into a solid, first-place position in its field.[19]- Gerry Goodis, former CEO, Goodis AdvertisingScreenshot of Wonderbra TV Ad - c. 1975[20]Dici Packaging / Logo designed by Vance Jonson –c. 1974Instead of being hidden “unmentionables,” Wonderbras became more visible icons of female sex-appeal. The company also used pricing to promote Wonderbra as a luxury product with thehighest price of any mass-merchandised brand. This strategy also provided greater profits in avery competitive industry. The goal was to have women see their Wonderbras as a cosmetic—a Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 94
  • 96. beauty enhancer—rather than a functional garment. Playtex, the leading brand at the time,promoted the ease of care and durability of their girdles and brassieres.Beginning in 1967, the advertising focused exclusively on Wonderbra brand brassieres.[18] In1968, Nadler hired Goodis Advertising to develop the new campaign. The Wonderbra ads werebased on fashion and emotional appeal. In various ads, the man would appear as fashionphotographer (in a fashion shoot) or fashion buyer (at a fashion show).[21] The storyline suggestedan attraction or budding romance between the man and the women. The voice-over and jinglefeatured a mans voice and the commercial showed an actual womans torso naked except for abra. All other television ads before this era showed brassieres on a manikin or a dressmakersdummy to promote the functional features of the product. Every Wonderbra advertisementcontained versions of the musical theme, "We care about the shape youre in. Wonderful,wonderful, Wonderbra".[22] The 1979 television campaign included a commercial directed byRichard Avedon which won a Silver award for television advertisements shown in Canada.[23]The Dici by Wonderbra television advertisements started in 1974.[24] The brand was positionedto young women as a more natural alternative to the heavily-structured bras worn by theirmothers. The animated ads featured the iconic die-shaped packaging. A bra exited the box like abird, then metamorphosed into a seagull and flew away. The tagline reinforced a spirit of freedomand nature: "Let it be Dici. Dici or nothing."Popularity in CanadaFrom 1972 to 1977, the company doubled its wholesale revenue from $12.6 million to $24.9million.[2] By 1979 Canadelle dominated with 30% of the Canadian market and $27 million insales. Playtex (later acquired by Sara Lee) was second.[25] By 1980, Wonderbras sales were over$30 million wholesale ($76 million in 2006 dollars) in a country with only 10.3 million womenand girls older than 13.[26] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 95
  • 97. Worldwide reintroduction, 1991 to 1994"Ive got a couple of those Gossard Wonderbras. They are so brilliant, I swear, even I getcleavage with them."[27]- Kate Moss, 1994, New York Times MagazineAround 1991, Gossard was selling the Wonderbra lines under licenses that were to expire inJanuary 1994. At the time, the plunge style was a good seller in the UK market. Gossard plannedto renew their license and had an option to do so under the existing agreement. Instead of simplyrenewing the agreement, Gossard executives decided to negotiate better terms with Sara Lee.Soon after the negotiations started, something unexpected happened. In 1992, the plunge stylebecame a hit with British women and sales took off. Between 1991 and 1993, UK sales of thatWonderbra style quadrupled to $28 million, accounting for 12.5% of the $225 million UKbranded bra market. Several factors might have contributed to this boom including "an article inBritish Vogue on the return of the padded bra, a Vivienne Westwood-inspired fad for corsetry andthat Gaultier driven yearning for underwear as outerwear"[3]. With this surge in sales, Sara Leedecided not to renew the license with Gossard [15].In 1994 in the UK, the (Sara Lee) Wonderbra achieved a high profile for its racy Hello Boyscampaign. The most famous campaign poster presented model Eva Herzigová in a Wonderbragazing down at her breasts with the caption "Hello Boys", ambiguously addressing either maleadmirers or her breasts.[28] [29]. Urban myth attributed a number of car accidents to (male) driversbeing distracted by the advertisements [30]. The influential poster was featured in an exhibition atthe Victoria and Albert Museum in London [31] and it was voted in at number 10 in a "Poster ofthe Century" contest [32].The Playtex Division of Sara Lee was given the responsibility of introducing the "TheWonderbra" style to the United States. Although the model was already being manufactured inMontreal by Canadelle, Playtex executives decided to take a year to redesign the bra for the They scheduled a late 1994 national launch for the bra. During this period, Gossardintroduced to Americans their Ultrabra, with a design similar to the push-up Wonderbramodel.[3][27] Other competitors, including Victorias Secret Miracle Bra quickly followed whilePlaytex retooled the design.The U.S. Wonderbra rollout included events with Eva Herzigová in New Yorks Times Square.The advertisements were toned down in comparison to the earlier UK campaign.[33] The U.S.print and billboard advertising showed models wearing only the Wonderbra. Underneath readslogans such as "who cares if its a bad hair day" and "look me in the eyes and tell me that youlove me."[33] The $25 Million campaign worked in conjunction to the ongoing media interest inthe bra. Although Playtex promoted the authenticity of their "One and Only Wonderbra", therapid introduction of competitive products meant that the overall U.S. market benefited from a43% increase in push-up bra sales by the end of 1994.[33]Following the 1994 relaunch, The U.S. Wonderbra has expanded from the single push-up bradesign to a broader lingerie line. The brand remains popular around the world as a product, and apart of our cultural lexicon.[34][33]Recent developments In 2006 Sara Lee sold its intimate apparel brands. The Wonderbra trademark is the property of Canadelle Limited Partnership of Canada, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of HanesBrands Inc. HanesBrands Inc. owns the license to sell and distribute apparel products under the Wonderbra trademark in all countries except the member states of the European Union, several other European nations and South Africa; in these other markets, an affiliate of Sun Capital Partners owns the license under the Dim Branded Apparel Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 96
  • 98. group which is headquartered in Paris.[35][36]On January 3, 2007, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC-TV) broadcasted the results oftheir internet poll, in which Canadian respondents ranked the Wonderbra 5th out of the top 50"Greatest Canadian Inventions" (after Insulin, the light bulb and the telephone, but ahead of thepacemaker).[37]In a March 2008 survey of 3,000 UK women, the Wonderbra was reported as the greatest fashioninnovation in history. According to one magazine article, survey respondents were nearlyunanimous in giving push-up bras the number one position. [38]See also • History of brassieres • Wonderbra WomenReferences • Mintzberg, Henry (2007). Tracking Strategies: Towards a General Theory of Strategy Formation. New York: Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0199228507. In this update to the Wonderbra story, Prof. Mintzberg directs readers to this Wikipedia article for further information. • Mintzberg, Henry (1989). Mintzberg on Management. New York: McMillan Inc. ISBN 0029213711. • Mintzberg, Henry; James Waters (1984). Researching the Formation of Strategies: The History of Canadian Lady, 1939–1976 in R.B. Lamb (ed.) Competitive Strategic Management. New York: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131549723. • US patent 2245413, "Undergarment", granted 1941-06-10Footnotes 1. ^ "Wonderbra Trademark #612231, United States Trademark and Patent Office". Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 2. ^ a b Mintzberg (1984), p. 76. 3. ^ a b c Bowes, Elana (1993-10-11). "Playtex, Gossard gird themselves for battle of bras", Advertising Age. 4. ^ "Wonderbra Canada Website" (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 5. ^ See US patent 2245413 and Farrel-Beck, Jane (2001). Uplift: The Bra in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 120. ISBN 0812236432. 6. ^ a b c "Diagonal Slash Feature of Brassieres Design", Style - for the Canadian Womens and Childrens wear trade (1964-06-20), pp. 37. 7. ^ Mintzberg (1984), p 66. 8. ^ "Export Trade Grows", Style - for the Canadian Womens and Childrens wear trade (1964-06-20), pp. 37. 9. ^ Farrel-Beck, Jane (2001). Uplift: The Bra in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 167. ISBN 0812236432. 10. ^ Hill, Daniel Delis (2005). As Seen in Vogue: A Century of American Fashion in Advertising (Costume Society of America Series). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 153. ISBN 0896725340. 11. ^ Mintzberg (1989), p. 126. 12. ^ Thomas, Sheila (1972-12-20). "Nadler: leading corsettiere (he makes bras)", The Montreal Gazette. 13. ^ Wilson, Robert (1972-11-06). "Sales are shapely", The Montreal Star. 14. ^ a b Mintzberg (1989), p. 127. 15. ^ a b McClean, Clare (2000). "Unhooked! The two-sided yet uplifting history of the bra". Seattle Weekly. Retrieved on 2007-02-08. 16. ^ CA patent 1120229, "Apparatus for hot molding of material", granted 1982-03-23, assigned to Canadelle Inc Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 97
  • 99. 17. ^ Mintzberg (1984), p. 67. 18. ^ a b Mintzberg (1984), p. 70. 19. ^ Goodis, Gerry; Gene Okeefe (1991). Goodis: Shaking the Canadian Advertising Tree. Markham: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 163–164. ISBN 155041013X. 20. ^ See the 1975 Wonderbra advertisement 21. ^ See examples from the original 1968, and the subsequent 1969 Wonderbra television campaigns 22. ^ In an article written about her husband, Elaine Goldstein is given credit for coming up with the tagline. Arnold, Janice (2006). "Montreal Jewish lawyer named to the Senate". Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. 23. ^ See the 1979 Wonderbra advertisement directed by Richard Avedon 24. ^ See the 1974 Dici by Wonderbra advertisement 25. ^ Gray, Alan D. (1979-09-03). "Bra makers back from the brink", Financial Times of Canada. 26. ^ Antweiler, Prof. Werner (2002). "Canadian Population Pyramid: 1980". University of British Columbia. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 27. ^ a b Prager, Emily (1994-01-16). "Underwire Wars", New York Times Magazine. 28. ^ Example of Eva Herzigová Wonderbra advertisement 29. ^ ONeil, Sinead (2004-05-10). "Hello again boys!", The Sun. 30. ^ "Drivers warned over lingerie ads", The British Broadcasting Corp. (2002-12-24). Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 31. ^ "Power of the poster reveals a bigger picture", The Independent (1998-03-02). Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 32. ^ "Tory advert rated poster of the centruy", The Guardian Unlimited (1999-10-16). Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 33. ^ a b c d Moberg, Matthew et al (1999). "Sara Lee: Wonderbra". University of Michigan. Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 34. ^ Article in The Times, 1999-06-19, p.42, as quoted by Winship, Janice (2003). Winning Women? in Steven Miles, Alison Anderson, Kevin Meethan (eds.) The Changing Consumer: Markets and Meanings. London: Routledge, 25. ISBN 0415270421. 35. ^ "Sara Lee sells European branded apparel business", The Business Journal of the Greater Triad Area (2006-02-06). Retrieved on 2007-02-24. 36. ^ "Sun Capital Partners Press Release", Sun Capital Partners (2006-02-07). Retrieved on 2007-02-25. 37. ^ "The Greatest Canadian Inventions", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-02-24. 38. ^ Hart, Meghan (2008). "Wonderbra Hailed as Greatest Fashion Invention Ever". Papierdoll Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.External links • Official U.S. Wonderbra website • Official Canadian Wonderbra website • Canadian Broadcasting Corp. The Greatest Canadian Invention • 1960s - 1970s Canadian Wonderbra Television Ads • 1968 Original Wonderbra Television Ad • 1968 Wonderbra Television Ad - Fashion Shoot in Studio • 1969 Wonderbra Television Ad - Woman in bra • 1974 Dici by Wonderbra Television Ad - Teens • 1975 Wonderbra Television Ad • 1979 Wonderbra Television Ad - Directed by Richard Avedon Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 98
  • 100. Golden BraI have very small breast?i have very small breast , and my husband dont like it , i want your advise .......... ?Best Answer - Chosen by AskerHi,To make your boobs bigger . You can try natural breast enlargment methods . Details are as underBreast massage as a method of natural breast enlargement and breast health has actually beenused for years as a means of stimulating healthy breast growth and promoting breast tone,pliability and firmness. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 99
  • 101. Breast massage has been used in beauty parlors and massage parlors as a means of healthy lymphatic drainage, breast growth promotion, and as a post operative therapy for women who have undergone mastectomies, breast surgery, or other trauma to the breast area, since it helps break down scar tissues as well as stimulate healing and tissue regeneration. Here are some guidelines for breast massage you may want to follow: 1.) Use a breast enhancing cream orlubricant( olive oil) to help prevent friction and increase the enjoyment and relaxation of themassage for a more pleasurable and therapeutic experience. This can be an herbal mixture - thereare some good ones out there that really do help to promote firmess and breast tone, whilecreating a larger and more rounded look.2.) Light to moderate massaging using a gentle back and forth gentle “swishing” action is best.This can be in a counterclockwise circle around the breast to help promote maximum lymphaticdrainage.3.) To gain maximum benefit and therapeutic effects, breast massage should be practiced daily, aspart of a routine - perhaps when fresh out of the shower, since the skin is still somewhat moistand the room may still be steamy, for a smoother massage which may be more easily lubricatedsince there will still be moisture in the air. If you prefer, even several times a day can be a greatbenefit. It depends on what fits into your schedule. A few minutes at a time should suffice.Feel free to contact for more informations.Enjoy LifeDr.MojoOther Answers • He married you that way. Whats his problem? Sorry, dont change for him. Build your self-esteem, have confidence and think Penelope Cruz. • He sounds like a jerk. I also have small breasts but my boyfriend loves them and always reassures me that they are fine. Also why is he complaining now its not like he didnt know you had small breasts when he married you. • Better have small breasts than no breasts at all. Talk to him and say the truth: you feel hurt with those remarks and before you two were married your breasts were the size they are now and Im sure he didnt complained then. Your husband is being silly with such remarks and youre giving it too much importance. You must love yourself and show him that if his shortcomings are of no importance to you so yours shouldnt be to him.if he doesnt like it, hes superficial and doesnt care about who you are underneath. Lots of peoplehave smaller breasts, and having larger breasts can be seen as a hinderance rather than a help!They can be uncomfortable in the heat and when exercising. I would invest in a very nice bra thatmakes the most of your breasts, however small.That way you will feel more confident, and Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 100
  • 102. probably your husband will like it more! But, I still say that you should have words with him, ifhe doesnt like just that one part of you, then Im sure theres at least one part of him that you dontlike, to even it out. Nobodys perfect, remember that. Chin up honeyxxx • tell your husband to go jump in a lake...if thats the biggest problem you have, you are very very fortunate.It really depends on what you like.If you would like bigger ones yourself, then try a natural breast enlargement pill.These are very safe and natural.If you Dont want to yourself, just ignore him........Theres nothing wrong with it, its his promblem and hes making you feel bad when you have nocontrol over it. At least when you run you dont have your eye out lol. But really dont worry. • Dr. Mojo???? Pluzzzzzzzzzzzzz. Mine are small too (34b) but VERY sensitive. count your blessingsDo you need breast implants? The majority of American women are not happy with their breasts, and that makes the majority of women potential customers for the breast augmentation/breast implant industry. Images in the media and in the ads may be the main influence in getting women to believe their breasts are "inadequate" - but breast augmentation websites are happy to feed the fire with their usage of language. In essence they want to leave the impression that asymmetrical breasts, small breasts, sagging breasts, large areolas, small nipples, etc. are deformities - something supposedly not formed well, out of form - or instances where the breast didnt "fully develop" or is "underdeveloped".By classifying many of these normal variations in breast shape as breast deformity, the surgeonscan then be ready to "correct" these "problems" and "deformities" and "lack of development".Shouldnt we rather classify breast development in terms of milk ducts and the milk producingcells - the glandular tissue?See for example these excerpts taken from various breast implant websites: Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 101
  • 103. "Breast deformities can be developmental or post surgical. They can be associated with size differences, shape differences or scarring related to implants or previous surgeries. Developmental Deformities ...can present during puberty as asymmetric breast development with one breast being much larger then the other or associated with strange shapes of the breast." "Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure to increase the size of the breasts. It is usually performed to enlarge small, underdeveloped breasts that have decreased in size after pregnancy. It can also be performed in cases of breast deformity, or where one breast has not developed in proper symmetrs y with the other." industry statistics from a few years back reported that about 60% of women have a bra cupsize A or B. In these days of widespread obesity, the average bra cup size has become cup "C" -but we can still understand from those stats that A and B cup sizes are very normal andcommon. We can NOT in any way call small breasts "underdeveloped".But the magazine images are at work again... presenting supermodels with augmented breasts asthe standard of beauty. Then is no wonder women themselves start considering the normal and theusual breasts as small.Also, the majority of women have (at least slightly) asymmetrical breasts (just as most men haveone testicle hanging lower than the other)- so in reality (slight) asymmetry of the breasts is thenorm and perfect symmetry is the rarer occasion! We need to wake up from the fallacy thatmedia and plastic surgeons are airing to us!Hypoplastic or under-developed breasts Now, it is possible to have true under-developed (hypoplastic) breasts where there is little glandular (milk- making) tissue. So we could say this is a true deformity (possibly congenital) where the breasts do not contain enough milk glands. Outwardly it shows as small, widely-spaced breasts with a tubular shape (see a picture on a different page). Women with hypoplastic breasts often have milk supplyproblems since there is not enough milk glands to be making the milk.In the US society such a woman is very likely to feel a need for breast implants to look normal -and nobody can blame her for that. The following comment is from such a woman:I have had breast augmentation to correct tubular, asymetric small breasts and without it I wouldhave died from depression. Plastic surgery is not wrong, it is a personal decision and for me itsaved my life and made me feel complete and normal. Although I had complications it wasnothing that couldnt be sorted out and was entirely worth it as it was a matter of life and death. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 102
  • 104. There is no way I could ever have accepted my breasts before surgery, I cannot put into wordshow badly it affected me psychologically and even made me feel physically sick as I felt soabnormal.Read the comment in its entiretyNow, if the media culture didnt value breast size to such an extreme, even these women wouldhave it much easier, and not feel such a pressure to have breast implants.True, this condition is a deformity. But how a person with deformity feels about it, is largelyinfluenced by the society around him/her. Wouldnt we all feel so much better about our bodieswithout these totally fake media messages?Teens are welcomed, tooThere is a sad, recent trend concerning teenagers and breast implants: receiving them as a highschool graduation gift is becoming more and more popular.The American Society of Plastic Surgeons officially recommended the augmentation surgery onlyfor teens 18 and older, but is not enforcing this recommendation. So while some surgeons wiselyturn away teenagers, others dont.The problems with teen girls and breast implants are many-fold: • Teens are often overly optimistic, glossing over the negatives, and cannot fully realize the long-term consequences of this surgery, or the possible risks. Teens can regard it as having your hair done. No matter how "mature" the teen says she is, research has proven that a certain part in our brains that has to do with judgment and taking responsibility for Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 103
  • 105. ones actions does NOT develop fully until well into ones twenties. Read for example Kaceys story. • Teen girls bodies and breasts may still be developing. There are lots of women who can gain a cup or two even after they hit eighteen. • Almost all teens in the USA are self-conscious about their body, and a teen who gets implants in order to "fix" this one body part may later go into depression if the results arent as desired, or continue feeling bad about some other body part of hers.If interested in this topic, please read also the article Teens Getting Breast Implants forGraduation.Small breasts = disease? But the worst of it is perhaps how The American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons wants us to believe that small breasts are a DISEASE! This is what they wrote in their petition to FDA in support of breast implants in 1982: "There is a common misconception that the enlargement of the female breast is not necessary for maintenance of health or treatment of disease. There is a substantial and enlarging body of medical information and opinion however, to the effect that these deformities (small breasts) are really a disease which in most patients results in feelings of inadequacy, lack of self-confidence, distortion of body image and a total lack of well-being due to a lack of self-perceived femininity. The enlargement of the under-developed female breast is therefore, often very necessary to insure an improved quality of life for the patient." (emphasis mine)This would mean (according to the organized plastic surgery) that most women have a diseaseand are in need of a breast augmentation procedure. The TRUTH is quite contrary. The "smallbreasts" they are talking about are the average and typical breasts.In fact, it sounds strange, but the breast augmentation websites are great places to see normalfemale breasts. The BEFORE pictures in their before/after galleries usually show a collection ofperfectly average size breasts. It is as though the surgeons wish to point out to the reader that"This is the size of breast that needs augmented", when in reality those breasts were just fine-looking and AVERAGE size (cup B) before surgery.Thinking experimentNow, a little thinking experiment. Picture a head, hands, and feet to these upper torsos. Imagineit is your sister, your daughter, your mother, your friend - someone you know. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 104
  • 106. If she was your friend, would If she was your sister, would If she was your mother,you advice her to have you feel she is less intelligent would you feel that thesurgery to have her boob job or less of a person, or lacking breasts that fed you aredone? somehow, because her breasts deformed and need a lift? have a lack of development?Yet thats exactly what the breast surgery proponents, ads, and media forces try to say to women -not outright or in those words, but in implications and indirectly. If you wouldnt comment onyour friends, sisters, or mothers breasts in such a way, why let the beauty industry and organizedplastic surgery tell you that exact message?You talk about a money-making scheme in a medical community, there you have one! Andsurgeons doing breast augmentations are faring well. In the year 2002 over 240,000 women gotbreast implants. In year 2004 it had increased to 334,052 women - a huge increase from 32,607 in1992.Are implants safe? The public has been led to believe for years that breast implants are safe and that they practically are life-long devices that need no care. That is simply not true - and never has been. Implants do rupture at some point; the more time passes, the more probable it becomes. They will need replaced or removed. The local complication rates are high and within 10-12 years, most women will need at least one additional surgery. Even the myth of breast implants improving mental health does not hold water. Inameds (a breast implant manufacturer) recent "core study" of silicone breast implants studied complication rates and also evaluated patients mental health and quality of life before and after receiving breast implants. It was found that on average,women reported poorer health or mental health after implants compared to before. Almostevery measure of emotional and physical health, including social relationships and self-esteem,declined after getting breast implants. The only improvements were in self-reported sexualattractiveness. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 105
  • 107. Time to celebrate normal breasts! It is high time we quit believing that an anorectically thin female body with huge boobs is "beautiful" or "ideal". Hopefully you have visited the breast gallery pages on this site and other pages, and can agree that normal and typical female breast varies a lot in size and shape; that most women actually have asymmetrical breasts; that breasts are for breastfeeding and not to make products sell better. And it isnt enough to just not believe this mentally, because the pictures surrounding you still affect your mind on subconscious level. To spare our daughters, we need to protect them from exposure to most womens magazines, to television soap operas, and other warped presentations of womans body, and instead provide some healthy materials body-image-wise for the developing minds. One good alternative is New Moon - an advertisement free magazine for girls ages 8-14. If you know of other resources and materials for kids and teens that support healthy body image, let us know and we will publish them on the site. ... i am a teen with a breast problem, ive been thinking about a breast implant on only one boob. I have the breast deformity, but its so bad that its 2 cups smaller. I do understand its not right but it does lower my self esteem. I have a cousin with full round breasts and she is a year younger than me. It is humiliating. I do see the attention she gets and I get left in the dark. I have a great personality and it hurts me so much that guys these days only love woman with perfect body figures. I cry almost every night because I have this deformed body, as surgeons say. I am only 17 and I work at a job that pays minimum wage. I do not come form a wealthy family and I have to pay for my own college. This would change my life so much. I would have more self confidance and I feel I would be much happier, I know its wrong but I want to be in the image to, like every other girl. I want to be noticed too. And obviously it doesnt work if you only have a personality thats great. I just want to be pretty like all my friends. Im so confused because I know the risks, what should I do? I really want this.. I cant even wear a bathing suit buz it looks so horrible... please help Samantha Samantha, Even when you cant afford an implant, there is still something called "breast forms" or enhancers that can work for dressing situations or swimsuits. Just search the internet for "breast form". Also consider these: • Just about all of us have something wrong with our bodies, or difficulties in our lives. Many people are born with deformities of their body parts, some people are blind, some are tied to a wheelchair. And then many people have other kinds of unfortunate circumstances of life: they may be hooked on drugs, or fatherless, or jobless and depressed because of that. * You already have a job, heading for college, a family, sounds like. Thats a lot to Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 106
  • 108. be thankful for!!! It truly is. There are so many people today without a caring family, without a job, etc. * Almost no woman has perfect breasts anyway. Check our galleries! * A true love overrides body part deformities... you are much better off when your future husband will be appreciating YOU for what you are, and not just get hooked on you because of breasts.Sources & resourcesFDAs October 2003 Summary of Research on Inamed Implants. Complications and symptoms.BREAST IMPLANT RISKS from - The Implant Information ProjectA web site sponsored by National Center for Policy Research (CPR) for Women & Families. TheImplant Information Project tries to give women access to accurate, unbiased information.Breast Surgery Likely to Cause Breastfeeding ProblemsSiliconeHolocaust.orgSilicone Holocause website talks about the dangers of breast augmentation surgeries and hassome extremely graphical pictures. Not for faint-minded.Recent trends with implants New research: breast augmentation from stem cells Scientists in Japan claim to be able to increase the size of a womans breasts using fat and stem cells. 11.5 Million Cosmetic Procedures In 2006: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery Reports 44 Percent Increase - 334,052 of those were breastaugmentations.Fake Boob Backlash Begins - odern men dont want women to have fake boobs, according to anew survey.Shes Got Nothing? A Look at the Ballooning Cosmetic Breast Implant Industry by MaryKinnunen.You cant wear your self-esteem on your chest Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 107
  • 109. News article how record numbers of parents are giving their teenage daughters breast implants forhigh school graduation.An Imperfect SolutionSaline breast implants are touted as a safe alternative to silicone.But some women still get sick from them.Enhance your Breasts NaturallyMore and more women are learning that Breast Actives is the program they need to helpthem get the attention they deserve.After you’ve responded to the breast enhancing effects of the Breast Actives program you’re sureto turn some heads when you walk into the room.Some women have tried dangerous, unnatural procedures and treatments to enhance theirbreasts—often not getting the results they wanted and exposing themselves to potentiallydangerous consequences.The good news is that the Breast Actives program is a natural approach specially formulatedto produce results.Rated NO.1 Breast Enhancement Program on the Market! Safe and Natural Breast Enhancement Discreet Shipping & Billing Worldwide No Embarrassing Doctor Visits Can Enhance Your Breasts Naturally No dangerous and costly Surgery Turn heads when you walk in a roomAre you Embarrassed at TimesMany women are embarrassed because they have small breasts. They feel nervous shamewhen it’s time to wear a bathing suit—or wistful when they see the plunging necklines on otherwomen’s evening dresses. Other women who used to have large, full breasts may be dismayed tofind them sagging after childbirth.Whatever the cause of your dissatisfaction with your breasts, you can enhance them—and yourself-esteem—with the natural Breast Actives Program. It’s no secret by now that pumps arelittle more than expensive ways to have the same breasts you’ve always had. Many women havefound surgery gives them bigger breasts, but often with a loss of sensitivity, shape, feel—andmoney. Dangerous, costly breast-enhancement surgery just isn’t the way for today’s woman toenhance her breasts.But padded and push-up bras are no solution either. You’ll feel better knowing the breastseveryone on the street is admiring are really yours—not padding. The Breast Actives programworks like no other breast-enhancing technique. It gives you all-natural, effective results—safely and inexpensively.Finally get the Attention that you Deserve! By now it seems like everyone’s heard the news about the recent incredible leaps in breast-enhancement science. Non-surgical breast enhancement has caught the attention of respected national television programs such as CNN Headline News, The Montel Williams Show, Dateline NBC, and 20/20. Major-circulation national newspapers such as USA Today just can’t say enough about the benefits of the new wave of non-surgical breast enhancement techniques. Breast Actives offers women a fast-acting, effective treatment guaranteed toproduce more enhanced breasts—without the risks of surgery such as scars or physicalreaction to the artificial breast implants. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 108
  • 110. Have you seen pictures of normal non-sexual breasts?A huge proportion of American women are not happy with their breasts. The media images makethem believe the ideal is big and perky breasts with a small nipple and areola.But, in reality female breasts come in all kinds of sizes and shapes. These breast pictures arehere to let you see normal breasts - big, small, sagging, asymmetrical; big areolas or nipples.In fact, having asymmetrical breasts, where one is bigger than the other, is very very common.Most women have one breast slightly larger than the other. Sagging is very common also,because due to gravity, the breast naturally assumes a hanging position.Also as we all know, size varies a lot. Some women have practically a flat chest, some havesmall breasts, some have much bust that the mere weight of them can cause them backaches.according to the bra industry, the most common bra cup size in the US used to be B, but has nowbecome C probably due to the increasing obesity. Of course, the size is not constant but varieswith pregnancy, breastfeeding, and during the menstrual cycle.Many young people growing up never see what normal natural breasts look like, and influencedby the media, think that pert big breasts are ideal. Many end up opting for breast implants to"correct" their breasts — when their breasts were normal all the time!In fact, MOST teenage girls worry and fret over their breast development, some even to the pointof suicide — which is a very sad comment on how American culture is influencing young people.Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1Women who have not been pregnant These pictures include women of Anglo-/Teutonic European, Semitic, N. Mediterranean, and N. East Asian, Native American, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and mixed descent who come from a wide variety of cultural backgrounds. But we are hoping for more volunteers, to show an even wider variety. The main point is: there is enormous variation in what is normal. Sizes and shapes vary enormously. So dont worry, ladies!Small breasts of a 25-year old. She got stretch marks in her breasts during her quick developmentin puberty but they are very faint and not visible in the photo. Continue the rest . . . Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 109
  • 111. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from anAgricultural EnvironmentElizabeth A. Guillette,1,2 Craig Conard,2 Fernando Lares,3Maria Guadalupe Aguilar,3 John McLachlan,2 and Louis J.Guillette, Jr.41 Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,Gainesville, Florida, USA2 Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane–XavierUniversities, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA3 Dirección del Area de Recursos Naturales, InstitutoTecnológico de Sonora, Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, Mexico4 Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, USAAddress correspondence to E. Guillette, Department ofAnthropology, 1350C Turlington Hall, University of Florida,Gainesville, FL 32611 USA. Telephone: (352) 375-5929.Fax: (352) 392-6929. E-mail: eguillet@anthro.ufl.eduThe authors declare they have no competing financialinterests.Received November 10, 2005; Received May 3, 2005;Accepted November 10, 2005.PMCID: PMC1392245Environ Health Perspect. 2006 March; 114(3): 471–475. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8280.Copyright This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article arepermitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the articlesoriginal DOI.AbstractIn several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported tohave declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reporteddecline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patternsreflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factorsinfluence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition,and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmentalbeginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a groupof peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls fromvalley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than thoseof girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index(BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly definedrelationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaquifoothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breastsize and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based examinvolving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. Infact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 110
  • 112. no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, wasabsent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissuewas present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in eitherpopulation. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growthand fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influenceson these phenomena.Keywords: breast development, mammary gland, Mexico, puberty, thelarche, Yaqui Valley The age for the onset of puberty is reported to have declined in many human populations over the last 50 years (Lee et al. 2001). Precocious puberty, in the United States, is now suggested to be initial breast and pubic hair development before 7 years of age for Caucasian- American girls and before 6 years of age for African- American girls (Kaplowitz and Oberfield 1999). The leading hypothesis for this change toward earlier puberty is better nutrition, with more rapid body growth, increasedweight, and fat deposition. The rise in obesity is also considered a contributing factor (Styne2004; Wattigney et al. 1999). The amount of fat tissue in the body, as early as 5 years of age, isreported to be correlated with earlier puberty in Caucasians but less so in African Americans(Davison et al. 2003). Such findings imply that the lower age of female breast development, inlight of nutritional change, is a normal phenomenon, with a proposal of revised norms. Thequestion arises, “How early can breast development occur and still be normal?” Basicmorphometrics and descriptive gross anatomy [i.e., standard Tanner scale (Tanner 1962) forpuberty landmarks of breast and pubic hair development] remain the standard data collected toaccess the initiation and staging of puberty in many clinical settings (Sun et al. 2002). The Tannerscale (Tanner 1962), which involves the use of pictures of the breast reflecting developmentalstages from the absence of development (stage 1) to adult breast development (stage 5), is basedmainly on external morphology. Current norms are based on this visual scaling. The type of tissuegrowth within the breast itself, including mammary gland development, is poorly investigated inthe human female, with the assumption that initial breast growth in girls is tightly correlated withthe development of mammary tissue and a variable deposition of fat tissue. We addressed thisassumption when girls from reference and agricultural, chemically exposed populations wereexamined. We hypothesize that an altered relationship between breast size, fat deposition, andmammary tissue development could result from in utero and/or childhood exposures to estrogenicor antiandrogenic chemicals, as has been reported in studies of laboratory rodents (Brown andLamartiniere 1995; Vorderstrasse et al. 2004). At present, we know of no human data directlyexamining contaminant exposure and initial development of the pubescent mammary gland.Several studies have examined contaminants and the prevalence of precocious puberty (forreview, see Parent et al. 2003).In 1969, initial breast development was reported to occur at 11 years of age, on average, inEnglish girls, with fuller breast development and the appearance of pubic hair and menarche Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 111
  • 113. expected by age 13 (Marshall and Tanner 1969). By 1997, of the 17,077 girls seen in over 200pediatricians’ offices, 14% of the American-Caucasian girls and 48% of the African-Americangirls were reported to have breast development by 8 years of age (Herman-Giddens et al. 1997).Mexican-American girls developed later than African-American girls, but any significantdifference between Mexican-American girls and Caucasians remains questionable (Sun et al.2002; Wu et al. 2002). Organochlorine pesticides are believed to be responsible for precociouspuberty that occurred in girls immigrating at very young ages from countries usingdichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); breast development occurred at 8 years of age andmenarche at 10 years of age in these girls. High blood levels of DDT were present in 21 of the 26children.z Genetic factors were not believed to be involved (Krstevska- Konstantinova 2001). The process and timing of puberty is influenced by complex interactions between neural and sex hormones. Breast development is a component of puberty, occurring in the continuum of the development of gonadal function and the ontogeny of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, beginning in the fetus and continuing until adulthood (Grumbach 2002). The role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the pubertycontinuum has received limited attention, but several reviews suggest a need for more research(Bern 1992; Nebesio and Pescovitz 2005; Parent et al. 2003; Wang et al. 2005). The exposure oflaboratory animals and wildlife to EDCs is known to alter the ratio of female to male hormonesthat play a dominant role in sexual development (Gray et al. 2002; Guillette and Gunderson 2001;McLachlan 2001). Exposure to some estrogen mimics or antiandrogens can delay puberty infemale rodents (Monosson et al. 1999), whereas experimental exposure to low doses of estrogenicbisphenol A, found in some plastics, speeds growth and puberty in rats (Howdeshell et al. 1999).Our ability to detect the possible role of xenobiotic chemicals in altering pubertal development isconfounded in modern societies by the many nutritional, genetic, and lifestyle factors capable ofaffecting puberty. The Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico, provides an ideal setting for a studyexamining the potential role of agriculturally derived contaminants in promoting premature orabnormal breast development during puberty. The Native-American inhabitants of this valleysplit philosophically over the use of modern agriculture, including pesticide application, duringthe Green Revolution of the early 1950s. The result was a geographical division of towns,including a division of extended families, based on a continuation of traditional ranching andhome gardens versus the use of newly introduced agricultural methods (Almada-Bay 2000). Thechildren of three small agriculturally based towns located in the Yaqui Valley were examined; thefields surrounding the towns have monocropped fields with pesticide applied aerially. In contrast,the reference site is located 80 km northwest in the Sierra Madre Mountain foothills. Income inthis town is from cattle ranching, with few homes having home gardens. The initial refusal to usepesticides continues. The towns used in this study are those included in previous research studieson childhood growth and development where food sources and nutritional, economic, and socialstatus were initially investigated and found to have changed little over recent years (Guillette2003; Guillette et al. 1998). All towns have similar modernization, infrastructure, andsocioeconomic conditions, with > 90% living in poverty, limiting general EDC exposures. Hard Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 112
  • 114. plastic plates are used by all; the use of plastic for shopping or other activities in the kitchen andhome are absent. Cement flooring and wood furniture limit exposure from chemical offgassing.Women traditionally do not wear makeup or use artificial scents either on the body or in thehome. Approximately half the homes at all study sites have television (determined by countingtelevision aerials). Both the modern agriculturally based towns as well as the cattle-producingfoothill towns using no pesticides maintain traditional customs and similar parenting practices.There is a continuation of intertribal marriage patterns that now reflect an individual’sphilosophical stance over the use of modern farming practices. Past and present dietary studieshave determined that the main source of food originates from the capital city, with types of foodand the amount served similar in the two areas. Further, women in these communities report notobacco or alcohol use, reflective of traditional mores. Usage among men is minimal (Guillette etal. 1998). The populations of these towns (800–1,000 people) limited the number of childrenavailable in each age group. In a previous study (data collected in 1996), the children 4 to 5 yearsof age in each of the three towns where agricultural pesticide use occurred exhibited the samemultiple developmental task delays and neuromuscular and mental deficits compared withchildren living in the reference town (Guillette et al. 1998). Developmental tasks and problemsolving continued to be delayed with the same groups of exposed children 2 years later (Guillette2003).Cord blood studies in 1990, from infants born in these agricultural towns 2 years before the birth of the girls in the current study, indicated transplacental transfer of relatively high levels of various organochlorines, including lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT metabolites (Garcia and Meza 1991). An investigation of dumping areas for pesticide containers included such containers in 1996, with pyrethroids and carbonates added in a 1999 inspection, and malathion compounds noted in 2001, after which such sites were banned. Agricultural activity has sharply declined in the valley since 2000 because of a long-term drought. At the time of the current study (2003), drought had persisted for 5 years. Planted fields were difficult Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 113
  • 115. to find, as an overwhelming reversal to ranching had occurred. Hence, present-day acute exposureto pesticides by dermal absorption and by inhalation has been greatly reduced in the valley.Because pesticides are ubiquitous in the environment and the reference town had annual sprayingby the government for malaria control until 2000, the populations of children at the reference sitehave been considered less exposed. Both groups continue to be exposed through ingestion ofpesticide residues on purchased foods.MethodsFor this research we examined a group of Native American (Sonora Mayan) girls, each withparents who have resided in the town since birth. This study examined thelarche, the onset ofpuberty in terms of breast development, in female children 8–10 years of age. Human studypermission was granted from Tulane University and the State of Sonora Institutional ReviewBoard (IRB). The Medical Council of Sonora IRB ruled that a) all the girls must be known by thelocal nurses and b) all had to have had previous examinations by the town health clinic nurse orphysician. The selection of the girls by the clinical staff prohibited a true random selection,although the number of girls in the age group of interest was limited because of the small size ofthe towns. The time involved to obtain IRB permission from Mexico eliminated the involvementof the oldest girls examined during the previous studies of children from this region. A few of thepreviously studied females, however, were included. A total of 50 girls were examined, 30 from the three agriculturally located towns and 20 from the nonagriculture town. All were classified as healthy children without birth defects or tumors. The local clinic health provider plus the principal investigator (E.A.G.), also medically trained, examined each child in terms of growth, in the presence of the child’s mother. Evaluation of breast development was determined by these two individuals and involved visual assessment using the Tanner scale as well as morphometric data. The Tanner scale, pictorially demonstrating five stages of breast growth, wasused as one measurement of pubertal stage. For Tanner scaling, independent ratings were madeby the principal investigator and the clinic health provider. Measurements obtained includedheight, weight, sitting height, chest circumference at the bust line, chest circumference 3 cmbelow the bust line, and waist and hip circumferences. A standard fat fold measurement from theright arm triceps was also taken. Measurements were made by palpation of the diameter of firm,internal, mammary tissue as well as the diameter of the softer, external breast field. The rightbreast diameter, determined by adipose deposits, was delineated by palpation and measured incentimeters. The girls resisted the use of calibers, fearing pain, so the diameter was determined byplacing the index finger of each hand vertically on each side of the breast, with the distancebetween measured by the second person, using a measuring tape. The breast was then palpatedfor mammary tissue, which is firm compared with the softer fatty breast tissue. The diameter ofthe mammary tissue was measured in the same manner described above. Each girl was measuredtwice, with a reversal of roles by the clinic health provider and lead investigator. If disagreementwas more than 0.5 cm, new measurements were taken until consensus was reached by bothresearchers. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 114
  • 116. Statistical analyses were performed on all parametric data using analysis of variance (ANOVA)or analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with post hoc analysis using the software StatView 5.0(SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA). Initially, the four towns were analyzed asseparate groups, even though samples size was approximately 10 for each agricultural town. Nodifferences were noted among the three valley towns, and they were grouped, thus increasing thepower of the statistical analyses. For measurements where two independent values were obtained(i.e., Tanner stage), a mean was calculated for each girl and used in further analyses.Homoscedasticity of variance among samples was tested using an F test. If variance washeterogeneous, data were log transformed to achieve homogeneity. Simple, stepwise, andmultiple regression analyses were performed to examine the possible influence of the variousindependent variables on the dependent variables (mammary and breast diameter). These analyseswere followed by ANOVA or ANCOVA, as appropriate. For all statistical tests, p < 0.05 wasconsidered significant. Results Background data obtained from the mothers indicated that diet and types of daily activity, including play and television, were similar for girls from the four study towns. Data were initially analyzed by town. We observed that girls from the three agricultural and one reference sites had no significant differences in age, height, weight, or other body measurements; thus, we combined the agricultural sites and present the data for two regions, the valley with greater pesticide exposure and the foothills with less exposure (Table 1). Importantly, we noted that the children in our study did not differ significantly in body mass index (BMI), based on age group, from standardized averages of BMI reported for Hispanic children byRosner et al. (1998). We did note that variance was heterogeneous for a number of variableswithin the exposed valley population exhibiting significantly elevated variance relative to thereference population in the foothills. Head circumference (F = 24.2, p < 0.0001) exhibited ahighly significant variation in the population of exposed girls as did weight (F = 3.85; p = 0.002),BMI (F = 3.72; p = 0.003), and upper arm circumference (F = 2.39; p = 0.04). Table 1 Values (mean ± SE) for various morphological features measured on young girls from the valley and foothills populations in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico.We made two independent assessments of Tanner stage and measurements for mammary andbreast diameters. No difference in Tanner stage for breast development was observed (p = 0.4)among girls from the two regions, as girls from the valley averaged (mean ± SE) 2.4 ± 0.2 on theTanner scale for breast development whereas girls from the foothills averaged 2.15 ± 0.2. Incontrast to the analysis by Tanner stage, morphometric analyses demonstrated that breastdevelopment was different among sites. Girls were staged as prepubescent if no mammarybudding could be observed or palpated in the breast field. Using the traditional Tanner scale of Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 115
  • 117. visual staging, 6 of 20 (30%) less-exposed girls for the foothills and 6 of 30 (20%) girls from themore-exposed valley towns visually exhibited Tanner stage 1—prepubertal with no budding ofthe nipple or fat deposits. Using palpation, however, three of the six girls from the valleypopulation lacked fatty deposits. Among the exposed girls from the valley towns exhibiting breastdevelopment, mammary tissue could not be palpated in 5 of the remaining 27 pubescent girls.These girls without palpable mammary tissue had breast diameters ranging from 3.0 to 12.0 cm(8.1 ± 1.6 cm). The 12 girls lacking palpable mammary tissue were not significantly different inheight (p = 0.79) or weight (p = 0.20) when compared with girls with mammary tissue; thus, thegirls lacking mammary development do not represent the youngest, heaviest, or smallest girls.None of the pubescent, less-exposed girls from the foothills exhibiting breast development(Tanner scores 2 or greater) lacked palpable mammary tissue.Breast diameter was greatly influenced by mammary diameter in the less-exposed girls from thefoothills, with 90% of the variation in breast diameter explained by mammary diameter (Figure1). This relationship was much weaker in girls from the valley, with only 27% of breast diameterexplained by mammary tissue diameter (Figure 1). Mammary size was not different between theregions (p = 0.65) based on an ANOVA, but age did influence mammary size (F = 4.9; p = 0.01);the interaction of region and age on mammary size was not significant (p = 0.88) (Figure 2A). Asmammary size correlates with and directly influences breast size, an ANCOVA was performed todetermine possible differences in breast size among age groups and regions, with mammary sizeas a covariate. Breast size was significantly different between regions (F = 30.9; p < 0.0001) andage groups (F = 3.15; p = 0.05); the interaction between these variables was also highlysignificant (F = 26.9; p < 0.0001). Breast diameter at 8 and 10 years of age was significantlylarger in the exposed valley girls when compared with girls from the less-exposed foothills(Figure 2B). Figure 1Relationship between mammary diameter and breast diameter in peripubescent girls from twopopulations in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico.Figure 2Mean (± SE) mammary (A) and breast (B) diameter in peripubescent girls 8–10 years of age fromtwo populations in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico.Breast diameter was weakly correlated with body weight and height in the exposed girls from thevalley but not in the less-exposed girls from the foothills (Table 2). No relationship was seenbetween BMI and breast diameter in either population. Mammary diameter showed a relationshipwith body height in the exposed girls but no relationship with those from the foothills (Table 2).No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population.Multiple regression analysis using three variables (mammary diameter, body weight, and bodyheight), shown to have a relationship with breast size in at least one of the populations (valley), Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 116
  • 118. was performed to examine the relationship with breast size. In the valley population, 54.2% of thevariation in breast size was explained by mammary diameter and individual body weight, with noadditional clarification by the inclusion of height. In the foothill population, 91.7% of thevariation in breast diameter in the girls was explained by mammary size alone, and weight andheight did not add further resolution in explaining mammary diameter. Table 2Simple and multiple regression analyses examining the relationships between mammary or breastdiameter and height, weight, or BMI in girls from two populations in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico.DiscussionIn two groups of girls, differing primarily in the degree of exposure to agricultural chemicals, weobserved the following: a) Visual categorization of breast development did not predict mammarydevelopment in girls with elevated contaminant exposure, suggesting that this visual technique,used in most cross-sectional and longitudinal puberty timing studies published over the past 50years that assessed breast development stage, may have missed critical differences. In fact, anumber of girls with apparent breast development had no palpable mammary tissue. b) Fatdeposition in the breast appears to follow a different pattern in girls living in an environment withelevated contaminant exposure when compared with a population of girls with less exposure.Interestingly, female fat deposition patterns for the agricultural sites, such as in the hips, were notdifferent. These data suggest that the onset or pattern of thelarche in girls living in the agriculturalareas may be altered from that of girls exposed to lower levels of agricultural chemicals. c) Fewdifferences were noted in average body measurements other than breast diameter, yet we notedsignificant differences in the variance of weight and upper arm and head circumference in thevalley population indicative of affected individuals. Variance needs to be used to assess responsesas well as changes in the population’s central tendency, such as the means in mammary diameterand head circumference. Altered variance is a positiveindicator of exposure and effect (Orlando and Guillette2001). Given the complex mixture of pesticide exposure forthe mothers and daughters in the agricultural area, and thevariation in both dose and timing of exposure, the resultingheterogeneity of variance is a likely indicator of an exposureeffect (Orlando and Guillette 2001). If head circumference isone measure of brain growth, then the highly significantvariance in this morphological measurement—similar toprevious findings reported for boys and girls together(Orlando and Guillette 2001)—suggest that further studyshould be undertaken to access the neurological deficitsfound previously in children from this population (Guillette Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 117
  • 119. et al. 1998).Using a morphometric approach, we observed that girls living in the valley exhibited a differentpattern of breast development when compared with girls of similar age and body size living in thefoothills. Yet if this comparison were based on the traditional based Tanner scale, no differenceswould have been noted. There was a very different relationship between breast development anda girl’s weight and height if that girl came from the valley, where contamination is higher, ratherthan the foothill population where environmental contaminant exposure is presumably lower.Breast development and size in girls from the foothills was explained almost exclusively bygrowth in mammary tissue, whereas breast development in girls from the valley was less definedby mammary tissue growth. Further, the lack of differences between the two groups whenmeasurements of bust, lower chest (3 cm below the bust), waist, and hip were compared suggeststhat the exposed girls, as a group, were not greatly advanced in other aspects of pubertaldevelopment involving overall female fat deposition.Pubertal breast development, including fat deposition, occurs through an increase in circulatingconcentrations of sex steroids as well as increasing tissue concentrations of estrogens (primarilyestradiol-17β) (Boyd et al. 1996). Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain IRB permission toobtain blood samples from the girls in this study. Mammary gland development at puberty isdependent upon normal mammary gland differentiation in the embryo and elevated estrogenconcentrations during puberty. Boyd et al. (1996) examined estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α)mRNA expression and its protein product in tissue samples from 89 breasts from clinicallynormal female infants, children, adolescents, and adult pre-menopausal and postmenopausalwomen. They noted that mRNA expression of the ER-αgene varied with hormonal status asexpected based on laboratory studies.We noted in this study that breast diameter was weakly correlatedwith body weight and height in the exposed girls from the valleybut not in the less-exposed girls from the foothills. No relationshipwas seen between BMI and breast diameter in either population.Mammary diameter showed a relationship with body height in theexposed girls but no relationship with those from the foothills. Norelationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight orBMI in either population. Our observations are in contrast to atleast one study showing that a BMI was predictive of earlier onsetof puberty in girls (Kaplowitz et al. 2001). Instead of using a rawBMI score, Kaplowitz et al. (2001) used a normalized score based on standardized age-specificaverage BMI scores produced from a large study of children of various ethnic backgrounds(Rosner et al. 1998). We performed a similar analysis (not presented here) using normalized BMIscores, but still observed no relationship between BMI and breast or mammary diameter.Importantly, we noted that the children in our study did not differ significantly in BMI, based onage group, from the averages reported by Rosner et al. (1998) for Hispanic children. Thus, ourlack of a relationship between BMI and breast development is unlikely to be due to the fact that Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 118
  • 120. the children studied here are significantly different in weight and height compared with otherpopulations of children of similar age.Exposure during critical windows would affect mammary development. We proposed thehypothesis that the changes reported here in the peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley ofMexico are due to in utero exposure to agricultural chemicals with endocrine action. This studywas designed to test this hypothesis, as a principal difference between the two populations studiedwas parental exposure to agricultural chemicals. Various pesticides, mainly organophosphatesand organochlorines, were used extensively in the agricultural areas of the Yaqui Valley near thetime of the girls’ birth (1992–1994), and many of these compounds are known to cross theplacenta. A study of newborn children from the Yaqui Valley performed close to the period thesechildren were conceived reported elevated pesticide levels, with cord blood values of lindane,heptachlor, benzene hexachloride, aldrin, and endrin all exceeding World Health Organizationestablished limits (International Programme on Chemical Safety 2005), and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) measured in the parts per million (Garcia and Meza1991). Both lindane and p,p′-DDE are estrogenic in the MCF-7 mammary tumor cell line (Sotoand Sonnenschein 2000). It is important to note that this geographic region was in the fifth year ofa drought at the time of this study, with most farmers moving into ranching, consequentlydecreasing daily exposure to pesticides. Thus, our observations are likely related to embryonic,neonatal, or early childhood exposure and are unlikely to be the result of elevated exposureduring puberty.Human exposure to EDCs, either prenatally or during childhood, should be considered a plausiblefactor altering breast development and the timing of puberty. In girls exposed through breastfeeding to polybrominated biphenyls, observable pubic hair occurred earlier than less-exposedgirls, but little association was found with breast development (Blanck et al. 2000). High levels ofDDT metabolites have been found with girls experiencing early secondary sex characteristics(Bongiovanni 1983). Mice exposed during embryonic development to the environmental toxicantdioxin exhibit disrupted mammary gland differentiation that includes stunted growth, decreasedbranching, and poor formation of lobular alveolar structures (Fenton et. al. 2002; Vorderstrasse etal. 2004). Together, these datasuggest that future studies shouldinclude an in-depth examinationof mammary tissue growth and fatdeposition in a girl’s breast, notTanner staging alone. Palpation,differentiating between fat andmammary tissue, provides only anindication of mammarydevelopment. The small, less-developed rural towns and lack ofavailable sophisticated equipmentfound in more technological Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 119
  • 121. advanced areas limited the depth of this study. Future studies, both longitudinal and cross-sectional, using measurement techniques acceptable to the child or technological equipmentproviding visualization of tissues, need to be done to evaluate types and amount of tissue growthand abnormal correlations between the two types of tissue. Exposure to varied environmentalfactors, including nutrition and contamination, is ubiquitous; thus, all studies examining thelarchemust examine nutrition and contamination histories as well as the age of onset and ethnicity.Mammary tissue maturation, necessary for breast-feeding, is an important question that remainsfor these girls and requires further investigation. The shortened period of lactation found byGladen and Rogan (1995) in Mexican agriculture-based mothers may be reflective of poormammary structure and not solely to blood levels of DDE or other pesticides at the time of infantdelivery. Any adverse alterations in lobular and duct formation could lead to alterations in breastmaturation during pregnancy followed by adverse effects on lactation. Such alterations wouldhave great implications for populations that live in poverty, where breast feeding is a necessity forneonatal survival and health. In addition, the question remains whether these alterations influencethe incidence of disease later in life, such as obesity or breast cancer. It is critical that mammarygland growth and development be examined in far more detail in future studies of puberty infemales.FootnotesWe thank the participating state health clinics in the state of Sonora, Mexico, for their help in thisproject. Funding was provided, in part, from the Jenifer Altman Foundation and the Center forBioenvironmental Research.References • Almada-Bay I. 2000. Historia Regional de Sonora: perfil socioeconomico. Mexico City:Ed. LIMUSA, S.A. de C.V. • Bern H. 1992. The fragile fetus. In: Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection (Colborn T, Clement C, eds). Princeton,NJ:Princeton Scientific Publishing Company, Inc., 9–15. • Blanck HM, Marcus M, Tolbert PE, Rubin C, Henderson AK, Hertzberg VS, et al. Age at menarche and Tanner stage in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyl. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 120
  • 122. Epidemiology. 2000;11:641–647. [PubMed]• Bongiovanni AM. An epidemic of premature thelarche in Puerto Rico. J Pediatr. 1983;103:245–246. [PubMed]• Boyd MT, Hildebrandt RH, Bartow SA. Expression of the estrogen receptor gene in developing and adult human breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996;37:243–251. [PubMed]• Brown NM, Lamartiniere CA. Xenoestrogens alter mammary gland differentiation and cell proliferation in the rat. Environ Health Perspect. 1995;103:708–713. [PubMed]• Davison KK, Susman EJ, Birch LL. Percent body fat at age 5 predicts earlier pubertal development among girls at age 9. Pediatrics. 2003;111:815–821. [PubMed]• Fenton SE, Hamm JT, Birnbaum LS, Youngblood GL. Persistent abnormalities in the rat mammary gland following gestational and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8- tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicol Sci. 2002;67:63–74. [PubMed]• Garcia BML, Meza MMM. Principales vias de contaminacion por plaguicididas en neonatoslactantes residentes en Pueblo Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico. Inst Tecnol Sonora DIEP. 1991;1:33–42.• Gray LE, Lambright C, Parks L, Tyl RW, Orlando EF. Guillette LJ Jr, et al. 2002. Emerging issues related to endocrine disrupting chemicals and environmental androgens and antiandrogens. In: Endocrine Disruptors, Part II. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol 3, Part M (Metzler M, ed). Berlin:Springer-Verlag, 209–247.• Grumbach MM. The neuroendocrinology of human puberty revisited. Horm Res. 2002;57(suppl 2):2–14. [PubMed]• Guillette EA. 2003. The children of the Yaqui Valley: precautionary science and communities. In: Environmental Science and Preventive Public Policy (Tickner J, ed). Washington, DC:Island Press, 321– 332.• Guillette EA, Meza MM, Aquilar MG, Soto AD, Garcia IE. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of children exposed to pesticides in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106:347–353. [PubMed] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 121
  • 123. • Guillette LJ Jr, Gunderson MP. Alterations in the development of the reproductive and endocrine systems of wildlife exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants. Reproduction. 2001;122:857–864. [PubMed]• Herman-Giddens ME, Slora EJ, Wasserman RC, Bourdony CJ, Bhapkar MV, Koch GG, et al. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the pediatric research in office settings network. Pediatrics. 1997;99:505–512. [PubMed]• Howdeshell KL, Hotchkiss AK, Thayer KA, Vandenbergh JG, vom Saal FS. Environmental toxins—exposure to bisphenol A advances puberty. Nature. 1999;401:763–764. [PubMed]• International Programme on Chemical Safety 2005. Environmental Health Criteria Monographs. Available: N0YOGUxJ21EMaS-qUl- 0gjSi0L375pq&reftype=extlink&artid=1392245&iid=128313&jid=253&FROM=A rticle%7CCitationRef&TO=External%7CLink%7CURI&article- id=1392245&journal-id=253&rendering- type=normal&& [accessed 1 February 2006].• Kaplowitz PB, Oberfield SE. Drug and Therapeutics and Executive Committees of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society. Reexamination of the age limit for defining when puberty is precocious in girls in the United States: implications for evaluation and treatment. Pediatrics. 1999;104:936–941. [PubMed]• Kaplowitz PB, Slora EJ, Wasserman RC, Pedlow SE, Herman-Giddens ME. Earlier onset of puberty in girls: relation to increased body mass index and race. Pediatrics. 2001;108:347–353. [PubMed]• Krstevska-Konstantinova M, Charlier C, Craen M, Du Caju M, Heinrichs C, de Beaufort C, et al. Sexual precocity after immigration from developing countries to Belgium: evidence of previous exposure to organochlorine pesticides. Hum Reprod. 2001;16:1020–1026. [PubMed]• Lee PA, Guo SS, Kulin HE. Age of puberty: data from the United States of America. APMIS. 2001;109:81–88. [PubMed]• Marshall WA, Tanner JM. Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child. 1969;44:291–303. [PubMed]• McLachlan JA. Environmental signaling: what embryos and evolution teach us about endocrine disrupting chemicals. Endocr Rev. 2001;22:319–341. [PubMed]• Monosson E, Kelce WR, Lambright C, Ostby J, Gray LE. Peripubertal exposure to the antiandrogenic fungicide, vinclozolin, delays puberty, inhibits the development Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 122
  • 124. of androgen-dependent tissues, and alters androgen receptor function in the male rat. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:65–79. [PubMed]• Nebesio TD, Pescovitz OH. Endocrine disruptors and the timing of puberty. Endocrinologist. 2005;15:44–48.• Orlando EF, Guillette LJ Jr. A re-examination of variation associated with environmentally stressed organisms. Hum Reprod Update. 2001;7:265–272. [PubMed]• Parent A-S, Teilmann G, Juul A, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J, Bourguignon J-P. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration. Endocr Rev. 2003;24:668– 693. [PubMed]• Rosner B, Prineas R, Loggie J, Daniels SR. Percentiles for body mass index in U.S. children 5 to 17 years of age. J Pediatr. 1998;132:211–222. [PubMed]• Soto AM, Sonnenschein C. 2000. Xenoestrogens in the context of carcinogenesis. In: Environmental Endocrine Disrupters: An Evolutionary Perspective (Guillette LJ Jr, Crain DA, eds). New York:Taylor & Francis, 291–321.• Styne DM. Puberty, obesity and ethnicity. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2004;15:472– 478. [PubMed]• Sun SMS, Schubert CM, Chumlea WC, Roche AF, Kulin HE, Lee PA, et al. National estimates of the timing of sexual maturation and racial differences among US children. Pediatrics. 2002;110:911–919. [PubMed]• Tanner JM. 1962. Growth at Adolescence. With a General Consideration of the Effects of Hereditary and Environmental Factors upon Growth and Maturation from Birth to Maturity. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK:Blackwell Scientific.• Vorderstrasse BA, Fenton SE, Bohn AA, Cundiff JA, Lawrence BP. A novel effect of dioxin: exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation. Toxicol Sci. 2004;78:248–257. [PubMed]• Wang RY, Needham LL, Barr DB. Effects of environmental agents on the attainment of puberty: considerations when assessing exposure to environmental chemicals in the National Children’s Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1100–1107. [PubMed]• Wattigney WA, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Greenlund KJ, Berenson GS. Secular trend of earlier onset of menarche with increasing obesity in black and white girls: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Ethn Dis. 1999;9:181–189. [PubMed]• Wu TJ, Mendola P, Buck GM. Ethnic differences in the presence of secondary sex characteristics and menarche among US girls: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Pediatrics. 2002;110:752–757. [PubMed] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 123
  • 125. Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy ofNational Institute of Environmental Health ScienceWrite to PMC | PMC Home | PubMedNCBI | U.S. National Library of MedicineNIH | Department of Health and Human ServicesPrivacy Policy | Disclaimer | Freedom of Information ActBreast self-examinationFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A woman examines her breast. Breast self-examination (BSE) is an easy but unreliable method for finding possible breast cancer. If performed appropriately and regularly BSE may help in early detection of some types of breast cancers, although it should not substitute for screening methods (such as mammography) that have been proven to be effective. The method involves feeling breasts for possible distortions or swelling. Contents • 1 How to perform BSE • 2 The Seven Ps method • 3 See also • 4 Other external links How to perform BSE The steps involved in self exam are: • Stand in front of a mirror with top exposed. • Place hands on hips. • Look for signs of dimpling, swelling, soreness, or redness in all parts of your breasts in the mirror. • Repeat with arms raised above your head. • While still standing, palpate your breasts with your fingers, feeling for lumps. Try to use a larger area of your fingers rather than prodding. Feel both for the area just beneath the skin and for the tissue deeper within. • Go over the entire breast while examining. One method is to divide the breast into quadrants and palpate each quadrant carefully. Also examine the "axillary tail" of each breast that extends toward the axilla (armpit). • Repeat palpation while lying down. • Check the nipples and the area just beneath them. Gently squeeze each nipple to check for any discharge.The Seven Ps methodA similar method of self-examination is known as the Seven Ps of BSE: 1. Position: Inspect breasts visually and palpate in the mirror with arms at various positions. Then perform the examination lying down, first with a pillow under one shoulder, then with a pillow under the other shoulder, and finally lying flat. 2. Perimeter: Examine the entire breast, including the nipple, the axillary tail that extends into the armpit, and nearby lymph nodes. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 124
  • 126. 3. Palpation: Palpate with the pads of the fingers, without lifting the fingers as they move across the breast. 4. Pressure: First palpate with light pressure, then palpate with moderate pressure, and finally palpate with firm pressure. 5. Pattern: There are several examination patterns, and each woman should use the one which is most comfortable for her. The vertical strip pattern involves moving the fingers up and down over the breast. The pie-wedge pattern starts at the nipple and moves outward. The circular pattern involves moving the fingers in concentric circles from the nipple outward. Dont forget to palpate into the axilla. 6. Practice: Practice the breast self-exam and become familiar with the feel of the breast tissue, so you can recognize changes. A health care practitioner can provide feedback on your method. 7. Plan: Know what to do if you suspect a change in your breast tissue. Know your family history of breast cancer. Have mammography done as often as your health care provider recommends.For premenopausal women, BSE is best done at the same stage of their period every month tominimize changes due to the menstrual cycle. The recommended time is just after the end of thelast period when the breasts are least likely to be swollen and tender. Older, menopausal womenshould do BSE once a month, perhaps on the first or last day of every month.About eight in ten lumps discovered by BSE are harmless. Nevertheless, any abnormality thusdetected should immediately be reported to a doctor. Though most breast cancers are detected bywomen, BSE should be combined with an annual examination by a doctor for better chances ofdetection.Women caneasily miss abreast lump thatan expert canfind. For thesame reasons itis better to learnBSE from anexpert.It is not areplacement formoretrustworthytechniques likemammographyor anexaminationusing MRI.Note: consult atrustworthy sitesuch as Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Center for more complete and up-to-date information.See also • Mammography • Intimate examination Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 125
  • 127. NippleFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the anatomical structure. For other uses,see nipple (disambiguation).Human female nipple, areola and breast. Nipple in erect state.In its most general form, a nipple is an appurtenance from whicha fluid emanates. More specifically, it is the projection on breastof a mammal by which breast milk is delivered to a mothersyoung.Contents • 1 Anatomy • 2 Nipples on male mammals • 3 See also • 4 References AnatomyIn the anatomy of mammals, a nipple or mammary papilla is a small projection of skincontaining the outlets for 15-20 lactiferous ducts arranged cylindrically around the tip. The skinof the nipple is rich in a supply of special nerves that are sensitive to certain stimuli. Thephysiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant, produced in the female mammaryglands during lactation. In the male, nipples are often not considered functional with regard tobreastfeeding, although male lactation is possible. Mammalian infants have a rooting instinct for seeking the nipple, and a sucking instinct for extracting milk. Mammals typically have an even number of nipples arranged around bilaterally. They develop in the embryo, along the milk lines. Most mammals develop multiple nipples along each milk line, with the total number approximating the maximum litter size, and half the total number (i.e. the number on one side) approximating the average litter size for that species. In the primitive mammals (monotremes such as the platypus), the mammary glands empty onto the skin without a nipple. In cetaceans such as whales, the infant cannot form a suction-seal to nurse, due to its mouth structure. Therefore the whales nipple is unlike that of any other mammal. Rather than requiring a sucking action, the discharge of milk is powered by maternal muscles. The calf takes the extended nipple into its mouth, and the mother ejects or expels her milk into the mouth of the calf. Most humans have two nipples after birth, located near the center of each breast and surrounded by an area of sensitive, pigmented skin known as the areola. Human fetuses develop several more nipples along the milk lines, which extend from the axilla (armpit), along the abdominal muscles, down to the pubis (groin) on both Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 126
  • 128. sides. Those nipples usually disappear before birth, but sometimes remain, resulting insupernumerary nipples which occasionally have lactiferous glands attached, but usually do not.The pigments of the nipple and areola are brown eumelanin (a brown pigment) and to a greaterextent pheomelanin (a red pigment). Exposure to cold temperatures and breastfeeding are theprimary causes for the nipples to become erect; nipple erections are a product of the pilomotorreflex which causes goose bumps. Less commonly, sexual arousal may cause the nipples tobecome erect, due to the release of the polypeptide neurotransmitter oxytocin[citation needed]. Thenipple and areola of males and females can be erotic receptors. They are not, however sex organsbecause, since mammals of both sexes all have nipples, nipples dont possess the defining qualityof a sex organ of differentiating the sex of any animal.The average projection and size of human female nipples is slightly more than 3/8 inches(10mm).[1]. Pregnancy and nursing tend to increase nipple size, sometimes permanently.Pregnancy also increases the pigmentation. The erection of the nipple is partially due to thecylindrically arranged muscle cells found within it. In many women, there are small bulges on theareola, which are called Montgomery bodies.Sometimes, babies (male or female) are born producing milk. This is called witchs milk; it is caused by maternal estrogens acting on the baby and is quite common. Witchs milk disappears after several days. Nipples on male mammals From conception until sexual differentiation, all mammalian fetuses within the same species look the same, regardless of sex. In humans this lasts for around 14 weeks after which, genetically-male fetuses begin producing male hormones such as testosterone.[2] Most of the time, males nipples dont change much past this point. However, some malesdevelop a condition known as gynecomastia, in which the fatty tissue around and under the nippledevelops into something similar to a female breast. This may happen whenever the testosteronelevel drops because of medications.See also • List of sexology topics: Areola, Breast, Erection, Male lactation, Masters and Johnson, Masturbation, Milk fetishism, Nudity, Sex organ, Sexual arousal • Biological development: Breastfeeding, Infant, Inverted nipple, Oxytocin, Prolactin, Supernumerary (third) nipple, Tit, Wet nurse, Witchs milk • Modification methods: Nipple piercing, Body nullification, Jewellery • Anatomy & Physiology: Mammary gland, Breast, Teat, Udder, Milk line, Lactation, MilkReferences 1. ^ M. Hussain, L. Rynn, C. Riordan and P. J. Regan, Nipple-areola reconstruction: outcome assessment; European Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 26, Num. 7, December, 2003 2. ^ "Nip and Tuck, by Wendy Zukerman" (html) (in english). Retrieved on 2008-6-6. • Stephen Jay Gould, "Male Nipples and Clitoral Ripples", in Adams Navel and Other Essays, London: Penguin, 1995. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 127
  • 129. Milk line From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The milk lines are two parallel lines, formed by thickenings of the epidermis along the ventral surface of mammals of both sexes. They extend from the upper limbs (arms) to the lower limbs (legs) and are developed in the embryo. They give rise to the mammary glands and nipples but are otherwise usually not visible in the adult. Contents • 1 Evolution of the milk line • 2 Morphology of early mammary development • 3 Milk lines in humans • 4 See also • 5 References Evolution of the milk line In evolutionary terms the mammary gland is a rather young organ. It is thought to be derived from apocrine- like skin glands of synapsids, which probably served as a source of moisture for the parchment-shelled eggs and asa source of nutrients for the hatchlings. The origin of the gland in close association with feathersand hair is still reflected on a molecular level. A number of genes are expressed in hair, whiskersand feathers as well as in the mammary gland, and deletion of some genes affects development ofall the epidermal appendages. Another common feature of all skin appendages is the dependenceon reciprocal signals between the epithelium and the mesenchyme.[1]Morphology of early mammary developmentMammary gland development is initiated during embryonic life. The first manifestation of thegland in many mammals is an elevated ridge or milk line, which then fragments into individualbuds in specific regions lateral of the dorsal midline. These buds are either located in the thoracicregion in primates, in the inguinal area in ungulates or along the entire length of the trunk inrodents and pigs.[1]Milk lines in humansIn humans, milk lines appear in the seventh week of embryonic development. After initialdevelopment of the milk lines they go into remission.Nipples develop on the milk lines of mammals. Most of us have two nipples, but in some caseshumans can develop more than two nipples. We have heard of third nipples, but there can bemore than three nipples in very rare cases, all which would grow along the milk lines.See also • Supernumerary nipple • Mammary gland • Breast • Nipple • Teat • Udder • Lactation • MilkReferences Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 128
  • 130. 1. ^ a b Breast Cancer Res. 2004; 6(3): 105–108. Published online 2004 March 9. doi: 10.1186/bcr776. article Identification of signaling pathways in early mammary gland development by mouse genetics by Gertraud W RobinsonLactation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. The process occurs in all female mammals, and in humans it is commonly referred to as breastfeeding or nursing. In most species milk comes out of the mothers nipples; however, the platypus (a non-placental mammal) releases milk through ducts in its abdomen. In only onespecies of mammal, the Dayak fruit bat, is milk production a normal male function. In some othermammals, the male may produce milk as the result of a hormone imbalance. This phenomenonmay also be observed in newborn infants as well (for instance witchs milk).Contents • 1 Purpose • 2 Human lactation o 2.1 Hormonal influences 2.1.1 Lactogenesis I 2.1.2 Lactogenesis II 2.1.3 Lactogenesis III o 2.2 Milk ejection reflex o 2.3 Afterpains o 2.4 Lactation without pregnancy • 3 References • 4 See also • 5 External links PurposeThe chief function of lactation is to provide nutrition to the young after birth. In almost allmammals lactation, or more correctly the suckling stimulus, induces a period of infertility, usually by the suppression of ovulation, which serves to provide the optimal birth spacing for survival of the offspring.[1] Human lactation When the baby sucks its mothers breast, a hormone called oxytocin compels the milk to flow from the alveoli, through the ducts (milk canals) into the sacs (milk pools) behind the areola and then into the babys mouth Hormonal influences From the fourth month of pregnancy (the second and third trimesters), a womans body produces hormones that stimulate the growth of the milk duct system in the breasts: Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 129
  • 131. • Progesterone — influences the growth in size of alveoli and lobes. Progesterone levels drop after birth. This triggers the onset of copious milk production.[2] • oestrogen — stimulates the milk duct system to grow and become specific. Oestrogen levels also drop at delivery and remain low for the first several months of breastfeeding.[2] It is recommended that breastfeeding mothers avoid oestrogen-based birth control methods, as a spike in estrogen levels may reduce a mothers milk supply. • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) • Luteinizing hormone (LH) • Prolactin — contributes to the increased growth of the alveoli during pregnancy. • Oxytocin — contracts the smooth muscle of the uterus during and after birth, and during orgasm. After birth, oxytocin contracts the smooth muscle layer of band-like cells surrounding the alveoli to squeeze the newly-produced milk into the duct system. Oxytocin is necessary for the milk ejection reflex, or let-down to occur. • Human placental lactogen (HPL) — From the second month of pregnancy, the placenta releases large amounts of HPL. This hormone appears to be instrumental in breast, nipple, and areola growth before birth.By the fifth or sixth month of pregnancy, the breasts are ready to produce milk. It is also possibleto induce lactation without pregnancy.Lactogenesis IDuring the latter part of pregnancy, the womans breasts enter into the Lactogenesis I stage. Thisis when the breasts make colostrum (see below), a thick, sometimes yellowish fluid. At this stage,high levels of progesterone inhibit most milk production. It is not a medical concern if a pregnantwoman leaks any colostrum before her babys birth, nor is it an indication of future milkproduction.Lactogenesis IIAt birth, prolactin levels remain high, while the delivery of the placenta results in a sudden dropin progesterone, estrogen, and HPL levels. This abrupt withdrawal of progesterone in thepresence of high prolactin levels stimulates the copious milk production of Lactogenesis II.When the breast is stimulated, it becomes erect, prolactin levels in the blood rise, peak in about45 minutes, and return to the pre-breastfeeding state about three hours later. The release ofprolactin triggers the cells in the alveoli to make milk. Prolactin also transfers to the breast milk.Some research indicates that prolactin in milk is higher at times of higher milk production, andlower when breasts are fuller, and that the highest levels tend to occur between 2 a.m. and 6a.m.[3]Other hormones—notably insulin, thyroxine, and cortisol—are also involved, but their roles arenot yet well understood. Although biochemical markers indicate that Lactogenesis II begins about30–40 hours after birth, mothers do not typically begin feeling increased breast fullness (thesensation of milk "coming in") until 50–73 hours (2–3 days) after birth.Colostrum is the first milk a breastfed baby receives. It contains higher amounts of white bloodcells and antibodies than mature milk, and is especially high in immunoglobulin A (IgA), whichcoats the lining of the babys immature intestines, and helps to prevent germs from invading thebabys system. Secretory IgA also helps prevent food allergies.[4] Over the first two weeks afterthe birth, colostrum production slowly gives way to mature breast milk.[2]Lactogenesis IIIThe hormonal endocrine control system drives milk production during pregnancy and the firstfew days after the birth. When the milk supply is more firmly established, autocrine (or local)control system begins. This stage is called Lactogenesis IIIDuring this stage, the more that milk is removed from the breasts, the more the breast willproduce milk.[5][6] Research also suggests that draining the breasts more fully also increases therate of milk production.[7] Thus the milk supply is strongly influenced by how often the babyfeeds and how well it is able to transfer milk from the breast. Low supply can often be traced to: Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 130
  • 132. • not feeding or pumping often enough • inability of the infant to transfer milk effectively caused by, among other things: o jaw or mouth structure deficits o poor latching technique • rare maternal endocrine disorders • hypoplastic breast tissue • a metabolic or digestive inability in the infant, making it unable to digest the milk it receives • inadequate calorie intake or malnutrition of the motherMilk ejection reflexThe release of the hormone oxytocin leads to the milk ejection or let-down reflex. Oxytocinstimulates the muscles surrounding the breast to squeeze out the milk. Breastfeeding mothersdescribe the sensation differently. Some feel a slight tingling, others feel immense amounts ofpressure or slight pain/discomfort, and still others do not feel anything different.The let-down reflex is not always consistent, especially at first. The thought of breastfeeding orthe sound of any baby can stimulate this reflex, causing unwanted leakage, or both breasts maygive out milk when an infant is feeding from one breast. However, this and other problems oftensettle after two weeks of feeding.[citation needed] Stress or anxiety can cause difficulties withbreastfeeding.A poor milk ejection reflex can be due to sore or cracked nipples, separation from the infant, ahistory of breast surgery, or tissue damage from prior breast trauma. If a mother has troublebreastfeeding, different methods of assisting the milk ejection reflex may help. These includefeeding in a familiar and comfortable location, massage of the breast or back, or warming thebreast with a cloth or shower.AfterpainsThe surge of oxytocin that triggers the milk ejection reflex also causes the uterus to contract.During breastfeeding, mothers may feel these contractions as afterpains. These may range fromperiod-like cramps to strong labour-like contractions and can be more severe with second andsubsequent babies.[8]Lactation without pregnancyWomen who have never been pregnant are sometimes able to induce enough lactation tobreastfeed. This is called "induced lactation". A woman who has breastfed before and re-starts issaid to "relactate". If the nipples are consistently stimulated by a breast pump or actual suckling,the breasts will eventually begin to produce enough milk to begin feeding a baby. Onceestablished, lactation adjusts to demand. This is how some adoptive mothers, usually beginningwith a supplemental nursing system or some other form of supplementation, can breastfeed.[9]There is thought to be little or no difference in milk composition whether lactation is induced or aresult of pregnancy.[citation needed] Rare accounts of male lactation (as distinct from galactorrhea)exist in medical literature.Some drugs, primarily atypical antipsychotics such as Risperdal, may cause lactation in bothwomen and men. Also, some couples may use lactation for sexual purposes.References 1. ^ McNeilly, A. S. 1997. Lactation and fertility. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 2:291-298 PMID 10882312 2. ^ a b c Mohrbacher, Nancy (2003). The Breastfeeding Answer Book, 3rd ed. (revised), La Leche League International. ISBN 0-912500-92-1. 3. ^ Cregan M, Mitoulas L, Hartmann P (2002). "Milk prolactin, feed volume and duration between feeds in women breastfeeding their full-term infants over a 24 h period". Exp Physiol 87 (2): 207–14. doi:10.1113/eph8702327. PMID 11856965. 4. ^ Sears, Martha; Sears, William (2000). The Breastfeeding Book. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-77924-5. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 131
  • 133. 5. ^ deCarvalho M, Anderson D, Giangreco A, Pittard W (1985). "Frequency of milk expression and milk production by mothers of non-nursing premature neonates". Am J Dis Child 139 (5): 483–5. PMID 3984973. 6. ^ Hopkinson J, Schanler R, Garza C (1988). "Milk production by mothers of premature infants". Pediatrics 81 (6): 815–20. PMID 3368280. 7. ^ Daly S, Owens R, Hartmann P (1993). "The short-term synthesis and infant-regulated removal of milk in lactating women". Exp Physiol 78 (2): 209–20. PMID 8471241. 8. ^ Fray, Kathy (2005). Oh Baby...Birth, Babies & Motherhood Uncensored. Random House NZ. ISBN 1-86941-713-5. 9. ^ Fourfriends.comSee also A 5 day old mouse pup, suckling on an anesthetized, lactating female. • Galactogogue • Milk line • Udder External links • How mammals lost their egg yolks - Did mammals develop nutritional milk before or after they abandoned yolky eggs? (New Scientist, 18 March 2008BREAST IRONING"Before this breast band, my mother used the grindingstone—heated in the fire—to massage my chest. Everynight my mother examines my chest (and) massages me,sometimes with the pestle," Matia adds. "Although I cryhard because of the pain, she tells me: Endure, mydaughter; you are young and there is no point in havingbreasts at your age."1[1]Josaine Matia, 11 years oldYaounde, CameroonWhat is Breast Ironing?Breast ironing is a traditional practice that involvesmassaging or pressing the breasts of adolescent girls inorder to suppress and reverse their development. Therationale is to prevent girls from developing breasts in thebelief that a flat, child-like chest will discourage unwantedmale attention, rape and pre-marital pregnancy.2[2]Breast ironing is a well-kept secret between the young girl and her mother. Often the fatherremains completely unaware. The girl believes that what her mother is doing is for her own goodand keeps silent. This silence perpetuates the practice and all of its consequences.3[3] Breast‘ironing’ involves massaging the growing breasts of young girls in order to make them disappear,usually by using a stone, a hammer or a spatula that has been heated over coals.4[4]1[1] IPS Tetchiada, Sylvestre. IGHTS-CAMEROON: An Unwelcome "Gift of God"2[2] Kinoti, Kathambi. 8.11.2006. “Breast Ironing: Breaking the Silence.” Interview with Bessem Bissong.3[3] Kinoti, Kathambi. 8.11.2006. “Breast Ironing: Breaking the Silence.” Interview with Bessem Bissong.4[4] Sylvia Spring/IRIN Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 132
  • 134. Proponents say they do this to discourage male interference in young girls, to prevent girlsthemselves from pursuing men, to discourage girls from engaging in sexual intercourse at a veryyoung age and to reduce the risk of pregnancy. Because the topic of sex is taboo, young girlsremain ignorant of how to protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.Young people make up most of the 5.5 per cent of the population living with HIV, and teenagepregnancy is a growing concern—thus increasing reliance on breast ironing to deter sexualactivity.5[5]Proponents also argue that discouraging male attention will ensure that the girl’s studies will notbe interrupted.6[6]Prevalence Breast ironing appears to be most widely-practiced in Cameroon. Its more common in the Christian and animist south of the country than the Muslim north, where only 10 per cent of women are affected.7[7] It also occurs in Guinea-Bissau, West and Central Africa, including Chad, Togo, Benin, Guinea-Conakry.8[8] Some 24 per cent of girls in Cameroon, about one girl in four, undergo breast ironing. 9[9] Breast ironing occurs extensively in the 10 provinces throughout Cameroon.10[10] A sample survey published in January 2006 of 5000 girls and women aged between 10 and 82 in Cameroon, estimates that 4 million women had suffered the process.11[11] Today, 3.8 million teenagers are threatened with the practice. 12[12] Up to 53 per cent of women and girls interviewed in the coastal Littoral province in the southeast, where the countrys main port, Douala, is situated, admit to having had their breasts ironed. More than half (58 per cent) of cases breast ironing were undertaken by mothers. Other relatives also participate.13[13]Health and Socio-Economic Implications Breast ironing is terribly painful and violates a young girl’s physical integrity. Breast ironing exposes girls to numerous health problems such as abscesses, itching, discharge of milk, infection, dissymmetry of the breasts, cysts, breast infections, severe fever, tissue damage and even the complete disappearance of one or both breasts. This painful form of mutilation could not only have negative health consequences for the girls, but often proves futile when it comes to deterring teenage sexual activity.Response5[5] Sylvia Spring/IRIN, According to Bessem Arrey Ebanga Bisong, executive secretary of RENATA.6[6] Kinoti, Kathambi. 8.11.2006. “Breast Ironing: Breaking the Silence.” Interview with Bessem Bissong.7[7] Reuters 7.12.2006.[8] Flavien Ndonko, anthropologist for GTZ. According to the German Agency for Technical Co-operation (Deutsche Gesellschaft fürTechnische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ), an international body owned by the German government January 2006 Investigative Study, africas-women/2006/07/05/1151779013634.html.9[9] IPS Tetchiada, Sylvestre. IGHTS-CAMEROON: An Unwelcome "Gift of God". Flavien Ndonko, a doctor who works for GTZ,told IPS.10[10] IPS Tetchiada, Sylvestre. IGHTS-CAMEROON: An Unwelcome "Gift of God"11[11] GTZ study 2006.12[12] According to the German Agency for Technical Co-operation (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ), aninternational body owned by the German government January 2006 Investigative Study, IPS Tetchiada, Sylvestre. IGHTS-CAMEROON: An Unwelcome "Gift of God"; Sylvia Spring/IRIN13[13] Reuters 7.6.2006. Tansa Musa. “Breast Ironing: Grim Secret of Africa’s Women.” January 2006 GTZ Survey Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 133
  • 135. The Network of Aunties Association, RENATA, made up of members who have undergone the practice are drawing public attention to the psychological trauma and other ensuing health risks in order to protect young girls from this form of bodily mutilation. RENATA has produced radio and television spots, and several radio and television journalists have joined in spreading information about breast ironing. Leaflets and calendars outlining the types of objects used in breast ironing, the extent of the practice and its consequences have also been produced.Recommendations Governments in affected countries should raise public awareness of the dangers of breast ironing and why it needs to be stopped.14[14] Awareness raising should also include frank discussions of sexuality. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for many parents to talk to their children about sex owing to modesty or for cultural reasons. Some expert theorize that parents prefer instead, to rid their children of the bodily signs of puberty in order to avoid potentially embarrassing discussions. The onset of adolescence, however, is exactly the right time to start such dialogues. Prosecution of perpetrators15[15]German, Cameroonian Advocacy Groups Launch Breast Ironing Awareness Campaign The German cooperation agency GTZ and the Cameroonian nongovernmental organization Network of Aunties, which supports young women with children, have launched a campaign warning that the practice of "breast ironing" can stunt girls natural development and is dangerous and ineffective, IRIN News reports. According to IRIN News, breast ironing involves massaging breasts of young girls with a stone, hammer or heated spatula to make them disappear and prevent sexual advances of boys and men (IRIN News, 8/27). People who perform the practice in Cameroon could go to jail for up to three years if a physician determines the breasts have been damaged (Kaiser Daily Womens Health Policy Report, 6/26/06). However, about 24% of girls in Cameroon have had their breasts ironed, including up to 53% of girls in the coastal Littoral province, a recent GTZ survey found. According to the survey, about 3.8 million young girls are at risk of undergoing the practice.Flavien Ndonko, an anthropologist with GTZs German-Cameroon HIV/AIDS health program,said that the practice has negative health consequences and is ineffective as a form of sexeducation. Many young girls and women with children have said they had their breasts ironed,which "clearly proves" that the practice does not work as pregnancy prevention, Ndonko said.According to IRIN News, girls and women ages 13 to 25 account for one-third of unintendedpregnancies in the country.14[14] Kinoti, Kathambi. 8.11.2006. “Breast Ironing: Breaking the Silence.” Interview with Bessem Bissong.15[15] Feminist Daily News Wire. 8.3.2006. Cameroonians Fight Breast Ironing. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 134
  • 136. Ndonko said that because parents are often uncomfortable discussing sex with their children, they"prefer to get rid of the bodily signs of sexuality." Because sex is not discussed openly, girls oftenare unaware of how to prevent pregnancy, or HIV and other sexually transmitted infections,Bessem Arrey Ebanga Bisong, executive secretary of Network of Aunties, said. GTZ andNetwork of Aunties breast ironing awareness campaign has generated discussion about thepractice, Ndonko said. "This is a good way to resolve the problem: people talk about it and askwhy it is being done," she said, adding, "As there is no way to justify [the practice] ... hopefully,they will stop doing it" (IRIN News, 8/27).Reprinted with kind permission from You can view the entireKaiser Daily Health Policy Report, search the archives, or sign up for email delivery at The Kaiser Daily Health Policy Reportis published for, a free service of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation©2005 Advisory Board Company and Kaiser Family Foundation. All rights reserved.Breast bondageFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A model having breast bondage applied to her. Breast bondage is a technique used in BDSM play. It differs from most bondage techniques in that it is not intended to restrict the mobility of the tied person directly. However, it can do so indirectly when it is combined with other techniques. A bondage harness can also be used to achieve the same effect as breast bondage. Sometimes, nipple clamps are placed on the nipples or other, more involved methods of tit torture are combined with breast bondage for a greater erotic effect. Contents • 1 Methods o 1.1 Techniques • 2 Effect and other uses • 3 Safety • 4 External links • 5 References Methods1/4 inch ropes, ribbon, or leather straps are used to flatten the breasts.Chains can also be used, having the advantage of increased sensationalawareness through their coldness which can be increased by preppingin a freezer. In breast binding, it is also common for bandages, plasticwraps, and duct tape to flatten breasts, nipples, and areolas. Along withthese forms of painful pleasure or pleasurable pain, there is breast spanking. A rare occurrence,but enjoyed by some where the breasts are spanked, much like ones posterior. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 135
  • 137. Techniques Ropes are tied around the base of each breast, causing the breasts to bulge outwards. Usually, the same rope is used for both breasts so that the rope harness is automatically held together at the front. The rope may then also be fixed behind the back, to make a sort of bra. For this to work, the tied person needs large breasts; it is rarely possible to do it to a male. Another technique is to put a rope round the torso just above the breasts, and another one just below them, then push the ropes together to squeeze the breasts from the top and bottom, as shown at right. This can be done instead of, or as well as, the other method. A rope can also be passed over the shoulders and between the breasts, drawing the rope above and below the breasts together, then pass back over the shoulders to the knots at the back. The primary rope can be used to place cinches between the arms and the body. This technique is often combined with elbow bondage, to make the breasts stick out even more, as shown in the pictureabove. When using elbow bondage in an advanced method, the elbow ropes as they pass underthe shoulders and behind the neck can draw the ropes above and below the breasts together at thesides of the breasts, thus resulting in rope effectively surrounding the breasts. Alternatively, theropes across the back can be linked to a box tie or a reverse prayer position.Effect and other usesApart from the visual appearance of the breasts beinglifted, the pressure that is applied results in a reduction inblood flow, and a further swelling and firming of thebreasts. This makes them very sensitive, especially thenipples and surrounding areas, and it can be quitepleasurable to the bound person when they are stimulated.Conversely, if nipple clamps are used, the nipples will beparticularly sensitive to this and the degree of painsignificantly greater. Rubber bands around the breasts havealso been used with breast bondage to increase this effectstill further, but can lead to a dangerous restriction inblood flow (see safety).Breast bondage can play an integral part in suspensionbondage. If the subject is being suspended, particularly ina horizontal position such as a suspended hogtie, breastbondage is used as the main supporting area under thechest. If there are ropes above and below the breasts at theupper chest, the weight of the upper body is taken by theseropes. With so much pressure in this area, the rope must be precisely placed or once again bloodflow could be reduced (see safety). The Japanese use a sophisticated form of breast bondagecalled "Ushiro Takatekote." Similar to breast bondage combined with a box tie, it is often used insuspension bondage.SafetyAs with any situation where tight ropes are used, it is possible that blood flow will be restrictedtoo much, which can cause pain and lasting damage. Photos of breast bondage sometimes showthat the breasts have turned purple. Always take care whenever the breasts or nipples begin to Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 136
  • 138. change color or become cool to the touch. It is better to have several short sessions rather than one long one. If you decide to flagellate bound breasts, ensure that you use a low-impact device. Binding the breast removes its natural ability to shift on impact and compacts the tissues so that any hard blow can increase the potential for damage. Rupturing, internal tearing and stretch marks are all hazards of breast suspension if not done properly. If you engage in suspension bondage, make certain that the body is properly suspended through additional means and not by the breasts only. A sharp pair of scissors with blunt points for safety should be kept at hand to quickly undo the bondage in the event of an emergency. Sometimes the breast will leaksome fluids or blood that may cause severe pain and breastcancer. Doctors highly recommend not to use breastbondage because it will cause the breast to grow gradually.External links • Breast Punishment PrimerReferences • The Visual Dictionary of Sex, Dr. Eric J Trimmer (editor), ISBN 0-89479-011-0; A & W Publishers, 1977 v•d•e BDSM Abrasion · Ageplay · Ass worship · Breast bondage · Collar · Edgeplay · Human animal roleplay · Interrogation scene · Bondage and discipline Japanese bondage · Metal bondage · Mummification · B&D or B/D Predicament bondage · Pup-play · Rope bondage · Self- bondage · Sensation play · Suspension bondage · Tie and tease Adult spanking · Body worship · Boot worship · Erotic humiliation · Erotic sexual denial · Facesitting · Fear play · Dominance and submission Female dominance · Female submission · Feminization · Male D&S or D/s dominance · Master/slave · Medical scene · Rape fantasy · Servitude · Sexual slavery · Submissive· rubberdolls Bloodplay · Breathplay · Caning · Cock and ball torture · Erotic electrostimulation · Erotic spanking · Fire play · Fire Sadomasochism cupping · Gun play · Human toilet · Ice play · Impact play · S&M or S/M Knife play · Play piercing · Urethral Play · Violet wand · Wax play · Temperature play · Tit torture Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 137
  • 139. Breast fetishismFrom Wikipedia, the freeencyclopediaBreast fetishism (also known as:mastofact, breast partialism, ormazophilia)[1][2] is a type of sexualpreference. The term is used todescribe the reliance on breasts as astimulus for sexual arousal.[3][4]The phrase breast fetishism is alsoused within ethnographic and feministcontexts to describe a society whichdisplays an irrational devotion tobreasts.[5][6]Contents • 1 History • 2 American culture o 2.1 Nacirema • 3 See also • 4 Notes • 5 References • 6 Further reading HistoryAmerican author Elizabeth Gould Davis in The First Sex (published 1971) attempts to reveal thisfetish through a history dating back to the neolithic era and the goddess shrines of Catal Huyuk(in modern Turkey). Archaeological excavations of the town c.1960 revealed that the walls of theshrine(s) were adorned with disembodied pairs of "mam-maries" that appeared to have "anexistence of their own". The breasts (along with phalluses) were revered by the women of Catal Huyuk as instruments of motherhood, but it was after what Davis describes as a patriarchal revolution – when men had appropriated both phallus worship and "the breast fetish" for themselves – that these organs "acquired the erotic significance with which they are now endowed".[7] The reverence and theorising shown to breasts also appears in the science of modern society, as claimed in a proposal that "breast fetishism" is an example of a contagious thought (or meme) spreading throughout society,[8] or the British zoologist and ethologist Desmond Morris, who in the 1960s proposed in The Naked Ape that the evolution and design of breasts is primarily for influencing human sexuality through signalling (see Biosemiotics), rather than serving an exclusive maternal function. American culture Some authors from the USA say that the female breast is the American fetish-object of choice,[9] and that breast fetishism is predominantly found in the USA.[10][11][12] The critic Molly Haskell, a feminist from the USA, goes Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 138
  • 140. as far as to say that: "The mammary fixation is the most infantile, and the most American, of thesex fetishes".[13][verification needed]NaciremaIn 1957, the American Anthropological Association published a parody essay Body Ritual amongthe Nacirema by the anthropologist Horace Miner which satirized - by alluding to "the magicalbeliefs and practices" of the Nacirema tribe - the attitudes to the human body within Americanculture. The Nacirema society is described as practising rites of increasing or decreasing breastsize in comic opposition to natural circumstances; a process which is motivated by adissatisfaction with the idealized form of breast(s) existing virtually outside human variation.Miner goes on to describe the fetishistic situation with which the few women with"hypermammary development" find themselves; "...(they) are so idolized that they make ahandsome living by simply going from village to village and permitting the natives to stare atthem for a fee".[14]See also • Bakunyū • Breast ironing • Cleavage enhancement • ToplessnessNotes 1. ^ Hickey, 2003. 2. ^ Sexual Positions Terms 3. ^ Bass, 2000. (p.163). 4. ^ McConaghy, 1993. (p.319). 5. ^ Evans, 1989. (p. 34). 6. ^ Glazier, & Flowerday, 2003. (p. 58). 7. ^ Davis, 1971. (p. 105). 8. ^ Marsden, 1999. 9. ^ Slade, 2000. (p. 402). 10. ^ Miller, 2006. (p. 74). 11. ^ Latteier, 1998. 12. ^ Morrison, & Holden, 1971. 13. ^ Molly Haskell, see source. 14. ^ Miner, 1956.References • Bass, Alan. (2000). Difference and • Marsden, Paul. (1999). Journal of Disavowal: The Trauma of Eros, The Artificial Societies and Social Part Object. Stanford University Press. Simulation. Review of "Thought ISBN 0804738289. Contagion: How Belief Spreads through • Davis, Elizabeth Gould. (1971). The Society".. Retrieved 2007-10-05. First Sex: The Breast Fetish. Penguin • Miller, Laura. (2006). Beauty Up: Books. Exploring Contemporary Japanese Body • Evans, Phil. (1989). Motivation and Aesthetics. University of California Emotion. Routledge. ISBN 0415014751. Press. ISBN 0520245091. • Glazier, Stephen D. & Flowerday, • Miner, Horace Mitchell. (June 1956). Charles A. (2003). Selected Readings in wikisource:Body Ritual among the the Anthropology of Religion: Nacirema, from American Theoretical and Methodological Essays. Anthropologist, vol 58. Praeger/Greenwood (Pub.) ISBN • Morris, Desmond. (1967). The Naked 0313300909. Ape. Jonathan Cape. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 139
  • 141. • Hickey, Eric W. (2003). Encyclopaedia • Morrison, D. E., and C. P. Holden. of Murder and Violent Crime. Sage (1971). The Burning Bra: The American Publications Inc. ISBN 076192437X. Breast Fetish and Womens Liberation. • Latteier, Carolyn. (1998). Breasts: A In Deviance and Change, ed. P.K. Womans Perspective on an American Manning. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Obsession. Haworth Press. ISBN Prentice Hall. 0789004224. • Slade, Joseph W. (2000). Pornography • McConaghy, Nathaniel. (1993). Sexual and Sexual Representation: A Reference Behavior: Problems and Management. Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. Springer (Publisher). ISBN ISBN 0313315205 0306441772.Further reading • Moreck, Curt. (1965). Breast fetishism. International Press of Sexology. ASIN B0007HAEES • Serpents in the Garden: Liaisons with Culture and Sex. 2004. (ed. Alexander Cockburn, Jeffrey St. Clair). Dr. Susan Block "Covering Justice: Ashcrofts Breast Fetish". • Tovar, Virgie. 2007. Destination DD: Adventures of a Breast Fetishist with 40DDs. Sexy Advisors Press. ISBN 0978869946. • Yalom, Marilyn. 1997. A History of the Breast. pub. Knopf. ISBN 0679434593. Human sexual behavior > Paraphilias > Sexual fetishism Actions, events and states Amputation · Anesthesia · Breast expansion · Crush · Disability · Lactation · Hypnosis · Impregnation · Jock sniffing · Obesity · Medical examinations · Pregnancy · Transvesticism · Smoking · Tickling · Tightlacing · Total enclosure · Wet and messy Body parts (partialisms) Breast · Foot · Hand · Navel · NoseFetishized subjects Fictions and categories Vampires · Transformation fiction Human identity and ethnic groups Asian ethnic groups · Daddys girl · Race and ethnic groups Objects and substances Blood · Boots · Diapers · Dolls · Garments · Latex and PVC · Masks · Medical objects · Panties · Pantyhose and stockings · Robots · Second skin clothing · Shoes · Silk and satin · Spandex Fetish artists · Clubs · Fashion · Fetish models and modelling · Photography · Fetish society Publishing · Subculture Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 140
  • 142. Big tit fantasy New Galleries MILF GalleriesNatural Tits Galleries Sexy Nipples Galleries Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 141
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  • 145. Sex at Work Galleries Big Tit Ethnic Big Tit Pornstars Live Chat Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 144
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  • 147. Big Tit Uniform Big Tit StockingsBig Tit Amateurs Big Tit FetishDisorders of the BreastArticle Last Updated: Jan 24, 2008 • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 146
  • 148. Author: Marjorie J Arca, MD, Assistant Professor of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery,Co-director of Surgical Critical Care, Medical College of Wisconsin; Consulting Surgeon,Surgical Director of Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Childrens Hospital of WisconsinMarjorie J Arca is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association,Association of Women Surgeons, International Pediatric Endosurgery Group, Phi Beta Kappa,Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, Society of American Gastrointestinal andEndoscopic Surgeons, Society of Critical Care Medicine, and Society of LaparoendoscopicSurgeonsCoauthor(s): Denise B Klinkner, MD, Surgical Research Fellow, Department of PediatricSurgery, Childrens Hospital of WisconsinEditors: Aviva L Katz, MD, Assistant Professor of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School ofMedicine; Consulting Staff, Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, Childrens Hospital ofPittsburgh; Mary L Windle, PharmD, Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of NebraskaMedical Center College of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Editor,, Inc; Gail E Besner,MD, Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Collegeof Medicine and Public Health; Director, Pediatric Surgical Research, Department of Surgery,Childrens Hospital; H Biemann Othersen Jr, MD, Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics,Emeritus Head, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina; HarshGrewal, MD, FACS, FAAP, Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, Temple University School ofMedicine; Chief, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Temple University Childrens Medical CenterSynonyms and related keywords: athelia, absence of nipples, absent nipples, amastia, absenceof breast tissue, absent breast tissue, extra breast, polymastia, extra nipple, third nipple,supernumerary nipples, polythelia, witchs milk, mastitis neonatorum, benign prematurethelarche, precocious puberty, breast asymmetry, fibroadenoma, juvenile fibroadenoma, giantfibroadenoma, cystosarcoma phyllodes, gynecomastia, malignant breast disease, breast disorders,disorders of the breast, Poland syndrome, Staphylococcus aureus, hypothalamic hamartomas,McCune-Albright syndrome, breast cancer, cancer of the breast, mammary duct ectasia,Klinefelter syndrome, testicular feminization, hormone-secreting tumors, hyperthyroidism,hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Hodgkin disease, Li-Fraumenisyndrome, Cowden syndrome, Ataxia-telangiectasia syndromeEMBRYOLOGY AND BREAST DEVELOPMENT • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 147
  • 149. EmbryologyDuring the sixth week of development, the mammary glands first develop as solid downgrowthsof the epidermis that extend into the mesenchyme from the axilla to the inguinal regions. Later,these ridges (ie, milk lines) disappear, except in the pectoral area. The nipple forms during theperinatal period with the proliferation of the mesenchyme underlying the areola.At birth, the nipples are poorly formed and are often depressed. Soon after birth, the nipples areraised from the shallow mammary pits by proliferation of the surrounding connective tissue.Breast developmentBudding of the breasts, or thelarche, usually occurs at approximately age 10-11 years in females.This developmental change, along with adrenarche (ie, appearance of dark hair over the monsveneris), signifies entry into Tanner stage II of development. From this stage, completematuration to Tanner stage V usually takes more than 4 years. Breast maturation can be as shortas 18 months or as long as 9 years.The most common abnormality seen in a primary caregiver’s office in children younger than 12years is a unilateral breast mass corresponding to asymmetric breast development.1 One breastcommonly develops earlier than the other. Ultimately, the breasts are symmetric, despite thediscrepancy in the initial development. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF THE BREAST • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Athelia (ie, absence of nipples) and amastia (ie, absence of breast tissue) may occur bilaterally or unilaterally. This is a rare condition and results when the mammary ridges fail to develop or completely disappear. Athelia or amastia is sometimes associated with Poland syndrome (ie, absent chest wall muscles, absence of ribs 2-5, deformities of hands or vertebrae). Amastia in girls can be treated with augmentation mammoplasty.An extra breast (ie, polymastia) or extra nipple (ie, polythelia) occurs in approximately 1% of thepopulation. It may be an inheritable condition.2 Supernumerary nipples are slightly more commonin males than in females. Extra breasts or nipples most commonly occur along the milk line,usually just underneath the normally located breasts or nipples; however, they have also beennoted in ectopic sites such as the back or the buttock. Accessory or ectopic breast tissue respondsto hormonal stimulation and may cause discomfort during menstrual cycles. These accessorytissues have also been reported to undergo malignant transformation and should be removed.3BREAST DISORDERS IN PREPUBERTAL CHILDRENSection 4 of 10 • Authors and Editors Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 148
  • 150. • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Influx of maternal hormones through the placenta into the fetal circulation often causes the newborns breasts to be enlarged. In addition, some secretion (ie, witchs milk) may be evident. These changes disappear with time. Mastitis neonatorum or infections of the breast tissue may also occur during the newborn period. Treatment includes antibiotics. If an abscess occurs, needle aspiration should be performed. Surgical drainage should only be considered when needle aspiration is unsuccessful because an operation may damage the breast bud and result in reduction of adult breast size. Prepubertal girls may develop breast abscesses. Theabscess manifests as a tender and erythematous mass. The most common organism causing breastabscesses in this population is Staphylococcus aureus. Recently, an increasing number of skinand soft tissue abscesses caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA) have occurred in children. Treatment involves antibiotics, needle aspiration, orsurgical drainage. The decision for surgical drainage should be carefully made because futurebreast deformation may occur. The literature suggests that drainage alone, without adjunctiveantibiotics, may be effective in skin and soft tissue abscesses caused by MRSA; no definitiveantibiotic recommendation regarding MRSA breast abscesses in particular is recognized.4Benign premature thelarche is defined as isolated breast development in females aged 6 months to9 years. Physical examination for this entity should carefully seek out other signs of puberty, suchas development of pubic hair, thickening of the vaginal mucosa, or accelerated bone growth. If noother signs of puberty are present, reassure the patient and family that this is a benign finding.Examine the child every 6-12 months. If other signs of puberty are evident, precocious pubertyshould be entertained as a diagnosis.Early onset of puberty is more common in girls than inboys and is predominantly mediated by prematureactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.Central precocious puberty may be caused byhypothalamic hamartomas, trauma, and CNS lesions;however, it is most commonly idiopathic. Treatmentinvolves continuous administration of exogenousgonadotropins. Peripheral precocious puberty is due to sexsteroid secretion independent of gonadotropin release;causes include McCune-Albright syndrome. Whensuspecting precocious puberty, tests for luteinizinghormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 149
  • 151. testosterone, and estradiol should be performed.BREAST DISORDERS IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Breast asymmetry may develop as thelarche ensues. In this condition, one breast may develop before or more rapidly than the other. The physical examination findings usually include homogenous enlargement of one breast with no discrete masses or discharge. Accompanying breast tenderness may be present if the breast bud is starting todevelop. If a mass is excluded either by physical examination or ultrasonography, the patient andparents can be reassured that the asymmetry will become less noticeable with age.Body piercings in general have become more common. Some studies have reported nipplepiercings that caused local infection and disfiguration. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus speciesare the common causative organisms, but 3 cases have reported Mycobacterium infection.5Treatment includes appropriate antibiotics and removal of the foreign body.6Breast abscesses may occur in adolescent women, particularly if they are lactating. These aremanaged with antibiotics, drainage using ultrasonography or drainage in the operating room, orboth. Ultrasonography-guided drainage for abscesses has been reported with good success for thisdisease.7, 8 Mastitis in nonlactatingadolescents may occur.9 S aureus isthe usual cause in cases that requiredrainage; however, most patientsrespond to oral antibiotics withoutadditional intervention.Breast masses in adolescent girls areusually benign. The most commondiscrete breast mass is a fibroadenoma(70%). Upon examination, thesemasses are smooth, mobile, andround. They may occasionally becomelarger just before the patientsmenstrual period. Masses with thecharacteristics of fibroadenoma maybe serially monitored (every 1-3 mo)with a careful physical examination. Alternatively, an excisional biopsy may be performed if thepatient and family request it. As many as 15% of patients may have multiple fibroadenomas.Juvenile, or giant, fibroadenomas are unusually large (>5 cm). They usually display rapid growthbut are usually benign. Management consists of surgery. Histologically, juvenile fibroadenomas Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 150
  • 152. have more cellularity than typical fibroadenomas (see Media files 3-5). They should bedifferentiated from cystosarcoma phyllodes. Cystosarcoma phyllodes tumors manifest as a painless breast mass.10 Patients may have a history of sudden enlargement of a previously stable mass. The mass may be dramatically large; thinning of overlying skin and increased vascularity of the area may be present. Ultrasonography cannot usually be used to distinguish between a fibroadenoma and a phyllodes tumor. The differentiation between a fibroadenoma and cystosarcoma phyllodes lies in histologic examination. Phyllodes tumors have a more cellular stroma with nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. As many as 25% of phyllodes tumors are considered malignant. The management for a benign or malignant phyllodes tumor is wide excision with a margin of normal breast tissue. Malignant phyllodes tumors rarely metastasize to the axilla. Axillary dissections are indicated for patients with palpable lymph nodes. Trauma to the breast, iatrogenic or blunt, may result in apalpable mass. The trauma causes fat necrosis, or breakdown of the adipose tissue. To complicatethe diagnosis, women may or may not recall the inciting event. In addition, women may examinea traumatized breast and discover a mass that was present prior to the event. Upon physicalexamination, the mass is sometimes indistinguishable from a cancer. Ultrasonography,mammography, and even MRI of the breast may not be able to discern the difference, leading tobiopsies in concerning masses. Although pathognomonic for fat necrosis, key features—includingperipheral calcifications, fibrotic scar, and echogenic internal bands—may also be consistent withbreast cancer.11 Findings of lipid cysts or ultrasonographic evidence of fat necrosis may assist inthe decision to monitor a palpable abnormality or perform a biopsy.12Fibrocystic changes of the breast are very common in the adolescent population. Physicalexamination findings may reveal discrete breast cysts or diffuse small lumps throughout. Breasttenderness and heaviness may be experienced by the patient, especially before her menstrualperiod. The patient is advised to avoid caffeine. Evening primrose oil (1 tablespoon at bedtime)may be used to alleviate breast pain associated withfibrocystic changes of the breast.13A single dominant lump that is present for severalmonths likely requires excisional biopsy. Singledominant cysts may be aspirated in an outpatientsetting. Cytopathologic examination should beconducted if the fluid is bloody. Fibrocystic changesare histologically classified into 3 categories:nonproliferative changes, proliferative changeswithout atypia, and proliferative changes withatypia. Patients with proliferative changes and/oratypia have a higher risk for future malignancies. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 151
  • 153. Although no specific data are available in adolescents, the risks in adults are well-described. Proliferative fibrocystic disease (described histologically as moderate or florid hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis, or papilloma with a fibrovascular core) has been associated with a 1.5- to 2-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. The most substantial increase in risk of breast cancer is observed in patients with atypical or lobular hyperplasia; this is associated with a 4.4-fold increase in cancer risk, which increases to 9-fold with a positive family history.14 Screening guidelines for patients with a history of atypia on breast biopsy findings are still evolving. In adults, current recommendations include yearly physician examinations and yearly mammography.15 Patients should be aware of the limitations and should be taught how to perform self–breast examinations. No data indicate that the additive radiation from mammography increases the risk of breast cancer. These recommendations should be followed in children and adolescents. Mammary duct ectasia is a benign lesion of the breast thatconsists of dilation of the mammary ducts, periductal fibrosis, and inflammation. This entity hasbeen described in infants, prepubertal boys and girls, and adult men and women. The patientpresents with nipple discharge, which may be bloody. In children and adolescents, the lesion isusually unilateral. Infectious and inflammatory causes have been implicated in the etiology of thisfinding. Ultrasonography findings are usually suggestive, revealing dilated mammary ductsradially located around the nipple. The process is usually self-limited; therefore, surgery is notrecommended if the diagnosis is certain.16BENIGN BREAST CONDITIONS IN MALES • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • ReferencesGynecomastia is a benign and usually self-limited condition that occurs in 50-60% of boys duringearly adolescence. Physical examination findings vary from discrete, 1- to 3-cm, round, mobile,and usually tender masses located just underneath the areola to diffusely enlarged breasts. If themass is large or fixed or if a discharge is present, further workup is necessary. The differentialdiagnosis for gynecomastia includes Klinefelter syndrome, testicular feminization, hormone-secreting tumors, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, drug use (eg, cimetidine,marijuana), familial predisposition, and obesity. Young men with gynecomastia may often bemonitored in the clinic and may be reassured that the condition is self-limited. If the breastenlargement is such that it causes pain, discomfort, or psychological trauma, subcutaneousmastectomies may be performed. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 152
  • 154. MALIGNANT BREAST DISEASE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Malignant breast disease is uncommon in children and in adolescents. Risk factors for breast malignancies include history of familial breast cancer, previous benign disease associated with malignancy (ie, fibrocystic changes with atypia), other malignancies, or irradiation to the neck and chest areas. The most common malignant mass in the breastof a child or adolescent is a metastatic lesion.Ashikdri et al reviewed the world literature between 1888 and 1977 and found a total of 74 casesof carcinoma of the breast in children and adolescents.17 Initial surgical options for infiltratinglobular or intraductal carcinoma in adolescents include breast-sparing surgery (ie, lumpectomywith axillary node dissection and irradiation) or modified radical mastectomy. Younger womentend to have more aggressive disease.Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy is strongly advised in all young women with breast carcinoma.No concrete recommendations regarding the use of endocrine methods (ie, ovarian ablation) inthe treatment of breast cancer in these women are available.18 Other primary malignancies of thebreast include rhabdomyosarcoma and Hodgkin disease.19 Metastatic disease in children is moreoften rhabdomyosarcoma.20The average American female has an 11% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. The risk in afirst-degree relative (ie, mother, sister, daughter) of a breast cancer patient is 2- to 3-foldgreater.21, 22 This risk is increased to 9-fold when the patient has bilateral premenopausal breastcancer.Only 5% of all breast cancer patients have true hereditary breast cancer. Families with hereditarybreast cancer have the following characteristics: early onset of breast cancer (usually before age45 y), increased incidence of bilateral breast cancer, autosomal dominant inheritance for breastcancer, and greater frequency of multiple primary cancers. Hence, adolescents of a parent withhereditary breast cancer have a 50% chance of inheriting the causative gene. Currentrecommendations suggest that mature young women consider genetic testing for the purposes offamily and life planning.23 However, because few proven early interventions are available,genetic testing may be delayed until childbearing is complete or until age 35 years or older.Two breast cancer susceptibility genes have been mapped. BRCA1 has linkage with breast,ovarian, and prostate cancers. The BRCA1 gene confers an 83% breast cancer risk and a 63%ovarian cancer risk by age 70 years. BRCA2 has linkage with both male and female breast Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 153
  • 155. cancers. Overall, the lifetime risk of development ofbreast cancer in known BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers is60-80%.24, 25Other groups are known to have an increasedsusceptibility to breast cancer. Families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome have p53 mutations, which areassociated with an increased risk for sarcomas, breastcancer, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, leukemia, andadrenal cortical carcinoma.26 The pattern of transmissionis autosomal dominant. Breast cancer develops in 77%of women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome at age 22-45years; 25% developing bilateral disease. Rarely, tumorsmay develop in the teenaged patient.Cowden disease is characterized by multiple benignkeratoses located at the mucocutaneous sites on the face,hands, feet, and forearms; goiter; lipomas; and uterineleiomyomas. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast may develop in 30% of these women; onethird of these cases are bilateral.27Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome is characterized by multiple telangiectasias, immune dysfunction,sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to chromosomal fragility, and progressive neuromusculardeterioration. Heterozygotic individuals have a 5-fold greater risk of developing breast cancer.Mutations of genes associated with inherited forms of colon cancer (ie, MSH2, MLH1) areassociated with multiple skin malignancies, GI malignancies, and breast cancer.28Exposure to ionizing radiation has been shown to increase breast cancer risk. The patients ageduring exposure is correlated to the risk; the highest risk is posed to the adolescent, whereasexposure in those older than 40 years only minimally increases the risk. Also, the latency periodis long.Recommendations for screening for families with hereditary breast cancer (ie, BRCA1, BRCA2,Li-Fraumeni) include examination by a physician twice a year. Screening mammography shouldbe performed once or twice yearly beginning when the patient is aged 10 years younger than theyoungest affected relative or no older than age 35 years. Patients who have positive test findingsfor the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes may opt to undergo prophylactic bilateral mastectomies, which isassociated with an approximately 90% reduction in the risk of breast cancer.29 Depending on theage at diagnosis in the first-degree relative, prophylactic mastectomies may be delayed until age35 years or until childbearing is complete.23Women aged 25 years and older who were exposed to ionizing radiation before age 30 years (eg,mantle irradiation for Hodgkin disease,30 thymic irradiation for enlargement, radiation formastitis, radiation exposure from nuclear fall-out) should be examined by a physician twice ayear and should undergo annual mammography and MRI beginning 8 years after radiationexposure.31, 15 The lag of 8 years is because of the long latency period of radiation damage totissue. Because mammography has limited use in evaluating dense breast tissue, only twice-yearly physician examinations are recommended in patients younger than 25 years.32, 33 Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 154
  • 156. DIAGNOSTIC MODALITIES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References When treating a patient who presents with a breast mass, ask about a family history of breast and ovarian malignancies, a family history of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, a previous history of malignancy, previous chest irradiation, a history of trauma, and a history of other breast masses. Perform a complete and thorough examination of both breasts to evaluate for masses and nipple discharge. Characterize breast masses according to size, contour (ie, smooth vs irregular), overlying skin changes (eg, dimpling, edema), and fixation. Examine the lymphatic basins of the breast (ie, axillary, infraclavicular, supraclavicular areas) for enlargedlymph nodes. Adolescents who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations should beginroutine office visits at age 20 years for clinical breast examination and to receiveinformation regarding their risk of developing breast cancer.15Because of the denseness of the breast tissue in young children, mammography is not usuallyvery helpful.34 Ultrasonography is more effective at delineating masses within the immaturebreast.35 Color Doppler ultrasonography may increase the specificity of the diagnosis; cysts areavascular, fibroadenomas are hypovascular, and abscessesshow increased peripheral flow.36 Recent data suggestultrasound findings alone may guide management in mostcystic and solid-cystic lesions.37 Fine-needle aspirationmay be performed to manage breast cysts; ultrasonographyshould be performed often to ensure that normal breasttissue is not harmed.MRI with gadolinium-based enhancement has drawninterest as a modality to study breast disease.38 However,findings have been inconsistent. For example, age andmenstrual cycle may affect the parenchymal contrastmedium enhancement.39 In women with a high risk ofbreast cancer, breast MRI does have a high sensitivity(88%) but only moderate specificity (67%).40In patients aged 25 years or older, current guidelinesrecommend annual MRI as an adjunct to mammography inwomen at high risk, including those with a BRCA Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 155
  • 157. mutation, first-degree relatives of a BRCA carrier (untested), those with a lifetime risk of 20-25%,those who received radiation to the chest between age 10 and 30 years, those with Li-Fraumenisyndrome or first-degree relatives of individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and those withCowden syndrome or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes or first-degree relativesof individuals with those syndromes.31 The use of MRI in the pediatric and adolescent populationhas not been described.In very young and preadolescent children, a biopsy should be considered with extreme cautionbecause the developing breast bud may be irreparably harmed, even with a needle aspirate.Discrete masses should almost always be removed in boys and postpubertal girls. Excisionalbiopsies are usually performed using a circumareolar incision; if the mass is distant from theareola, an incision directly overlying the mass may be performed.For excellent patient education resources, see eMedicines patient education articles BreastLumps and Pain and Breast Self-Exam.MULTIMEDIA • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • ReferencesMedia file 1: Fibroadenoma. Ultrasonogram courtesy of Helen Pass, MD.Media type: UltrasoundMedia file 2: Fibroadenoma. Ultrasonogram courtesy of Helen Pass, MD.Media type: Ultrasound Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 156
  • 158. Media file 3: Ultrasonogram of fibroadenoma with color Doppler. Note lack of vascularity ofthe lesion. Image courtesy of Brian Coley, MD.Media type: UltrasoundMedia file 4: Ultrasonogram of fibroadenoma. Image courtesy of Brian Coley, MD.Media type: UltrasoundMedia file 5: Hematosin and eosin (H&E) stain of fibroadenoma. Image courtesy of Beth A.Trost, MD.Media type: PhotoREFERENCESSection 10 of 10 • Authors and Editors • Embryology and Breast Development • Congenital Anomalies of the Breast • Breast Disorders in Prepubertal Children • Breast Disorders in Adolescent Girls • Benign Breast Conditions in Males • Malignant Breast Disease in Children and Adolescents • Diagnostic Modalities in Children and Adolescents • Multimedia • References Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 157
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  • 160. 23. Seeber B, Driscoll DA. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome: should we test adolescents?. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Jun 2004;17(3):161-7. [Medline].24. Claus EB, Schildkraut J, Iversen ES Jr, et al. Effect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 on the association between breast cancer risk and family history. J Natl Cancer Inst. Dec 2 1998;90(23):1824-9. [Medline].25. Brody LC, Biesecker BB. Breast cancer susceptibility genes. BRCA1 and BRCA2. Medicine (Baltimore). May 1998;77(3):208-26. [Medline].26. Li FP, Fraumeni JF Jr. Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?. Ann Intern Med. Oct 1969;71(4):747-52. [Medline].27. Williard W, Borgen P, Bol R, Tiwari R, Osborne M. Cowdens disease. A case report with analyses at the molecular level. Cancer. Jun 15 1992;69(12):2969-74. [Medline].28. Anderson DE, Badzioch MD. Bilaterality in familial breast cancer patients. Cancer. Oct 15 1985;56(8):2092-8. [Medline].29. Rebbeck TR, Friebel T, Lynch HT, et al. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. J Clin Oncol. Mar 15 2004;22(6):1055-62. [Medline].30. Bhatia S, Robison LL, Oberlin O, et al. Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkins disease. N Engl J Med. Mar 21 1996;334(12):745-51. [Medline].31. Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin. Mar- Apr 2007;57(2):75-89. [Medline].32. Lynch HT. Introduction to breast cancer genetics. In: Lynch HT, ed. Genetics and Breast Cancer. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1992:1-13.33. Goss PE, Sierra S. Current perspectives on radiation-induced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. Jan 1998;16(1):338-47. [Medline].34. Chateil JF, Arboucalot F, Perel Y, et al. Breast metastases in adolescent girls: US findings. Pediatr Radiol. Nov 1998;28(11):832-5. [Medline].35. Kronemer KA, Rhee K, Siegel MJ, et al. Gray scale sonography of breast masses in adolescent girls. J Ultrasound Med. May 2001;20(5):491-6; quiz 498. [Medline].36. Garcia CJ, Espinoza A, Dinamarca V, et al. Breast US in children and adolescents. Radiographics. Nov-Dec 2000;20(6):1605-12. [Medline].37. Chang YW, Kwon KH, Goo DE, Choi DL, Lee HK, Yang SB. Sonographic differentiation of benign and malignant cystic lesions of the breast. J Ultrasound Med. Jan 2007;26(1):47-53. [Medline].38. Cecil KM, Schnall MD, Siegelman ES, Lenkinski RE. The evaluation of human breast lesions with magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Jul 2001;68(1):45-54. [Medline].39. Muller-Schimpfle M, Ohmenhauser K, Stoll P, et al. Menstrual cycle and age: influence on parenchymal contrast medium enhancement in MR imaging of the breast. Radiology. Apr 1997;203(1):145-9. [Medline].40. Bluemke DA, Gatsonis CA, Chen MH, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy. JAMA. Dec 8 2004;292(22):2735-42. [Medline].41. Corpron CA, Black CT, Singletary SE, Andrassy RJ. Breast cancer in adolescent females. J Pediatr Surg. Feb 1995;30(2):322-4. [Medline].42. Davidoff AM, Hill DA. Molecular genetic aspects of solid tumors in childhood. Semin Pediatr Surg. Aug 2001;10(3):106-18. [Medline].43. Dehner LP, Hill DA, Deschryver K. Pathology of the breast in children, adolescents, and young adults. Semin Diagn Pathol. Aug 1999;16(3):235-47. [Medline].44. Eisenhut CC, King DE, Nelson WA, et al. Fine-needle biopsy of pediatric lesions: a three-year study in an outpatient biopsy clinic. Diagn Cytopathol. Feb 1996;14(1):43- 50. [Medline]. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 159
  • 161. 45. Greydanus DE, Parks DS, Farrell EG. Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. Jun 1989;36(3):601-38. [Medline]. 46. Madani S, Tolia V. Gynecomastia with metoclopramide use in pediatric patients. J Clin Gastroenterol. Mar 1997;24(2):79-81. [Medline]. 47. Mansfield JF. Precocious puberty. In: Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven; 1998:141-162. 48. Neinstein LS, Atkinson J, Diament M. Prevalence and longitudinal study of breast masses in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. Jun 1993;14(4):277-81. [Medline]. 49. Pacinda SJ, Ramzy I. Fine-needle aspiration of breast masses. A review of its role in diagnosis and management in adolescent patients. J Adolesc Health. Jul 1998;23(1):3- 6. [Medline]. 50. Weinstein SP, Conant EF, Orel SG, et al. Spectrum of US findings in pediatric and adolescent patients with palpable breast masses. Radiographics. Nov- Dec 2000;20(6):1613-21. [Medline]. 51. West KW, Rescorla FJ, Scherer LR 3rd, Grosfeld JL. Diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic breast masses in the pediatric population. J Pediatr Surg. Feb 1995;30(2):182-6; discussion 186-7. [Medline].Disorders of the Breast excerptBreast Ultrasound What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare for the procedure? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast?Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, involves exposing part of thebody to high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. Ultrasoundexams do not use ionizing radiation (x-ray). Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 160
  • 162. they can show the structure and movement of the bodys internal organs, as well as blood flowingthrough blood vessels.Ultrasound imaging is usually a painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treatmedical conditions.Ultrasound imaging of the breast produces a picture of the internal structures of the breast.A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a breast ultrasound examination.Doppler ultrasound is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood as it flows through ablood vessel, including the bodys major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs and neck.During a breast ultrasound examination the sonographer or physician performing the test may useDoppler techniques to evaluate blood flow or lack of flow in any breast mass. This may in somecases provide additional information as to the cause of the mass.What are some common uses of the procedure? Determining the Nature of a Breast Abnormality The primary use of breast ultrasound today is to help diagnose breast abnormalities detected by a physician during a physical exam and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography. Ultrasound imaging can help to determine if an abnormality is solid (which may be a non-cancerous lump of tissue or a cancerous tumor) or fluid-filled (such as a benign cyst). Ultrasound can also help show additional features of the abnormal area. Doppler ultrasound is used to assess blood supply in breast lesions. Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer that is known to reduce deaths due to breast cancer through early detection. Even so, mammograms do not detect all breast cancers. Some breast lesions and abnormalities are not visible or are difficult to interpret on mammograms. In breasts that are dense, meaning there is a lot of breast tissue and less fat, many cancers can be hard to see on mammography. Over half of women under age 50, and about a third of women over age 50, have dense breasts. Medical studies are currently being done to determine whether ultrasound and other imaging methods can help supplement mammography by detecting small breast cancers that may not be visible with mammography. It is hoped that by detecting such cancers, these other screening tests might help prevent deaths due to breast cancer. Today, ultrasound is being investigated for use as a screening tool for women who: have dense breasts have silicone breast implants and very little tissue can be included on the mammogram are pregnant or should not to be exposed to x-rays (which is necessary for a mammogram) Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 161
  • 163. are at high risk for breast cancer based on family history. Ultrasound-guided Breast Biopsy When an ultrasound examination cannot characterize the nature of a breast abnormality, a physician may choose to perform an ultrasound-guided biopsy. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it is often used to guide biopsy procedures. A breast biopsy involves removing some cells—either surgically or in a less invasive procedure involving a needle—from the suspicious area in the breast and examining them under a microscope to determine a diagnosis. Ultrasound-guidance is used to assist physicians in obtaining tissue samples from the breast in three different biopsy procedures: a cyst aspiration, a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy and a core needle (CN) biopsy. For more information on this procedure, please refer to Ultrasound-guided Breast Biopsy.How should I prepare for the procedure?You will be asked to undress from the waist up and to wear a gown during the procedure. What does the equipment look like?Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video displayscreen and a transducer that is used to scan the body and veins. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner by a cord. The transducer sendsout high frequency sound waves and then listens for the returning echo. The principles are similarto sonar used by boats and submarines.The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a nearby screen that looks much like a computeror television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (strength), frequency and timeit takes for the sound signal to return from the patient to the transducer.How does the procedure work?Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships andfishermen. When a sound wave strikes an object, it bounces backward, or echoes. By measuringthese echo waves it is possible to determine how far away the object is and its size, shape, Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 162
  • 164. consistency (whether the object is solid, filled with fluid, or both) and uniformity.In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance and function of organs, tissues, orabnormal masses, such as tumors.In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends the sound waves and records the echoingwaves. When the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs a stream of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves into the body. As the sound waves bounce off of internal organs, fluidsand tissues, the sensitive microphone in the transducer records tiny changes in the sounds pitchand direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed by a computer, whichin turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. These live images are usually recorded onvideotape and one or more frames of the moving pictures are typically captured as still images.Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed ofblood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitchof the reflected sound waves (Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds andcreates graphs or pictures that represent the flow of blood through the blood vessels.How is the procedure performed?You will lie on your back with your arm raised above your head on the examining table.A clear gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make securecontact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin. Thesonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then presses the transducer firmly against theskin and sweeps it back and forth over the area of interest.Doppler sonography is performed using the same transducer.When the examination is complete, the patient may be asked to dress and wait while theultrasound images are reviewed. However, the sonographer or radiologist is often able to reviewthe ultrasound images in real-time as they are acquired and the patient can be releasedimmediately.This ultrasound examination is usually completed within 30 minutes.What will I experience during and after the procedure?Most ultrasound examinations are painless, fast and easy.After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will spreadsome warm gel on your skin and then press the transducer firmly against your body, moving itback and forth over the area of interest until the desired images are captured. There may be Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 163
  • 165. varying degrees of discomfort from pressure as the transducer is pressed against the area beingexamined.If scanning is performed over an area of tenderness, you may feel pressure or minor pain from theprocedure.If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like sounds that changein pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured.You may be asked to change positions during the exam.Once the imaging is complete, the gel will be wiped off your skin.After an ultrasound exam, you should be able to resume your normal activities.Who interprets the results and how do I get them?A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations,will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, whowill share the results with you. In some cases the radiologist may discuss preliminary results withyou at the conclusion of your examination.What are the benefits vs. risks?Benefits Ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or injections) and is usually painless. Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and needle aspiration of fluid in joints or elsewhere. Ultrasound imaging can help detect lesions in women with dense breasts. Ultrasound may help detect and classify a breast lesion that cannot be interpreted adequately through mammography. Using ultrasound, physicians are able to determine that many areas of concern are due to normal tissue (such as fat lobules) or benign cysts. For most women 30 years of age and older, a mammogram will be used together with ultrasound. For women under age 30, Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 164
  • 166. ultrasound alone is often sufficient to determine whether an area of concern needs a biopsy or not.Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound there are no known harmful effects on humans. Interpretation of a breast ultrasound examination may lead to additional procedures such as follow-up ultrasound and/or aspiration or biopsy. Many of the areas thought to be of concern on an ultrasound turn out to be non-cancerous.What are the limitations of Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? Ultrasound is one of the tools used in breast imaging, but it does not replace annual mammography and careful clinical and self breast examination. Many cancers are not visible on ultrasound. In some cases, ultrasound is not able to determine whether a mass is cancerous, and a biopsy will be recommended. Many calcifications seen on mammography cannot be seen on ultrasound. Some early breast cancers only show up as calcifications on mammography. Many facilities do not offer ultrasound screening, and the procedure may not be covered by some insurance plans. It is important to choose a facility with expertise in breast ultrasound, preferably one where the radiologists specialize in breast imaging. Ultrasound depends on the abnormality being recognized at the time of the scan. This requires experience and good equipment. One measure of a facility’s expertise in breast ultrasound can be found in its ACR accreditation status. Check the facilities in your area by searching the ACR- accredited facilities database.Additional Information and Resources: RadiologyInfo: Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy for Breast CancerTo locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can searchthe ACR-accredited facilities database.Note About Links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo provides links to relevantWeb sites. RadiologyInfo, ACR and RSNA are not responsible for the content contained on theWeb pages found at these links.Note About Images: Images are shown for illustrative purposes. Do not attempt to drawconclusions or make diagnoses by comparing these images to other medical images, particularlyyour own. Only qualified physicians should interpret images; the radiologist is the physicianexpert trained in medical imaging. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 165
  • 167. This procedure is reviewed by a physician with expertise in the area presented and is furtherreviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the RadiologicalSociety of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologicareas.Mammography What is Mammography? Click images to What are some common uses of the procedure? view larger How should I prepare for a mammogram? What does the Mammography equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Mammography? More imagesWhat is Mammography?Mammography is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to examinebreasts. A mammography exam, called a mammogram, is used to aid in the diagnosis of breastdiseases in women.An x-ray (radiograph) is a painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medicalconditions. Radiography involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiationto produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used formof medical imaging.Two recent enhancements to traditional mammography include digital mammography andcomputer-aided detection.Digital mammography, also called full-field digital mammography (FFDM), is a mammographysystem in which the x-ray film is replaced by solid-state detectors that convert x-rays intoelectrical signals. These detectors are similar to those found in digital cameras. The electricalsignals are used to produce images of the breast that can be seen on a computer screen or printedon special film similar to conventional mammograms. From the patients point of view, digitalmammography is essentially the same as the screen-film system.See "Full-Field Digital Mammography: A Potential Alternative to the Traditional Film-ScreenTechnique?" under the News heading for more information on how FFDM works and itspotential advantages. Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems use a digitized mammographic Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 166
  • 168. image that can be obtained from either a conventional film mammogram or a digitally acquiredmammogram. The computer software then searches for abnormal areas of density, mass, orcalcification that may indicate the presence of cancer. The CAD system highlights these areas onthe images, alerting the radiologist to the need for further analysis.What are some common uses of the procedure?Mammograms are used as a screening tool to detect early breast cancer in women experiencingno symptoms and to detect and diagnose breast disease in women experiencing symptoms such asa lump, pain or nipple discharge.Screening MammogramMammography plays a central part in early detection of breast cancers because it can showchanges in the breast up to two years before a patient or physician can feel them. Currentguidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American CancerSociety (ACS), the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American College ofRadiology (ACR) recommend screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age40. Research has shown that annual mammograms lead to early detection of breast cancers, whenthey are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) adds that women who have had breast cancer and those whoare at increased risk due to a genetic history of breast cancer should seek expert medical adviceabout whether they should begin screening before age 40 and about the frequency of screening.See the Breast Cancer page for information about breast cancer therapy.Diagnostic MammogramDiagnostic mammography is used to evaluate a patient with abnormal clinical findings—such asa breast lump or lumps—that have been found by the woman or her doctor. Diagnosticmammography may also be done after an abnormal screening mammography in order todetermine the cause of the area of concern on the screening exam.How should I prepare for a mammogram?Before scheduling a mammogram, the American Cancer Society (ACS) and other specialtyorganizations recommend that you discuss any new findings or problems in your breasts withyour doctor. In addition, inform your doctor of any prior surgeries, hormone use, and family orpersonal history of breast cancer.Do not schedule your mammogram for the week before your period if your breasts are usuallytender during this time. The best time for a mammogram is one week following your period.Always inform your doctor or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that you are pregnant.The ACS also recommends you: Do not wear deodorant, talcum powder or lotion under your arms or on your breasts on the day of the exam. These can appear on the mammogram as calcium spots. Describe any breast symptoms or problems to the technologist performing the exam. If possible, obtain prior mammograms and make them available to the radiologist at the time of the current exam. Ask when your results will be available; do not assume the results are normal if you do not hear from your doctor or the mammography facility. What does the Mammography equipment look like? Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 167
  • 169. A mammography unit is a rectangular box that houses the tube in which x-rays are produced. Theunit is used exclusively for x-ray exams of the breast, with special accessories that allow only thebreast to be exposed to the x-rays. Attached to the unit is a device that holds and compresses thebreast and positions it so images can be obtained at different angles.How does the procedure work?X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects,including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-raymachine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image onphotographic film or a special image recording plate.Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of theradiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays to passthrough them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of grayand air appears black.X-ray images are maintained as hard film copy (much like a photographic negative) or, morelikely, as a digital image that is stored electronically. These stored images are easily accessibleand are sometimes compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management.How is the procedure performed?Mammography is performed on an outpatient basis.During mammography, a specially qualified radiologic technologist will position your breast inthe mammography unit. Your breast will be placed on a special platform and compressed with apaddle (often made of clear Plexiglas or other plastic). The technologist will gradually compressyour breast.Breast compression is necessary in order to: Even out the breast thickness so that all of the tissue can be visualized. Spread out the tissue so that small abnormalities wont be obscured by overlying breast tissue. Allow the use of a lower x-ray dose since a thinner amount of breast tissue is being imaged. Hold the breast still in order to eliminate blurring of the image caused by motion. Reduce x-ray scatter to increase sharpness of picture. The technologist will stand behind a glass shield during the x-ray exposure. You will be asked to change positions slightly between images. The routine views are a top-to-bottom Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 168
  • 170. view and an oblique side view. The process will be repeated for the other breast.The patient must hold very still and may be asked to keep from breathing for a few seconds whilethe x-ray picture is taken to reduce the possibility of a blurred image. The technologist will walkbehind a wall or into the next room to activate the x-ray machine.When the examination is complete, the patient will be asked to wait until the technologistdetermines that the images are of high enough quality for the radiologist to read.The examination process should take about 30 minutes.What will I experience during and after the procedure?You will feel pressure on your breast as it is squeezed by the compressor. Some women withsensitive breasts may experience discomfort. If this is the case, schedule the procedure when yourbreasts are least tender. Be sure to inform the technologist if pain occurs as compression isincreased. If discomfort is significant, less compression will be used.Who interprets the results and how do I get them?A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations,will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, whowill share the results with you.You will also be notified of the results by the mammography facility.What are the benefits vs. risks?Benefits Imaging of the breast improves a physicians ability to detect small tumors. When cancers are small, the woman has more treatment options and a cure is more likely. The use of screening mammography increases the detection of small abnormal tissue growths confined to the milk ducts in the breast, called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). These early tumors cannot harm patients if they are removed at this stage and mammography is the only proven method to reliably detect these tumors. It is also useful for detecting all types of breast cancer, including invasive ductal and invasive lobular cancer. No radiation remains in a patients body after an x-ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects.Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective radiation dose from a mammogram is about 0.7 mSv, which is about the same as the average person receives from background radiation in three months. Federal mammography guidelines require that each unit be checked by a medical physicist every year to ensure that the unit operates correctly. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose.. False Positive Mammograms. Five percent to 15 percent of screening mammograms require more testing such as additional mammograms or ultrasound. Most of these tests turn out to be normal. If there is an abnormal finding a follow-up or biopsy may have to be performed. Most of the biopsies confirm that no cancer was present. It is estimated that a woman who has yearly mammograms between ages 40 and 49 has about a 30 percent chance of having a false-positive mammogram at some point in that decade and about a 7 percent to 8 percent chance of having a breast biopsy within the 10-year period. The estimate for false-positive mammograms is about 25 percent for women ages 50 or older. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 169
  • 171. Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible whileproducing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection councilscontinually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals.State-of-the-art x-ray systems have tightly controlled x-ray beams with significant filtration anddose control methods to minimize stray or scatter radiation. This ensures those parts of a patientsbody not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure.What are the limitations of Mammography?Initial mammographic images themselves are not always enough to determine the existence of abenign or malignant disease with certainty. If a finding or spot seems suspicious, your radiologistmay recommend further diagnostic studies.Interpretations of mammograms can be difficult because a normal breast can appear differentlyfor each woman. Also, the appearance of an image may be compromised if there is powder orsalve on the breasts or if you have undergone breast surgery. Because some breast cancers arehard to visualize, a radiologist may want to compare the image to views from previousexaminations. Not all cancers of the breast can be seen on mammography.Breast implants can also impede accurate mammogram readings because both silicone and salineimplants are not transparent on x-rays and can block a clear view of the tissues behind them,especially if the implant has been placed in front of, rather than beneath, the chest muscles. Butthe NCI says that experienced technologists and radiologists know how to carefully compress thebreasts to improve the view without rupturing the implant.When making an appointment for a mammogram, women with implants should ask if the facilityuses special techniques designed to accommodate them. Before the mammogram is taken, theyshould make sure the technologist is experienced in performing mammography on patients withbreast implants.While mammography is the best screening tool for breast cancer available today, mammogramsdo not detect all breast cancers. Also, a small portion of mammograms indicate cancer is presentwhen it is not (called a false-positive result).Research is being done on a variety of breast imaging techniques that can contribute to the earlydetection of breast cancer and improve the accuracy in distinguishing non-cancerous breastconditions from breast cancers.Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems and digital mammography are some of the newtechnologies under study.Additional Mammography Information and Resources: RadiologyInfo: Breast Cancer From our Radiology News section: Results of Large Trial Reveal Certain Women Could Benefit from Digital Mammography Full-Field Digital Mammography: A Potential Alternative to the Traditional Film-Screen Technique? MR Spectroscopy Helps Identify Cancerous Breast Tumors Fear of Lawsuits Fuels Rise in Mammograms and Breast Biopsies Mammography Appointments May Become Harder to Get International Trial Finds Benefits of Breast MRI in Women at High Risk Annual Reminder Needed for Mammography New Breast-Imaging Technology Could Save More Womens Lives Computers Significantly Increase Breast Cancer Detection Rate Electromagnetic Breast Imaging Tested as Alternative to Mammography Contrast Mammography Reveals Hard-to-Find Cancers New Digital Technique Improves Mammography Results Others: Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 170
  • 172. Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer MedLinePlus: Mammography U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Mammography American Cancer Society: Mammograms and other Breast Imaging ProceduresTo locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can searchthe ACR-accredited facilities database.Note About Links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo provides links to relevantWeb sites. RadiologyInfo, ACR and RSNA are not responsible for the content contained on theWeb pages found at these links.Note About Images: Images are shown for illustrative purposes. Do not attempt to drawconclusions or make diagnoses by comparing these images to other medical images, particularlyyour own. Only qualified physicians should interpret images; the radiologist is the physicianexpert trained in medical imaging.This procedure is reviewed by a physician with expertise in the area presented and is furtherreviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the RadiologicalSociety of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologicareas. Mammography on Small Breasts Many women, particularly those with small breasts, are worried that a mammogram will be painful and may not accurately detect breast cancer. While mammography does involve breast compression, which may be temporarily uncomfortable for some women, the procedure should not be significantly painful for any patient. No two mammogram patients have identical breasts, and therefore, each patient provides a unique set of challenges for the mammogram technologist. However, a good technologist is skilled at imaging all breast sizes and shapes, from large, pendulous breasts to small, dense ones. The following are common questions about mammography on small breasts: Q: Do all women have enough breast tissue to have a mammogram? A: A good mammography technologist should be able to image all breast sizes and shapes, including very small breasts. Women with small breasts should have enough breast tissue for a mammogram. In fact, most men have just enough breast tissue to cover the first photocell of a Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 171
  • 173. mammography machine. If there is not enough breast tissue, the technologist mayhave to time the mammogram manually, though it is still possible to obtain animage. Men are often referred for mammograms if a breast abnormality is detectedby their physician.Q: Will portions of breast tissue not be imaged on women with smallbreasts because the tissue does not protrude very much?A: There is always a small amount of breast tissue that cannot be imaged withmammography regardless of breast size: the area between the edge of the filmcassette and the chest wall. This area is typically the same in all patients, regardlessof breast size.Q: Is mammography less accurate on women with small breasts?A: Mammography is approximately 85% to 90% accurate in detecting breastcancers in women, regardless of breast size. Mammography is not typically lessaccurate at revealing breast cancer in women with smaller breasts; however, it maybe more difficult to detect cancer in dense breasts as opposed to breasts made up ofmore fat content. In general, smaller-breasted women tend to have dense breastsand larger-breasted women tend to have more fat in their breasts. Fat appears as ablack area on a mammogram film, making it fairly easy to detect any abnormalitieswhile dense breast tissue appears as a white area, sometimes obscuringabnormalities (which also appear as white areas). For these reasons, breast self-exams and physician performed clinical breast exams should also be performed tohelp detect breast cancer in its earliest stages. The majority of cancers are found inthe upper, outer quadrant of the breast, which is approximately the same size inmost women. The mediolateral oblique (MLO) mammography view helps imagethis portion of the breast. 41% of breast cancers are found in the upper, outer quadrant of the breast and 34% are found in the area behind the nipple. Image courtesy of the American Medical Association showing the pectoral muscle,breast, nipple and breast duct Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view mammogram s Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 172
  • 174. Q: Is a mammogram more painful for women with small breasts? A: A mammogram requires that the breasts be compressed briefly, which may be uncomfortable for some women regardless of breast size. However, mammograms should not be significantly painful. Breast compression is necessary to flatten the breast so that the maximum amount of tissue can be imaged and examined. Patients should feel firm pressure due to compression but no significant pain. Patients who feel pain should inform the technologist so that the breast may be repositioned. Women who have sensitive breasts may wish to schedule their mammograms at times of the month when the breasts are less tender. In general, the week before and during menstruation is when breasts are most tender, and the week after a period is when breasts are the least tender. Click here for more tips for a successful mammogram. Breast compression is necessary to flatten the breast so that the maximum amount of tissue can be imaged and examined.Q: Are small-breasted women less likely to get breast cancer because they haveless breast tissue?A: The amount of breast tissue a woman has does not affect her risk of developingbreast cancer. Click here to learn about the risk factors for breast cancer.Q: What are some alternative breast cancer screening exams for women withsmall breasts?A: Currently, mammography is the only screening exam approved by the FDA to helpscreen for breast cancer in asymptomatic women (women with no signs or symptoms ofthe disease). All women 40 years of age should have a screening mammogram everyone or two years. Women 50 years of age and older should receive screeningmammograms every year. Mammography has been shown to detect 85% to 90% ofbreast cancers. If a mammogram reveals a breast abnormality, the concern may then befurther assessed with other imaging tests (such as ultrasound) or a biopsy may beperformed. In addition, if a mammogram does not reveal any breast abnormalities butthe patient’s physician is still concerned, further imaging tests may be ordered.Additional Resources and References • To learn more about mammography, please visit • To learn more about guidelines for early breast cancer detection, please visit September 12, 2007 Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 173
  • 175. General Information on MammographyMain Menu: • What is Mammography? • How is Mammography Performed? • Views Taken During Screening and Diagnostic Mammography • Breast Compression During Mammography • Minimizing Pain and Discomfort During Mammography • Skin Markers During Mammography • Special Mammography Techniques • Additional Information on Mammography Technologist positioning a womanRelated Articles: for Cranio-caudal (CC) • Frequently Asked Questions About view mammography Mammography • How Mammography is Performed: Imaging and Positioning • Mammography on Small Breasts • Keys Steps For An Optimal Mammogram • Understanding the Mammography Report • Find a Mammography Facility • Choosing a Mammography Facility • The Case for MammographyWhat is Mammography?Mammography is a special type of x-ray imaging used to create detailed images of the breast.It is estimated that 48 million mammograms are performed each year in the United States.Mammography uses low dose x-ray; high contrast, high-resolution film; and an x-ray systemdesigned specifically for imaging the breasts. Successful treatment of breast cancer dependson early diagnosis. Mammography plays a major role in early detection of breast cancers.The US Food and Drug Administration reports that mammography can find 85 to 90 percentof breast cancers in women over 50 and can discover a lump up to two years before it can befelt. The benefits of mammography far outweigh the risks and inconvenience.Mammography can show changes in the breast well before a woman or her physician canfeel them. Once a lump is discovered, mammography can be key in evaluating the lump todetermine if it is cancerous. If a breast abnormality is found or confirmed withmammography, additional breast imaging tests such as ultrasound (sonography) or a breastbiopsy may be performed. A biopsy involves taking a sample(s) of breast tissue andexamining it under a microscope to determine whether it contains cancer cells. Many times,mammography or ultrasound is used to help the radiologist or surgeon guide the needle to thecorrect area in the breast during biopsy.There are two types of mammography exams, screening and diagnostic: • Screening mammography is an x-ray examination of the breasts in a woman who is asymptomatic (has no complaints or symptoms of breast cancer). The goal of screening mammography is to detect cancer when it is still too small to be felt by a woman or her physician. Early detection of small breast cancers by screening mammography greatly improves a womans chances for successful treatment. Screening mammography is recommended every one to two years for women once they reach 40 years of age and every year once they reach 50 years of age. In some Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 174
  • 176. instances, physicians may recommend beginning screening mammography before age 40 (i.e. if the woman has a strong family history of breast cancer). Screening mammography is available at a number of clinics and locations. • Diagnostic mammography is an x-ray examination of the breast in a woman who either has a breast complaint (for example, a breast lump or nipple discharge is found during self-exam) or has had an abnormality found during screening mammography. Diagnostic mammography is more involved and time-consuming than screening mammography and is used to determine exact size and location of breast abnormalities and to image the surrounding tissue and lymph nodes. Typically, several additional views of the breast are imaged and interpreted during diagnostic mammography. Thus, diagnostic mammography is more expensive than screening mammography. Women with breast implants or a personal history of breast cancer will usually require the additional views used in diagnostic mammography.Click here to learn more about screening mammography.Click here to learn more about diagnostic mammography.How is Mammography Performed?During mammography, the technologist will position the patient and image each breastseparately. One at a time, each breast is carefully positioned on a special film cassette andthen gently compressed with a paddle (often made of clear Plexiglas or other plastic). Thiscompression flattens the breast so that the maximum amount of tissue can be imaged andexamined.At some facilities, mammography technologists may place adhesive markers to the breastskin prior to taking images of the breast. The purpose of the adhesive markers is twofold:first, to identify areas with moles, blemishes or scars so that they are not mistaken forabnormalities, and secondly, to identify areas that may be of concern (e.g. a lump was feltduring physical examination). Some centers routinely mark the nipple with a small dot toprovide a clear "landmark" for the radiologist on the mammogram images. See the sectionbelow on skin markers for more information.To "take" a mammogram, the x-ray source is turned on and x-rays are radiated through thecompressed breast and onto a film cassette positioned under the breast. The x-rays hit aspecial phosphor coating inside the cassette. This phosphor glows in proportion to theintensity of the x-ray beams hitting it, thus exposing the film with an image of the internalstructures of the breast. Highly sensitive film and special x-rays are used for mammographyto create the highest quality images at the lowest exposure.The resulting "exposed film" inside the cassette is then developed in a dark room much like aregular photograph is developed. It is the special energy and wavelength of the x-rays thatallow them to pass through the breast and create the image of the internal structures of thebreast. As the x-rays pass through the breast, they are attenuated (weakened) by the differenttissue densities they encounter. Fat is very dense and absorbs or attenuates a great deal of thex-rays. The connective tissue around the breast ducts and fat is less dense and attenuates orabsorbs far less x-ray energy. It is these differences in absorption and the correspondingvarying exposure level of the film that create the images which can clearly show normalstructures such as fat, fibroglandular tissue, breast ducts, and nipples. Further, abnormalitiessuch as microcalcifications (tiny calcium deposits), masses, and cysts are also visible.The developed mammography films are then interpreted by a radiologist, who compares thenew images of a womans breast to each other and to previous mammograms a woman hashad. The radiologist will look for shadows and patterns of tissue density to detect anyabnormalities.A mammogram is like a fingerprint; the appearance of the breast on a mammogram variestremendously from woman to woman, and no two mammograms are alike. It is extremely Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 175
  • 177. helpful for the radiologist to have films (not just the report) available from previousexaminations for comparison purposes. This will help the doctor to recognize small changesthat occur gradually over time and detect a cancer as early as possible.The breast is made of fat, fibrous tissue and glands. Breast masses (these include benign andcancerous lesions) appear as white regions on mammogram film. Fat appears as blackregions on a mammogram film. Everything else (glands, connective tissue, tumors and othersignificant abnormalities such as microcalcifications) appear as levels of white on amammogram.As of April 28, 1999, a new version of the Mammography Quality Standards Law mandatesthat all women who have mammograms must be informed of the results in writing. However,if you have not been informed of your results within a week or so of your mammogram, donot assume they are normal. Follow up with your referring physician or healthcare providerwho will provide you with the results.If women have questions about mammography during the procedure, they should feel free toask the mammography technologist. If women have questions about their mammogramreport or the radiologists letter about their mammogram, they should direct those questionsto the radiologist.Click here for detailed information on mammography positioning and imaging.Views Taken During Screening and Diagnostic MammographyFor screening mammography each breast is imaged separately: • typically from above (cranial-caudal view, CC) and • from an oblique or angled view (mediolateral-oblique, MLO) Cranio-caudal (CC) view and Latero medial (LM) Medio lateral (ML) mediolateral oblique (MLO) mammographic view mammographic view mammographic viewFor diagnostic mammography, each breast is imaged separately: • from above (cranial-caudal view, CC) • from an oblique or angled view (mediolateral-oblique, MLO) and • supplemental views tailored to the specific problem are often performed. These can include views from each side (lateromedial, LM: from the outside towards the center and mediolateral view, ML: from the center of the chest out), exaggerated cranial- caudal, magnification views, spot compression, and others. • if screening mammography has been performed first and the resulting CC and MLO views are of sufficient quality, they may not need to be repeated if diagnostic mammography is required.A cleavage view (also called "valley view") is a mammogram view that images the mostmedial (central) portions of the breasts. This is the portion of breast tissue "in the valley"between the two breasts. When one breast is imaged and the other breast is left out of thecompression field, some of the breast being imaged may get pulled or left out too. To get asmuch medial tissue as possible, the mammogram technologist will place both breasts on the Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 176
  • 178. plate at the same time to image the medial half of both breasts.A cleavage view may be performed when there is a questionable density on the medial edgeof the mammogram film and the radiologist needs to see more of this density (if possible). Acleavage view may also be performed if the radiologist sees something suspicious in themediolateral-oblique (MLO) mammogram view and cannot find the area on the cranial-caudal view (CC) view.Click here for detailed information on mammography positioning and imaging.Breast Compression During MammographyBreast compression is necessary to flatten the breast so that the maximum amount of tissuecan be imaged and examined. Breast compression may cause some discomfort, but it onlylasts for a brief time during the mammography procedure. Patients should feel firm pressuredue to compression but no significant pain. If you feel pain, please inform the technologist.During the mammography examination, breast compression should only be applied two tofour times per breast for a few seconds each time (see below for description of views takenduring screening and diagnostic mammography).Breast compression is necessary during mammography in order to: • Flatten the breast so there is less tissue overlap for better visualization of anatomy and potential abnormalities. For example, inadequate compression can lead to poor imaging of microcalcifications, tiny calcium deposits that are often an early sign of breast cancer. • Reduce overlapping normal shadows, which can appear as suspicious regions on the film. • Allow the use of a lower x-ray dose since a thinner amount of breast tissue is being imaged • Immobilize the breast in order to eliminate image blurring caused by motion • Reduce x-ray scatter which also leads to image degradationSome mammography facilities will allow the patient to control the breast compressionherself during mammography. See the section below on Minimizing Pain and DiscomfortDuring Mammography for more information.Some mammography facilities will allow the patient to control the breast compressionherself during mammography. See the section below on Minimizing Pain and DiscomfortDuring Mammography for more information.Minimizing Pain and Discomfort During MammographyThe benefit of mammography in helping to detect breast cancer early clearly outweighs thetemporary discomfort of the exam. However, some women do find mammograms to beuncomfortable and sometimes painful. Several studies over the last 10 years have isolated anumber of factors that influence a womans comfort level during mammography. Thesefactors include: • Breast compression • Friendliness and sensitivity of the mammography technologist(s) • Facility atmosphere and proceduresBy surveying women about their experiences with mammograms, researchers offersuggestions on how to minimize discomfort during mammography.To alleviate much of the pain associated with mammography, patients may wish to: • Find a "friendly" mammography facility with knowledgeable mammography technologists • Control the breast compression themselves during mammography • Change mammography facilities when dissatisfied with care/service • Use calming self-statements and learn distraction techniques to use during Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 177
  • 179. mammographySome mammography facilities will allow the patient to control the breast compressionherself during mammography. This can greatly reduce anxiety, making the woman feel morecomfortable during the procedure, both physically and emotionally. Women should feel freeto ask the technologist about controlling breast compression themselves when scheduling theexam or before the exam begins.Researchers have found that a woman often feels more comfortable during a mammogramwith a courteous technologist who can provide thoughtful answers to her questions.Knowledgeable technologists can also help women with distraction techniques to take theirminds off the exam. In a study published in the February 2000 issue of the journalRadiology, researchers found that factors associated with mammogram discomfort includedthe facility itself, satisfaction with care, and the patients perception of the technologists"roughness."If women are not satisfied with the quality of care they receive at one facility, they shouldfeel free to change facilities. However, it is important that a patient obtain her originalmammogram films if she changes facilities so that future films may be compared to them.Click here to learn more about minimizing pain and discomfort during mammography.Skin Markers During Mammography Many mammography facilities now use skin markers to help radiologists readily identify the nipple, surgical scars, raised moles, or other normal features on the breast. These markers are placed on the patients breast skin before her mammogram and can easily be identified on the patients resulting mammogram films. Markers may also be used to alert the radiologist to a breast abnormality that warrants close examination, such as a lump. The markers are either opaque or see-through and come in a variety of different shapes that correspond to different features on the breast. For example, the Beekley skin marker system uses a small pellet marker to indicate the nipple, a triangular marker to indicate a worrisome lump or mass, an S-shaped marker to indicate surgical scars, and a circular marker Images to encircle raised moles on the breast. The markers are made in such as way Courtesy of so they do not obscure any breast tissue. Beekley By immediately identifying normal or worrisome areas of the patients Corporation breast, the markers help save the radiologist time and confusion when reading the patients mammogram film. Many physicians believe thesemarkers are more useful than solely noting moles or other features on mammogram sketchesbecause the shape of the breast is altered when it is compressed during the mammogramexam. Thus, the resulting films may not show a mole in the same area as noted by thetechnologist on a mammogram sketch. Nipple markers are especially useful because theyhelp the technologist position the patient and verify that the nipple is in profile before theexposure is taken. The markers use adhesive similar to a Band-Aid and are easily removedafter the mammogram.Special Mammography Techniques:In some cases, special mammography techniques are used to make a small area of breasttissue or a suspected abnormality easier to evaluate. Depending on the type of abnormalityand its location in the breast, one of these special mammography techniques (spotcompression and magnification views) maybe used.Click here for more information on special mammogram views.Additional Information on MammographyImaginis provides several other articles on mammography to help women understand allaspects of the exam. Click on one of the links below for additional information on Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 178
  • 180. mammography: • Screening Mammography • Diagnostic Mammography • Frequently Asked Questions About Mammography • How Mammography is Performed: Positioning and Imaging • Benefits of Receiving a Mammogram • Key Steps for an Optimal Mammogram • Mammography Preparation and What to Expect During Mammography • Sample Pre-Mammography Questionnaires • Special Mammography Views • Mammography on Small Breasts • Understanding the Mammogram Report • Mammography Interpretation (ACR-BIRADS system) • Finding a Mammography Facility • Choosing a Quality Mammography Facility • The Case for Mammography • Advances in Mammography and Breast Imaging • Digital Mammography • Computer-Aided Detection Mammography Updated: May 4, 2008Open Surgical Breast BiopsyPrior to recent biopsy advancements, physicians and surgeons routinely recommended opensurgical breast biopsies. While this remains an accurate procedure, it is the most invasive biopsyprocedure and results in external and internal scarring. Most patients recover quickly from abreast biopsy surgery; however, some may experience post-operative pain or minor disfiguring ofthe breast. This is considered general surgery, which requires an operating room, generalanesthesia in some cases, and stitches. Because of the hospital and surgical resources needed toperform the operation, open surgical biopsies are more costly than other breast biopsy methods.Because most breast biopsies are for small breast abnormalities that cannot be felt (non-palpablelesions), open surgical biopsies are sometimes viewed as excessive.Open surgical procedures often involve a two-step process. First, a radiologist identifies the areato be biopsied. Through a process known as wire localization, a wire is positioned in theabnormal breast tissue to identify the area to be cut out and removed during the breast biopsysurgery. Next, the patient is taken to the operating room where she is placed under generalanesthesia or a local anesthesia with sedation. A surgeon makes a 1 to 2-inch incision in thebreast and removes the localization wire and a large section of tissue, typically about the size of agolf ball. The incision in the breast is then closed with stitches and covered with a protectivebandage. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 179
  • 181. MRI of the Breast What is MRI of the Breast? Click image to view What are some common uses of the procedure? larger How should I prepare for the procedure? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of MRI of the Breast?What is MRI of the Breast?Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive, usually painless medical test that helpsphysicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.MR imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailedpictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. Theimages can then be examined on a computer monitor or printed. MRI does not use ionizingradiation (x-rays).Detailed MR images allow physicians to better evaluate parts of the body and certain diseasesthat may not be assessed adequately with other imaging methods such as x-ray, ultrasound orcomputed tomography (also called CT or CAT scanning).MRI of the breast offers valuable information about many breast conditions that cannot beobtained by other imaging modalities, such as mammography or ultrasound.What are some common uses of the procedure?MRI of the breast is not a replacement for mammography or ultrasound imaging but rather asupplemental tool for detecting and staging breast cancer and other breast abnormalities.Medical studies are currently being conducted to determine whether MRI and other imaging Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 180
  • 182. methods can contribute to the early detection and prevention of deaths from breast cancer.MR imaging of the breast is performed to: evaluate abnormalities detected by mammography. identify early breast cancer not detected through other means, especially in women with dense breast tissue and those at high risk for the disease. screen for cancer in women who have implants or scar tissue that might jeopardize an accurate result from a mammogram. determine the integrity of breast implants. distinguish between scar tissue and recurrent tumors. assess multiple tumor locations. look for multiple tumors prior to breast conservation surgery. determine whether cancer detected by mammography or ultrasound has spread further in the breast or into the chest wall. determine how much cancer has spread beyond the surgical site after a breast biopsy or lumpectomy. assess the effect of chemotherapy. provide additional information on a diseased breast to make treatment decisions.Without contrast material, an MRI of the breast can show: breast tissue density. cysts. enlarged ducts. hematomas. leaking or ruptured breast implants.By comparing breast images taken before and after contrast material injection, an MRI examcan determine: if there are breast abnormalities. whether an abnormality looks benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). the size and location of any abnormality that looks malignant. the presence of enlarged lymph nodes.How should I prepare for the procedure?You may be asked to wear a gown during the exam or you may be allowed to wear your ownclothing if it is loose-fitting and has no metal fasteners.Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary at different facilities. Unlessyou are told otherwise, you may follow your regular daily routine and take medications asusual.Some MRI examinations may require the patient to swallow contrast material or receive aninjection of contrast into the bloodstream. The radiologist or technologist may ask if you haveallergies of any kind such as hay fever, hives, allergic asthma, or to food or drugs. However,the contrast material used for an MRI exam, called gadolinium, does not contain iodine and isless likely to cause an allergic reaction. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 181
  • 183. The radiologist should also know if you have any serious health problems and what surgeriesyou have undergone. Some conditions, such as kidney disease and sickle cell anemia, mayprevent you from having an MRI with contrast material.Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility thatthey are pregnant. Because the risks of an MRI exam to the baby are unknown, pregnantwomen should not have this exam unless the potential benefit from the MRI is assumed tooutweigh the potential risks. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy andMR imaging.If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask yourphysician for a prescription for a mild sedative.Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRIscan. Because they can interfere with the magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronicobjects are not allowed in the exam room. These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged. pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images. removable dental work. pens, pocketknives and eyeglasses.In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types.People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI area: internal (implanted) defibrillator cochlear (ear) implant clips used on brain aneurysmsYou should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body,because they may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk. Examples include: artificial heart valves implanted drug infusion ports infusion catheter intrauterine device (IUD) implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses implanted nerve stimulators metal pins, screws, plates or surgical staples.In general, metal objects used in orthopedic surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, arecently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there isany question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect the presence of any metalobjects.Sheet metal workers and others who might have metal objects such as shrapnel in their bodiesmay also require an x-ray prior to an MRI. Dyes used in tattoos may contain iron and couldheat up during MRI, but this is rarely a problem. Tooth fillings and braces usually are notaffected by the magnetic field but they may distort images of the facial area or brain, so theradiologist should be aware of them.What does the equipment look like? Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 182
  • 184. The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. Youwill lie on a moveable examination table that slides into the center of the magnet.Some MRI units, called short-bore systems, are designed so that the magnet does notcompletely surround you; others are open on all sides (open MRI). These units are especiallyhelpful for examining patients who are fearful of being in a closed space and for those who arevery obese. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for most types of exams;however, open MRI units with older magnets may not provide this same quality. Certain typesof exams cannot be performed using open MRI. For more information, consult your doctor.The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separateroom.How does the procedure work?Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography (CT) scans, MRI does notdepend on radiation. Instead, radio waves are directed at protons, the nuclei of hydrogenatoms, in a strong magnetic field.The magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRIunits. Other coils, located in the machine and in some cases, placed around the part of thebody being imaged, send and receive radio waves. As you lie inside the MRI unit, radio wavesare directed at the protons in the area of your body being studied. In the magnetic field, theseprotons change their position, producing signals that are detected by the coils.A computer then processes the signals and generates a series of images each of which shows athin slice of the body. The computer compiles the images into a three-dimensionalrepresentation of the body, which can be studied from many different angles on a computermonitor.Because protons are most abundant in water molecules, MR images show differences in watercontent between various body tissues. As a result, MRI is especially suited to detectingdisorders that increase fluid in diseased areas of the body, for example, areas affected bytumors, infection and inflammation. Overall, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissuefrom normal tissues is significantly easier with MRI than with other imaging modalities suchas x-ray, CT and ultrasound.How is the procedure performed? MRI examinations are usually done on an outpatient basis. You will be positioned on the moveable examination table. Straps and bolsters may be used to help you stay still and maintain the correct position during imaging. For an MRI of the breast, you will lie face down on your stomach with your breasts hanging freely into cushioned openings, which are surrounded by a breast coil, which is a signal receiver that works with the MRI unit to create the images. If a contrast material will be used in the MRI exam, a nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line into a vein in yourhand or arm. A saline solution will drip through the IV to prevent blockage of the IV line untilthe contrast material is injected.You will be moved into the magnet of the MRI unit and the radiologist and technologist willleave the room while the MRI examination is performed.If a contrast material is used during the examination, it will be injected into the intravenousline (IV) after an initial series of scans. Additional series of images will be taken following theinjection.When the examination is completed, you may be asked to wait until the technologist checksthe images in case additional images are needed. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 183
  • 185. Your intravenous line will be removed.MRI exams generally include multiple runs (sequences), some of which may last severalminutes.The imaging session lasts between 30 minutes and one hour and the total examination isusually completed within an hour and a half.MR spectroscopy, which provides additional information on the chemicals present in thebodys cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam and will add approximately 15minutes to the exam time.What will I experience during and after the procedure?Most MRI exams are painless.Some patients, however, find it uncomfortable to remain still during MR imaging. Othersexperience a sense of being closed-in (claustrophobia). Therefore, sedation can be arrangedfor those patients who anticipate anxiety, but fewer than one in 20 require it.It is normal for the area of your body being imaged to feel slightly warm, but if it bothers you,notify the radiologist or technologist. It is important that you remain perfectly still while theimages are being recorded, which is typically only a few seconds to a few minutes at a time.You will know when images are being recorded because you will hear tapping or thumpingsounds when the coils that create the magnetic field are turned on. You will be able to relaxbetween imaging sequences.You will be alone in the exam room during the MR imaging, however, the technologist will beable to see, hear and speak with you at all times using a two-way intercom. Many MRI centersallow a friend or parent to stay in the room.You may request earplugs to reduce the noise of the MRI scanner, which produces loudthumping and humming noises during imaging. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit.Some scanners have music or a built-in television to help you pass the time.When the contrast material is injected, it is normal to feel coolness and a flushing for a minuteor two. The intravenous needle may cause you some discomfort when it is inserted and once itis removed, you may experience some bruising. There is also a very small chance of irritationor infection of your skin at the site of the IV tube insertion.If you have not been sedated, no recovery period is necessary. You may resume your usualactivities and normal diet immediately after the exam. A few patients experience side effectsfrom the contrast material, including nausea and local pain. Very rarely, patients are allergic tothe contrast material and experience hives and itchy eyes.It is recommended that nursing mothers not breastfeed for 36 to 48 hours after an MRI with acontrast material.Who interprets the results and how do I get them?A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiologyexaminations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care orreferring physician, who will share the results with you.What are the benefits vs. risks?Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not involve exposure to radiation. MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including detecting and staging breast cancer, particularly when other imaging studies (mammography, ultrasound, etc.) fail to provide adequate information. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 184
  • 186. MRI enables the detection of abnormalities that might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is less likely to produce an allergic reaction than the iodine-based materials used for conventional x-rays and CT scanning. MRI is growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional x-ray mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. MRI has been shown to detect small breast lesions that are sometimes missed by mammography. MRI can successfully image the dense breast common in younger women, as well as breast implants, both of which are difficult to image using traditional mammography. Because MR imaging does not involve radiation, the procedure could be used to screen women younger than 40 and to increase the number of screenings per year for women at high risk for breast cancer. If a suspicious lesion is seen with MRI only, MRI can provide guidance for biopsy.Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used there are risks of excessive sedation. The technologist or nurse monitors your vital signs to minimize this risk. Although the strong magnetic field is not harmful in itself, medical devices that contain metal may malfunction or cause problems during an MRI exam. There is a very slight risk of an allergic reaction if contrast material is injected. Such reactions usually are mild and easily controlled by medication. There also is a very small risk of skin infection at the site of injection. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is currently a recognized, but rare, complication of MRI believed to be caused by the injection of certain (but not all) MRI contrast material in patients with poor kidney function.What are the limitations of MRI of the Breast?High-quality images are assured only if you are able to remain perfectly still while the imagesare being recorded. If you are anxious, confused or in severe pain, you may find it difficult tolie still during imaging.A person who is very obese may not fit into the opening of a conventional MRI machine.The presence of an implant or other metallic object often makes it difficult to obtain clearimages and patient movement can have the same effect.Although there is no reason to believe that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, theeffects of a strong magnetic field are not well understood. For this reason pregnant womenusually are advised not to have an MRI exam unless medically necessary.MRI may not always distinguish between tumor tissue and edema fluid. It cannot detectcalcium present in a tumor. Detection of calcium (in tumors or other issues) is limited withMRI.MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform than other imaging modalities.MRI of the breast cannot always distinguish between cancer and benign breast disease (suchas fibroadenomas), leading to a false positive result. A false positive is a result that indicatescancer when there is in fact no cancer present.Additional Information and Resources: RadiologyInfo: Breast Cancer American Cancer Society Guidelines for Breast Screening with MRI in addition to Mammography Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 185
  • 187. Radiation Therapy for Breast CancerTo locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can searchthe ACR-accredited facilities database.Note About Links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo provides links to relevantWeb sites. RadiologyInfo, ACR and RSNA are not responsible for the content contained on theWeb pages found at these links.Note About Images: Images are shown for illustrative purposes. Do not attempt to drawconclusions or make diagnoses by comparing these images to other medical images, particularlyyour own. Only qualified physicians should interpret images; the radiologist is the physicianexpert trained in medical imaging.This procedure is reviewed by a physician with expertise in the area presented and is furtherreviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the RadiologicalSociety of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologicareas.Breast LiftAlso known as mastopexy, a breast lift raises and firms the breasts by removing excess skin andtightening the surrounding tissue to reshape and support the new breast contour.Table of Contents • The first step • Beauty for life • What to expect during your consultation • Preparing for surgery • Procedural Steps • Important facts about the safety and risks of breast lift surgery • My recovery • The results will be long-lasting • How much will breast lift surgery cost? • Words to know • Questions to ask my plastic surgeonThe first step:Choose a surgeon you can trustPlastic surgery involves many choices. The first and most important is selecting a surgeon youcan trust.Choosing an ASPS Member Surgeon ensures that you have selected a physician who: • Has completed at least five years of surgical training with a minimum of two years in plastic surgery. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 186
  • 188. • Is trained and experienced in all plastic surgery procedures, including breast, body, face and reconstruction. • Operates only in accredited medical facilities • Adheres to a strict code of ethics. • Fulfills continuing medical education requirements, including standards and innovations in patient safety. • Is board certified by The American Board of Plastic Surgery or in Canada by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada®.ASPS Member Surgeons are your partners in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.Look for the ASPS Member Surgeon logo.Related LinksFind an ASPS Member SurgeonASPS Member Surgeon QualificationsBack to TopBeauty for life:Enhancing your appearance with a breast liftA woman’s breasts often change over time,losing their youthful shape and firmness.These changes and loss of skin elasticity canresult from: • Pregnancy • Breastfeeding • Weight fluctuations • Aging • Gravity • HeredityAlso known as mastopexy, a breast lift raises Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 187
  • 189. and firms the breasts by removing excess skin and tightening the surrounding tissue to reshapeand support the new breast contour.Sometimes the areola becomes enlarged over time, and a breast lift will reduce this as well. Abreast lift can rejuvenate your figure with a breast profile that is youthful and uplifted.What it won’t doBreast lift surgery does not significantly change the size of your breasts or round out the upperpart of your breast. If you want your breasts to look fuller or smaller, you might want to considereither breast augmentation or breast reduction surgery.Is it right for me?Breast lift surgery is a highly individualized procedure and you should do it for yourself, not tofulfill someone else’s desires or to try to fit any sort of ideal image.A breast lift is a good option for you if: • You are physically healthy and maintain a stable weight • You do not smoke • You have realistic expectations • You are bothered by the feeling that your breasts sag, have lost shape and volume • Your breasts have a flatter, elongated shape or are pendulous • When unsupported, your nipples fall below the breast crease • Your nipples and areolas point downward • You have stretched skin and enlarged areolas • One breast is lower than the other What to expect during your consultation The success and safety of your breast lift procedure depends very much on your complete candidness during your consultation. You’ll be asked a number of questions about your health, desires and lifestyle. Be prepared to discuss: • Why you want the surgery, your expectations and desired outcome • Medical conditions, drug allergies and medical treatments • Use of current medications, vitamins, herbal supplements, alcohol, tobacco and drugs • Previous surgeries • Family history of breast cancer and results of any mammograms or previous biopsiesYour surgeon may also: • Evaluate your general health status and any pre-existing health conditions or risk factors • Examine your breasts, and may take detailed measurements of their size and shape, skin quality, placement of your nipples and areolas • Take photographs for your medical record • Discuss your options and recommend a course of treatment • Discuss likely outcomes of breast lift surgery and any risks or potential complications • Discuss the use of anesthesia during your breast liftPreparing for surgeryPrior to surgery, you may be asked to: Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 188
  • 190. • Get lab testing or a medical evaluation • Take certain medications or adjust your current medications • Get a baseline mammogram before surgery and another one after surgery to help detect any future changes in your breast tissue • Stop smoking well in advance of surgery • Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding Special instructions you receive will cover: • What to do on the day of surgery • Post-operative care and follow-up Your plastic surgeon will also discuss where your procedure will be performed. Breast lift surgery may be performed in an accredited office-based surgical center, outpatient / ambulatory surgical center, or a hospital.You’ll need helpIf your breast lift is performed on an outpatient basis, be sure to arrange for someone to drive youto and from surgery and to stay with you for at least the first night following surgery.Related LinksPlan your surgery using ASPS resourcesBack to TopProcedural Steps:What happens during breast lift surgery?Your breast lift surgery can be achieved through a variety of incision patterns and techniques.The appropriate technique for you will be determined based on: • Breast size and shape • The size and position of your areolas • The degree of breast sagging • Skin quality and elasticity as well as the amount of extra skinStep 1 - AnesthesiaMedications are administered for your comfort during the surgical procedure. The choices includeintravenous sedation and general anesthesia. Your doctor will recommend the best choice for you.Step 2 - The incisionThere are three common incision patterns: • Around the areola Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 189
  • 191. • Around the areola and vertically down from the areola to the breast crease • Around the areola, vertically down from the breast crease and horizontally along the breast creaseStep 3 - Reshaping your breastsAfter your doctor makes the incisions: • The underlying breast tissue is lifted and reshaped to improve breast contour and firmness. • The nipple and areola are repositioned to a natural, more youthful height. • If necessary, enlarged areolas are reduced by excising skin at the perimeter. • Excess breast skin is removed to compensate for a loss of elasticity.Step 4 - Closing the incisionsAfter your breasts are reshaped and excess skin is removed, the remaining skin is tightened as theincisions are closed.Some incision lines resulting from breast lift are concealed in the natural breast contours;however, others are visible on the breast surface. Incision lines are permanent, but in most caseswill fade and significantly improve over time.Sutures are layered deep within the breast tissue to create and support the newly shaped breasts.Sutures, skin adhesives and/or surgical tape may be used to close the skin.Step 5 - See the resultsThe results of your breast lift surgery are immediately visible. Over time, post-surgical swellingwill resolve and incision lines will fade.Satisfaction with your new image should continue to grow as you recover and realize thefulfillment of your goal for breasts which have been restored to a more youthful and upliftedposition.Related LinksView a 3D animation of a breast liftView a 3D animation of a breast lift with implantsRead patient storiesBack to Top Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 190
  • 192. Important facts about the safety and risks of breast lift surgeryThe decision to have breast lift surgery is extremely personal and you’ll have to decide if thebenefits will achieve your goals and if the risks and potential complications are acceptable.Your plastic surgeon and/or staff will explain in detail the risks associated with surgery. You willbe asked to sign consent forms to ensure that you fully understand the procedure you will undergoand any risks or potential complications.The risks include: • Unfavorable scarring • Bleeding (hematoma) • Infection • Poor healing of incisions • Changes in nipple or breast sensation, which may be temporary or permanent • Anesthesia risks • Breast contour and shape irregularities • Skin discoloration, permanent pigmentation changes, swelling and bruising • Damage to deeper structures – such as nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and lungs – can occur and may be temporary or permanent • Allergies to tape, suture materials and glues, blood products, topical preparations or injected agents • Breast asymmetry • Fatty tissue deep in the skin could die (fat necrosis) • Fluid accumulation • Excessive firmness of the breast • Potential partial or total loss of nipple and areola • Deep vein thrombosis, cardiac and pulmonary complications • Blood clots • Pain, which may persist • Possibility of revisional surgeryYou should know that: • Breast lift surgery can interfere with diagnostic procedures • Breast and nipple piercing can cause an infection • Breast lift surgery does not normally interfere with pregnancy, but if you are planning to have a baby, your breast skin may stretch and offset the results of mastopexy and you may have more difficulty breastfeeding after this operationWhere will my surgery be performed?A breast lift procedure may be performed in your plastic surgeon’s accredited office-basedsurgical facility, an ambulatory surgical facility or a hospital. Your plastic surgeon and theassisting staff will fully attend to your comfort and safety.When you go homeIf you experience shortness of breath, chest pains, or unusual heart beats, seek medical attentionimmediately. Should any of these complications occur, you may require hospitalization andadditional treatment. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 191
  • 193. The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science. Although good results are expected,there is no guarantee. In some situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with asingle surgical procedure and another surgery may be necessary.Be carefulFollowing your physician’s instructions is key to the success of your surgery. It is important thatthe surgical incisions are not subjected to excessive force, abrasion, or motion during the time ofhealing. Your doctor will give you specific instructions on how to care for yourself.Be sure to ask questions: It’s very important to ask your plastic surgeon questions about yourbreast lift procedure. It’s natural to feel some anxiety, whether it’s excitement for your anticipatednew look or a bit of preoperative stress. Don’t be shy about discussing these feelings with yourplastic surgeon.Related LinksEducate yourself on plastic surgery patient safetyBack to TopMy recoveryAfter your breast lift procedure is completed, dressings or bandages will be applied to theincisions. You’ll need to wear an elastic bandage or support bra to minimize swelling and supportyour breasts as they heal.A small, thin tube may be temporarily placed under the skin to drain any excess blood or fluid that may collect. You will be given specific instructions that may include: How to care for your breasts following surgery, medications to apply or take orally to aid healing and reduce the risk of infection, and when to follow-up with your plastic surgeon. Be sure to ask your plastic surgeon specific questions about what you can expect during your individual recovery period. • Where will I be taken after my surgery is complete? • What medication will I be given or prescribed after surgery? • Will I have dressings/bandages after surgery? When will they be removed? • Are stitches removed? When? • When can I resume normal activity and exercise? • When do I return for follow-up care?The results will be long-lastingThe final results of your breast lift will appear over the next few months as breast shape andposition continue to settle. Incision lines are permanent, but will continue to fade over time.The results of your breast lift surgery will be long-lasting. Over time, your breasts can continue tochange due to aging and gravity. But, you’ll be able to retain your new look longer if you: • Maintain your weight • Keep a healthy lifestyle Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 192
  • 194. Special note: While a breast lift does not usually affect breast function, if you are planning tobecome pregnant, discuss this with your plastic surgeon. Changes that occur in the breasts duringpregnancy can minimize or reverse the improvement a breast lift provides. Likewise, plans forsignificant weight loss should also be discussed.How much will breast lift surgery cost?Cost is always a consideration in elective surgery. Prices for breast lift procedures can varywidely. A surgeon’s cost for breast lift may varybased on his or her experience as well as geographiclocation.Many plastic surgeons offer patient financing plans,so be sure to ask.Cost may include: • Surgeon’s fee • Hospital or surgical facility costs • Anesthesia fees • Prescriptions for medication • Post-surgery garments, and • Medical testsMost health insurance plans will not cover breast lift surgery, related complications or anothersurgery to revise the appearance of your breasts. You must carefully review your health insurancepolicy.Your satisfaction involves more than a feeWhen choosing a plastic surgeon for breast lift surgery, remember that the surgeon’s experienceand your comfort with him or her are just as important as the final cost of the surgery.Related LinksLearn about procedure costsWords to know • Areola: Pigmented skin surrounding the nipple. • Breast augmentation: Also known as augmentation mammaplasty, breast enlargement by surgery. • Breast lift: Also known as mastopexy; surgery to lift the breasts. • Breast reduction: Also known as reduction mammaplasty, reduction of breast size by surgery. • Excision: To remove the skin. • General anesthesia: Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness. • Hematoma: Blood pooling beneath the skin. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 193
  • 195. • Intravenous sedation: Sedatives administered by injection into a vein to help you relax. • Local anesthesia: A drug injected directly to the site of an incision during an operation to relieve pain. • Mammogram: An x-ray image of the breast. • Mastopexy: Surgery to lift the breasts. • Sutures: Stitches used by surgeons to hold skin and tissue together. Related Links View a full glossary of plastic surgery terms Questions to ask my plastic surgeon Use this checklist as a guide during your consultation • Are you certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery? • Are you a member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons? • Were you trained specifically in the field of plastic surgery? • How many years of plastic surgery training have you had? • Do you have hospital privileges to perform this procedure? o If so, at which hospitals? • Is the office-based surgical facility accredited by a nationally- or state-recognized accrediting agency, or is it state-licensed or Medicare-certified? • Am I a good candidate for this procedure? • Where and how will you perform my procedure? • What surgical technique is recommended for me? • How long of a recovery period can I expect, and what kind of help will I need during my recovery? • What are the risks and complications associated with my procedure? • How are complications handled? • How will my ability to breastfeed be affected? • How can I expect my lifted breasts to look over time? o After pregnancy? After breastfeeding? • What are my options if I am dissatisfied with the cosmetic outcome of my lifted breasts? • Do you have before-and-after photos I can look at for this procedure and what results are reasonable for me?Related LinksFind an ASPS Member SurgeonASPS Member Surgeon QualificationsPlan your surgery using ASPS resourcesView a 3D animation of a breast liftView a 3D animation of a breast lift with implantsRead patient storiesEducate yourself on plastic surgery patient safety Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 194
  • 196. Learn about procedure costsView a full glossary of plastic surgery termsLearn about other plastic surgery proceduresView other 3D procedure animationsTo find a plastic surgeon who performs this procedure, visit the online referral service of theAmerican Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). ASPS, founded in 1931, is the largest plasticsurgery organization in the world and the foremost authority on cosmetic and reconstructiveplastic surgery. All ASPS physician members are certified by the American Board of PlasticSurgery (ABPS) or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 195
  • 197. Mammary GlandRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDPeer Review Status: InternallyPeer ReviewedIllustrated Encyclopedia ofHuman Anatomic Variation:Opus IV: Organ Systems:Female Genital SystemAbnormal breasts (breastanomalies/deformities)The mammae frequently develop asymmetrically, the right often being larger and lower than theleft. While absence of one or both mammae is very rare, with or without associated absence of thenipple, an increase in their number is relatively common occurrence. The supernumerarymammae vary in the extent to which they are developed, being represented sometimes by well-formed accessory glands (polymastia) that may become functioning organs, but more often,particularly in the male subject. Only by rudimentary nipples (polythelia) or even pigmentedareas suggesting areolae. In women, polythelia may be associated with greater or lessdevelopment of glandular tissue.Doubled nipples have been reported frequently. Hyperthelia is much more common thanhypermastia.The recorded frequency of polythelia in men (14%) is very questionable. A better estimate inhealthy individuals is about 4-5% with no sex differences reported. The occurrence ofrudimentary supernumerary nipples is undoubtedly more common than usually recognized. Renalvariations accompanied polythelia in nine of 37 (27%) subjects studied.The usual position of the accessory mammae is below and somewhat medial to the usual glandsand corresponds to the mammary line in other animals. In some cases, they may be found aboveand laterally, in the axillary region, especially in Japanese subjects.The number of accessory or supernumerary glands varies: three pairs in one case, five milk-secreting organs in another, and eight glands in both sexes (1-2% of females and males) havebeen recorded. They are often asymmetrically placed and not uniformly developed. Comparativestudies of the mammae in "lower animals" and the disposition of the supernumerary organs in thehuman subject suggest the probability that remote human ancestors normally possessed more thantwo glands; the occasional occurrence of the variant mammae in positions anticipated by the milk-ridges, rudimentary organs sometimes occupy very unusual locations, including the back, lateral thorax, neck, shoulder, inner aspect of the arm, axilla, buttocks, hip, thigh and labium majus. Massive hypertrophy has been reported, with a combined weight of 124 lbs, with one gland weighing 63 lbs in a 13-year-old girl whose remaing weight was less than the combined weight of the two glands. Excessively large breasts may lead to hyperesthesia in the ulnar nerve distribution in hands (a variant of thoracic outlet syndrome). Micromastia has also been reported. References Albert, H. (1910) Diffuse idiopathic hypertrophy of the mammary glands of the female. JAMA 55:1339-1343. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 196
  • 198. Banner, E.R. (1946) Unilateral micromastia associated with abnormalities of musculature of chestwall on same side. Brit. Med. J. 2:420.Bartels, M. (1872) überzahl der Brustwarzen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1872:304-306.Bartles, M. (1875) Ueberzahl der Brustwarzen. Archir f. Anat. Physiol. u. WissenschaflicheMedicin. 1875:746-751.Batchelor, H.T. (1888) Absence of mammae in a woman. Brit. Med. 2:876.Blanchard, R. (1885) Sur un case de polymastie et sur la signification des mamellessurnuméraires. Bull. de la Soc. dAnthrop. de Paris. 8:226-239.Blanchard, R. (1886) Sur un case remarquable de polythélie héréditaire. Bull. de la Soc.dAnthrop. de Paris. 9:485-487.Bloch, A. (1909) Presentation de portraits de juenes négresses pour faire voir la forme particuliérede lauréole de la mamelle. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. dAnthrop. de Paris. 10:141-142.Blum, -. (1907) Fall von supernumerärer Mamma im Berich des behaarten Mons veneris mit 7Warzen. Münchener Med Wochenschr. 54:1055.Bok, E.J. (1926) über das Vorkommen uberzahliger Brustwarzen bei Javanen. Anat. Anz. 61:292-297.Braquehaye, J. and -. Remlinger. (1899) Mamelle surnuméraire audessous de lombilic chez unhomme. Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus Hedomadaires des Séances et Mémoires. 51:598-599.Brightmore, T. (1972) Bilateral double nipples. Brit. J. Surg. 59:55-57.Bruce, J.M. (1879) Supernumerary nipples and mammae. With an account of sixty-five instancesobserved. J. Anat. Physiol. 13:425-448.Champneys, F.H. (1886) On the development of mammary functions by the skin of lying-inwomen. Medico-chirurgical Trans. 69:419-442.Champneys, F.H. and A.A. Bow1by (1895) Further observations on the development ofmammary functions by the skin of lying-in women. Medico-chirurgical Trans 78:267-273.Charcot, -. et -. LeGendre. (1859) Deux cas mamelons surnuméraires obsérves chez la femme.Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus des Séances et Mémoires 11:164-165.De Cholnoky, T. (1939) Supernumerary breast. Arch. Surg. 39:926-941.Coe, A.H. (1888) Case of supernumerary nipple associated with maternal impression. Med. Rec.34:479.Deslongchamps, -. and -. Rayner. (1852) Mamelles surnuméraires chez la femme. Soc. Biol.Comptes Rendus des Séances et Mémoires. 4:9-10.Domansky, K.Z. (1947) Hyperthelie-hypermastie. Rozheldy v. Chirurgii 26:88-91. Cited inExerpta Medica, Sec. 1, Vol. 3, anbstract 384, 1949.Dunn, C.W. (1944) Gynecomastia. Delaware State Med. 116:63-69.Evans, W. (1959) Polythelia in cardio-arterial disease. Brit. Heart J. 21:130-136.Foster, A. (1916-17) Ein Fall überzähliger rudimentärer Mammabildung an der Innenseite desOberschenkels eines Mannes. Anat. Anz. 49:529-535.Fraser, F.C. (1956) Dominant inheritance of absent nipples and breasts. In Novantanni delle leggimendeliane, pp. 360-362. Instituto Gregorio Mendel, Rome.Glos, J. (193 2) Amazia bilaterialis se soucasnou malformacikoncetin. Casop. Lék. Cesk. 71:865.Goldberger, H. (1895) Ein seltene Fall von Polymastie Arch. f. Gynaekologie 49:272-277.Goldenring, H. and E.S. Crelin. (196 1) Mother and daughter with bilateral amastia. Yale J. Biol.Med. 33:466-467.Haenel, H. 91928) Ein fall von dauern der Milchsekretion beim Mann. Münchener Med.Wochenschr. 75:261-263.Handyside, P.D. (1873) Notice of quadruple mammae, - the two lower rudimentary - in two adultbrothers. J. Anat. Physiol. 7:56-59.Hare, C.J. (1860) On a case of secretion of milk from the right axilla. Lancet 2:405-407.Iwai, T. (1907) A statistical study of polymastia of the Japanese. Lancet 2:753-759. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 197
  • 199. Iwanovitch-Stoyanov, P. (1898) Note sur quelques cas de polymastie et de polythélie chezlhomme. Bull. de la Soc. dAnthrop. de Paris. 9:301-305.Kahn, S.A. and R.F. Wagner, Jr. (1982) Polythelia and unilateral renal agenesis. Cutis 30:225-226.Karsner, H.T. (1946) Gynecomastia. Am. J. Pathol. 22:235-315.Klinkerfuss, G.H. (1924) Four generations of polymastia. JAMA 82:1247-1248.Kowlesser, M. and E. Orti. (1968) Complete breast absence in siblings. Am. J. Dis. Child.115:91-92.Landau, T. (1890) über einige Anomalien der Brustdrüsensecretion. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.16:745-747.Latarjet, A. (1931) Testuts Traite dAnatomie Humain, Tome V, G. Doin & Cie, Paris.LeDouble, A. (1875) Hypertrophie de deux mamelles chez une fille de 15 ans. Bulletins et la Société Anatomique de Paris L(3):185-189.Leichtenstern, -. (1878) über das Vorkommen und die Bedeutung supernumerärer(accessorischer) Brüste und Brustwarzen. Auf Grund 13 eigener und 19 aus der Literaturgesammelter Beobachtungen. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 73:222-256.Iwai, T. (1907) A statistical syudy on the polymastia of the Japanese. The Lancet (Sept. 14.) 753-759.Louria, H.W. (1924) Case of unilateral amastia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 8:364-365.Manec, -. (1859) Hypertrophie mammaire énorme chez une jeune fils de dix-sept ans. Gaz. desHôp. 32(12):45-46.Marjolin, -. (1868) Hypertrophie diffuse de la glande mamaire. Amputation du sein. Gaz des Hôp.41:519.Marie, M.P. (1893) Mamelon surnuméraire transmis héréditairement dans une famille; coincienceavec plusiers grosses gémeflaires; reversion atavique à - ou creation dun-type polymastie etpolygéne. Bull. et Mém. Soc. Med. de Hôp. de Paris. 10:457-459.Martin, E. (1893) Beitrage zur Lehre von der Polymastie und ihrer Beziehung zur Entwickelungvon Brustdrüsengeschwülsten. Arch. f Klin. Chirurgie (Langenbecks) 45:880-891.McGillicuddy, T.J. (1891) The mammae and their anomalies. Med. Rec. 40:446-448.Méhes, K. (1979) Association of supernumerary nipples with other anomalies. J. Pediatr. 95:274-275.Méhes, K. (1983) Association of supernumerary nipples with other anomalies. J. Pediatr.102:161.Monod, -. (1881) Hypertrophie mammaire. Gaz. de Hôp. 54(93) Mortillet, G. (1883) Homme de six mamelles. Bull. de la Soc. dAnthrop. de Paris. 6:458-459.Moullin, J.A.M. (1883) Case of hypertrophy of the breasts. Trans. Obstet. Soc. Lond. 27:212.Murchison, -. (1866) Supplementary nipples or pleiomazia. Trans. Path. Soc. London. 17:426-428.Neugebauer, Jr., F.L. (1886) Eine bisher einzig dastehende Beobachtung von Polymastie mit 10Brustwarzen. Centralblatt f. Gyndkologie 10:729-736.Neumann, H.O. und M. Oing. (1929) Polymastie und Polythelie. Eine klinische studie mit einementwicklungsgeschictlichen Histologischen Beitrag. Arch. f. Gynäkol. 138:494-542.Osbourn, R.A. (1956) Congenital ectodermal defect with amastia. Med. Ann. District ofColumbia 25:204-205.Paravicini, G. (1903) Cas de polymastie, ou de pléomazie, chez des individus de sexe masculin.Arch. Ital. Biol. 40:325.Paull, F. (1862) Total absence of the left mammary gland from non-development. Lancet 1:648.Peiper, -. (1891) mangel des linken M. pectoralis major (portio sternocostalis) , des M. pectoralisminor, der linken brustwarze eines Theiles des M. serratus anticus major, und des M. latissmusdorsi. Deutsche Med. Wochenschr. 17(7):265. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 198
  • 200. Pellegrini, J.R. and R.F. Wagner, Jr. (1983) Polythelia and associated conditions. Am. Fam.Physician 28:129-132.Perkins, R.A. (1921) Supernumerary breast on buttock. JAMA 76:792.Petrone, A. (1889) Contribuzione alla teoria dellatavismo in um caso raro di polimastia maschile(6 mammelle). Progresso Med. (Napoli) 3:516-524.Pieraccini, G. (1934) Asimmetria morfologica, differenze anatomica e fisiologica tra lemammelle nella donna. Arch. Ital. Anat. Embriol. 33:71-94.Petrignani, R. (1939) Polymastie et gémellité. Bull. Soc. Gynec. et dObstet. 28:306-307.Purves, R. and J.A. Hadley. (1927) Accessory breasts in the labia majora. Brit. J. Surg. 15:279-281.Romanus, T. (1948) A pedigree showing the incidence of malformation of the nipples. ActaGenetic. Statist. Med. 1:168-173.Schilssler, F. (1892) Ueber Hypertrophie der weiblichen Brustdiise. Arch. f. Gynaekologie43:403- 428.Schneller, E.W. (1898) Congenital amazia. Med. Rec. 53:282.Shewmake, S.W. and G.T. Izuno. (1977) Supernumery areolae. Arch. Dermatol. 113:823-825.Simard, R. (1948) Sur un cas damastie. Laval Med. 13:687-690.Simpson, G. (1913) A case of amastia. Brit. J. Surg. 1:336-337.Smith, S.F. (1880) Axilla Lactation. Louisville Medical News 10:231-232.Speert, H. (1942) Supernumerary mammae, with special reference to the Rhesus monkey. TheQuart. Rev. Biol. 17:59-68.Sutton, J.B. (1889) Supernumerary mammae and nipples in man, monkeys, cows, etc. Am. J.Med. Sci. 97:247-257.Tawil, H.M. and S.S. Najjar. (1968) Congenital absence of the breasts. J. Pediatrics. 73:751-753.Testut, L. (1883) Note sur un cas de mamelle surnuméraire observée chez la femme. Bull. Soc.dAnthropol. de Paris S.3. 6:649-651.Testut, L. (1883) Note sur un cas de mammelle crurale observé chez la femme. Bull. de la Soc.dAnthrop. de Paris. 2:757-759.Trier, W.C. (1965) Complete breast absence. Case report and review of the literature. Plast.Reconstructive Surg. 36:430-436.Varsano, I.B., Jaber, L., Garty, B., Mukamel, M.M. and M. Grünebaum. (1984) Urinary tractabnormalities in children with supernumerary nipples. Pediatrics 73:103-105.Vassal, P.A. et P. Voizard. (1955) Lhyperthélie en Afrique du Nord. Assoc. AnatomistesComptes Rendus 42:1371-1380.Verneuil, -. (1854) Hypertrophie mammaire. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique deParis XXIX(4):1-2.Weinberg, S.K. and A.G. Molusky. (1976) Aberrant axillary breast tissue. A report of a familywith six affected women in two generations. Clin. Genet. 10:325-328.Weinshel, L.R. and N. Demakopoulos. (1943) Supernumerary breasts: With special reference tothe pseudomamma type. Am. J. Surg. 60:76-80.Whyte, G.D. (1904) Congenital absence of the breast and of the greater pectoral muscle in a man.Lancet 2:1249.Williams, W.R. (1891) Polymastism, with special reference to mammae erraticae anddevelopment of neoplasms from supernumerary mammary structures. J. Anat. Physiol. 25:225-255.Williams, W.R. (1891) Mammary variations per defectum. J. Anat. Physiol. 25:304-315.Wylie, W. (1885) Case of entire absence of both mammae in a female, age 21 years. Brit. Med. J.1885(2):235.Zander, R. (1903) Ein Fall von echtem Hermaphroditismus beim Menschen. Anat. Anz. 23:27-28. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 199
  • 201. Variations in Size, Number, Location, andStructure of the Mammary Gland in Men andWomenRonald A. Bergman, PhD, Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS,Ryosuke Miyauchi, MDSymbols: male; female.A Axillary mammary gandsB Marked variation in size (left side rudimentary)C Paired, accessory glands at level of navelD Doubled mammary gland (second gland beneath normal gland)E Doubled nippleF Unusual location, inferior lateral chest wall between 7th and 9th rib Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 200
  • 202. G Supernumerary gland in the unusual location of the posterior position of the left thigh, just below the gluteal foldH Unusual supernumerary gland between those in the normal position, in a child.Redrawn from McGillicuddy, T.J. The mammae and their anomalies. Med. Rec.40:446-449,1891.Supernumerary Mammae and Nipples in Menand WomenRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDPeer Review Status: Internally Peer ReviewedFrom Leichtenstern. über das Vorkommen und kie Bedeutung supernumerärer (accessorischer)Brüst und Brustwarzen. Auf Grund 13 eigener und 19 aus der iteratur gesammelterBoebachtungen. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med.73:222-256, 1878. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 201
  • 203. Supernumerary Mammary Glands Ronald A. Bergman, PhD Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed This individual had three glands. From Testut, 1883.SupernumeraryGlandsRonald A. Bergman, PhD, Adel K. Afifi,MD, MS, Ryosuke Miyauchi, MDThis individual has three mammaryglands.From Martin, 1893. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 202
  • 204. Mammary Glands,SupernumeraryRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDIndividual with four glands.From Iwai, 1907. Supernumery NipplesRonald A. Bergman, PhD, Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS, Ryosuke Miyauchi, MDSchematic diagrams showing, collected on single subjects, all the unusual locations in whichsupernumerary nipples have been reported in the literature. Note that, although fewer cases are onrecord for males, the supernumerary nipples may occur in just as bizarre locations as in thefemale. Naturally the male rarely shows well-developed mammary-gland tissue in connectionwith the aberrant nipples. (Assembled and schematized primarily from the works of Surmont, andof Cholnoky.) The usual locations for supernumerary nipples are along the course of the "milkridge". Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 203
  • 205. Image 53Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation:Opus IV: Organ SystemsRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDPeer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed Image 68 Supernumerary Mammary Glands Ronald A. Bergman, PhD Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed From Latarjet, A., 1931. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 204
  • 206. QuadrupleMammae in a ManRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDPeer Review Status: Internally PeerReviewedTwo brothers had four mammae each.From Handyside. Amastia and Polymastia Ronald A. Bergman, PhD Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed Top Figure: Complete absence of both mammae (Wylie). Bottom Figure: In Gardiners case2the patient was from Cape, aged twenty-nine, healthy and well developed, except that she had a pair of supernumerary mammae a little above and external to the normal ones. The redundant mammae were smaller than the normal ones. The redundant mammae were smaller than the normal ones--about the size of those of a girl at puberty. After child-birth these glands enlarged, and gave milk. Cited by Percy in his "Mém. sur les femmesmultimammae," Journal de Méd, &c, de Corvisary., ann. xiii. t. ix. p. 383. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 205
  • 207. Two NipplesRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDPeer Review Status: Internally PeerReviewedRight breast with two nipples.From Bartels, 1875. Unilateral absence of a mammary gland in sisters Ronald A. Bergman, PhD Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed In one of two sisters a single mammary gland was found. From Lanz and Wachsmuth, 1955. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 206
  • 208. Four NipplesRonald A. Bergman, PhDAdel K. Afifi, MD, MSRyosuke Miyauchi, MDPeer Review Status: Internally Peer ReviewedMale with four nipples.From Bartels, 1872. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 207
  • 209. Breast exam machine to reduce waits Canada Dot Com(photo: AP Photo ) Diseases Hospial Photos Tecnology WomenUntil last week, whenever Jackie Pruyn went in for a mammogram, women sitting out in thewaiting room could hear her screaming: "Hurry up!" Pruyn, 52, who is a hairdresser in Tecumseh,said the examination would hurt a lot because the mammography machine plate was too small forher chest. "I would be screaming and laughing at the same time," she said. She gets the cancer-screening test at Windsor Regional Hospital every two years, but waited almost a year longer forher last one because she was...New machine for breast exams Canada Dot ComUntil last week, whenever Jackie Pruyn went in for a mammogram, women sitting out in thewaiting room could hear her screaming: "Hurry up!" Pruyn, 52, who is a hairdresser in Tecumseh,said the examination...Breast cancer mortality in B.C. lowest in Canada Canada Dot ComJean Orr, the first woman to get a mammogram at the BC Cancer Agency, is the poster girl for its Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 208
  • 210. breast cancer-screening program. Getting her four daughters to follow her lead, however, is adifferent story. "I...Doing a 180 on breast exams The Columbus DispatchMonthly breast self-exams -- once the firm recommendation of those looking to shrink the breast-cancer death toll -- are falling out of favor. A new evaluation from a respected scientific reviewgroup shows...Study questions self breast exams The Columbus DispatchMonthly breast self-exams â ” once the firm recommendation of those looking to shrink thebreast-cancer death toll â ” are falling out of favor. A new evaluation from a respected scientificreview group shows...Technology breakthrough for breast cancer detection NZ HeraldThe new technology in action at the Ascot clinic. Breast cancer specialists hope two new piecesof digital technology will improve the early detection and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer.The digital...Dragon boaters row against cancer Canada Dot ComVerna Nasrallah is battling a breast cancer thats spread to her liver and bones. But on Saturday,she was shoulder-to-shoulder with her Tampa Bay, Florida teammates in a 41-foot long dragonboat off Sandpoint...Salt Lake docs take breast-cancer screening to Africa Scripps HowardSALT LAKE CITY -- It is unknown how many women in Tanzania have breast cancer. Thatsbecause some of them may be dying of the disease and dont know it. While many women in theUnited States regularly get...Breast self-exams do not cut breast cancer deaths Canada Dot ComNEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Regular breast self-examination does not reduce death frombreast cancer and may actually have a harmful effect by increasing the number of biopsiesperformed for benign disease,...Breast self-exams dont reduce deaths: study Canada Dot ComLONDON - Women who examine their breasts for cancerous lumps do not reduce their chancesof dying from the disease, scientists have said. A review of research involving more than 380,000women concluded there...Patients paddle for a cure Canada Dot ComVerna Nasrallah is battling a breast cancer thats spread to her liver and bones. But instead oflying in a hospital bed, she was shoulder-to-shoulder Saturday with her Tampa Bay, Fla.,teammates in a 41-foot... Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 209
  • 211. Do Breast Self-Exams Do Any Good? Time MagazineMedical advice can be frustratingly contradictory, especially when it comes to the issue ofscreening. Now, a new report questions the usefulness of breast self-exams, finding that thecommonly recommended...Breast cancer treatment waits too long for some Canada Dot ComAccess to breast cancer treatment is unequal across the country, according to a new study on waittimes to be released Thursday by the Canadian Breast Cancer Network. The study found thatpatients in British...New Evidence Supports Chemotherapy,Tamoxifen for Small Breast TumorsArticle date: 2001/01/26After surgery for breast cancer, doctors should consider offering chemotherapy, tamoxifen, orboth drugs together to patients with small tumors and no cancer in their lymph nodes, accordingto a study published in the Jan. 17 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. But otherbreast cancer experts say some women in this category may not need the additional treatment.Doctors now recommend chemotherapy or tamoxifen to breast cancer patients with tumors largerthan one centimeter (slightly less than one-half inch.) To learn if they might help women withtumors of one centimeter or smaller, researchers examined data from five earlier clinical trials,focusing on the 1,259 patients in those trials who had the small tumors. Eight-year survival rates ?the percentage of patients alive eight years after diagnosis ? were compared among groups ofwomen with small breast cancers who received different treatments.A Slight Increase in SurvivalThe researchers found adding tamoxifen after surgery increased the eight-year survival rateslightly, from 90% to 92% for patients whose tumors were estrogen receptor-positive (stimulatedto grow by estrogen). The addition of chemotherapy to the tamoxifen increased the survival rateto 97% for those patients.Among women with small estrogen receptor-negative cancers, chemotherapy did not improvesurvival. Eight-year survival was 91% with chemotherapy and 93% without it. Tamoxifen wasnot given to any of these women, because previous studies have shown the drug to be useful onlyfor estrogen receptor-positive tumors.Chemotherapy or tamoxifen given after surgery is known as adjuvant therapy ? or therapy given Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 210
  • 212. after the main treatment. "Even among patients with very small tumors, there are some who aregoing to have treatment failures [from surgery alone] and some of those can benefit fromadjuvant therapy," says lead researcher Bernard Fisher, MD, scientific director of the NationalSurgical Adjuvant Bowel and Breast Project (NSABP) and a breast cancer surgeon at theUniversity of Pittsburgh."We?re not saying all patients should get adjuvant therapy, but that things other than tumor sizealone should be considered," Fisher adds.Factors to ConsiderHe suggests doctors should consider the tumor?s cell type, grade (how abnormal the canceroustissue appears under a microscope), and estrogen receptor status as well as other factors such asthe patient?s age in deciding if chemotherapy or tamoxifen should be given to patients with smalltumors.But the authors of an accompanying editorial say most patients with small tumors have afavorable outcome without adjuvant therapy. "[I]t?s hard for me to believe that there might notwell be significant toxicity [side effect] issues with chemotherapy that would compete with thepotential limited benefits of therapy," says Marc E. Lippman, MD, lead author of the editorial andchair of the department of internal medicine at the University of MichiganHealth System.An expert with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) says both the editorialistsand the study authors are right on some points. "In patients with small breast tumors and nolymph node involvement, it really is an issue of looking at whether the toxicity [side effects] andexpense of therapy justify the small but apparently real and expected benefits of the therapies thatare applied," says Robert Carlson, MD, a professor of medicine at Stanford University who chairsthe group that produces the NCCN breast cancer treatment guidelines. The NCCN is an allianceof leading cancer centers that develops and publishes the most widely accepted treatmentguidelines.Not Recommended by GuidelinesNCCN guidelines currently do not recommend adjuvant therapy for patients with tumors of onehalf centimeter or less, Carlson says. "But, certainly, node-negative patients with breast tumors of0.6 to one centimeter in size have a high enough risk for recurrence that use of adjuvantchemotherapy or hormone therapy or both should be considered," he adds."That consideration should include a careful estimate of what the prognosis is, how much benefitthe adjuvant therapy could provide, and what the woman has to accept in terms of side effects andrisks to try to achieve that benefit," Carlson says. "From our perspective, it?s really the womanwho has to balance those risk assessments for us and tell us as an individual whether she believes Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 211
  • 213. adjuvant therapy gives the balance of risks and benefits that is appropriate for her or not."To view the NCCN guidelines for breast cancer treatment, click here.Mammary intercourseFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchMammary Intercourse.Listen to this article (info/dl)More spoken articlesMammary intercourse describes a sex act, performed as foreplay or as non-penetrative sex, thatinvolves the stimulation of the male penis by the female breasts. Commonly, this sex act involvesthe man placing his penis in the womans cleavage and thrusting between her breasts, while thebreasts are squeezed around the penis for additional stimulation. Mammary intercourse issometimes combined with fellatio.When mammary intercourse continues to the point of ejaculation, the semencan land on the breasts, face, or in the mouth of the woman. A slang term forthe appearance of semen landing on the womans upper chest, neck, orshoulders is a "pearl necklace".Several slang terms refer to mammary intercourse, such as titfuck or titty fuck in the United States, as well as tit wank or French fuck in the United Kingdom.[1] See also • Breast fetishism • Cleavage (breasts) Sources • Godson, Suzi (2002). The Sex Book. Cassell Illustrated, London. ISBN 0-304-35991-2. • Masters, William H. and Johnson, Virginia E. (1966). Human Sexual Response. No. ISBN 0-316-54987-8. • Viz (2005). Rogers Profanisaurus Rex: the Ultimate Swearing Dictionary. Viz. ISBN 0- 7522-2812-9.References 1. ^ Godson, page 96. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 212
  • 214. Sexual intercourseFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe missionary position of human sexual intercoursedepicted by Édouard-Henri Avril A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya "Intercourse" redirects here. For other uses, see Intercourse (disambiguation). Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense, is the act in whichthe male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals) enters the female reproductivetract, called copulation or coitus in other reference.[1] The two entities may be of opposite sexes,or they may be hermaphroditic, as is the case with snails.Traditionally, intercourse has been viewed as the natural endpoint of all sexual contact between aman and a woman,[2] and is commonly confined to this definition today. The meaning of the term,however, has been broadened in recent years, and now labels at least three different sex acts.These three types of intercourse are: vaginal intercourse, involving vaginal penetration by thepenis; oral intercourse, involving oral caress of the sex organs (male or female); and analintercourse, involving insertion of the males penis into his partners anus.[2]Sex acts that involve the use of fingers or hands or mutual masturbation are more often referred toas outercourse (with oral sex at times listed as an aspect),[3][4][5][6] while the term sex, in thecontext of sexual intimacy, is often understood more widely to include any mutual genitalstimulation.[7]For most non-human animals, sexual intercourse is used mainly for reproduction, at the point ofestrus, the most fertile period of time in the females reproductive cycle,[8][9] through inseminationand subsequent internal fertilization. However, bonobos,[10] dolphins,[11] and chimpanzees areknown to engage in sexual intercourse even when the female is not in estrus, and to engage in sexacts with same-sex partners. In most instances, humans have sex primarily for pleasure.[12] Thisbehavior in the above mentioned animals is also presumed to be for pleasure,[13] which in turnstrengthens social bonds.Contents • 1 In animals • 2 In humans o 2.1 Coitus difficulties Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 213
  • 215. • 3 Functions of sex beyond reproduction o 3.1 Oral and anal sex • 4 Sexual ethics and legality o 4.1 Religious views • 5 See also • 6 References7 External linksIn animals See also: MatingHERRING GULLS MATINGMany animals which live in the water use external fertilization, whereas internal fertilization mayhave developed from a need to maintain gametes in a liquid medium in the Late Ordovicianepoch. Internal fertilization with many vertebrates (such as reptiles, some fish, and most birds)occur via cloacal copulation (see also hemipenis), while mammals copulate vaginally, and manybasal vertebrates reproduce sexually with external fertilization.However, some terrestrial arthropods do use external fertilization. For primitive insects, the maledeposits spermatozoa on the substrate, sometimes stored within a special structure, and courtshipinvolves inducing the female to take up the sperm package into her genital opening; there is noactual copulation. In groups such as dragonflies and many spiders, males extrude sperm intosecondary copulatory structures removed from their genital opening, which are then used toinseminate the female (in dragonflies, it is a set of modified sternites on the second abdominalsegment; in spiders, it is the male pedipalps). In advanced groups of insects, the male uses itsaedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to deposit spermdirectly (though sometimes in a capsule called a "spermatophore") into the females reproductivetract. In humans Sexual intercourse See also: Human sexual behavior and Human sexuality Vaginal sexual intercourse, also called coitus, is the human form of copulation. While its primary purpose is reproduction, it is often performed exclusively for pleasure and/or as an expression of love and emotional intimacy. Sexual intercourse typically plays a powerful bonding role; in many societies it is normal for couples to have frequent Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 214
  • 216. intercourse while using birth control, sharing pleasure and strengthening their emotional bondthrough sex even though they are deliberately avoiding pregnancy.Sexual intercourse may also be defined as referring to other forms of insertive sexual behavior,such as oral sex and anal intercourse. The phrase to have sex can mean any or all of thesebehaviors, as well as other non-penetrative sex acts not considered here.Coitus may be preceded by foreplay, which leads to sexual arousal of the partners, resulting in theerection of the penis and natural lubrication of the vagina.To engage in coitus, the erect penis is inserted into the vagina and one or both of the partnersmove their hips to move the penis backward and forward inside the vagina to cause friction,typically without fully removing the penis. In this way, they stimulate themselves and each other,often continuing until highly pleasurable orgasm in either or both partners is achieved.Penetration by the hardened erect penis is also known as intromission, or by the Latin nameimmissio penis (Latin for "insertion of the penis").Coitus is the basic reproductive method of humans. During ejaculation, which usuallyaccompanies male orgasm, a series of muscular contractions delivers semen containing malegametes known as sperm cells or spermatozoa from the penis into the vagina.The subsequent route of the sperm from the vault of the vagina is through the cervix and into theuterus, and then into the fallopian tubes. Millions of sperm are present in each ejaculation, toincrease the chances of one fertilizing an egg or ovum. If the woman orgasms during or after maleejaculation, the corresponding temporary reduction in the size of the vagina and the contractionsof the uterus that occur can help the sperm to reach the fallopian tubes[citation needed], though femaleorgasm is not necessary to achieve pregnancy. When a fertile ovum from the female is present inthe fallopian tubes, the male gamete joins with the ovum resulting in fertilization and theformation of a new embryo. When a fertilized ovum reaches the uterus, it becomes implanted inthe lining of the uterus, known as endometrium and a pregnancy begins.Coitus difficultiesThe physical structure of the act of coitus favors penile stimulation over clitoral stimulation. Thelocation of the clitoris then often necessitates manual stimulation in order for the female toachieve orgasm. In the 1974 Hite Report studies, nearly 70 percent of female respondentsadmitted to rarely or never achieving orgasm during coitus without simultaneous directstimulation of the clitoris with the fingers or other implement.[14]Anorgasmia is the lack of orgasm during otherwise pleasurable stimulation. It is much morecommon in women than men. Masturbation is a well supported method for a woman to exploreher body and discover what feels good for her. The absence of a partner can remove the sense of Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 215
  • 217. performance anxiety and allow the woman to relax and enjoy. Good communication and patienceare essential in helping an anorgasmic woman achieve orgasm. Whether a woman considersanorgasmia a problem or not is highly individual, though many women find it very frustrating.Some males suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED), or impotence, at least occasionally. For thosewhose impotence is caused by medical conditions, prescription drugs such as Viagra, Cialis, andLevitra are available. However, doctors caution against the unnecessary use of these drugsbecause they are accompanied by serious risks such as increased chance of heart attack.Moreover, using a drug to counteract the symptom—impotence—can mask the underlyingproblem causing the impotence and does not resolve it. A serious medical condition might beaggravated if left untreated.A more common sexual disorder in males is premature ejaculation (PE). The U.S. Food and DrugAdministration is examining the drug dapoxetine to treat premature ejaculation. In clinical trials,those with PE who took dapoxetine experienced intercourse three to four times longer beforeorgasm than without the drug. Another ejaculation-related disorder is delayed ejaculation, whichcan be caused as an unwanted side effect of antidepressant medications such as Fluvoxamine.The American Urological Association (AUA) estimates that premature ejaculation could affect 27to 34 percent of men in the United States. The AUA also estimates that 10 to 12 percent of men inthe United States are affected by erectile dysfunction. Vaginismus is involuntary tensing of thepelvic floor musculature, making coitus distressing, painful, and sometimes impossible.Dyspareunia is a medical term signifying painful or uncomfortable intercourse, but does notspecify the cause.Mobility impairment and other disabilities can also lead to sexual difficulties. According to theCanadian Paraplegic Association, in 2007, there were 36,000 Canadians living with spinal cord [15]injuries and in the US there are 11,000 spinal cord injuries every year.[15] Sexual intercoursefor these mobility-impaired individuals may be a psychologically daunting experience which canaffect their self-concept as a sexual being.[15] For example Brian Chovez, a paraplegic with somemobility loss from the waist down, has indicated that he went "from having a very active sex lifebefore the accident, to not really having one at all... it was tremendously hard psychologically."[15]However, "sex is not impossible" according to Alan Tholkes, a quadriplegic since 1976. Tholkessaid "I had sensations in all the critical areas, but my motor function was lacking. Certainpositions just werent possible."[15] Some sexual devices, such as swings and suspension harnessescan be used to facilitate sexual intercourse for those with mobility impairments. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 216
  • 218. Functions of sex beyond reproductionHumans, bonobos,[16] chimpanzees and dolphins[17] are the only species known to engage inheterosexual behaviors even when the female is not in estrus, which is a point in her reproductivecycle suitable for successful impregnation. These species, and others, are also known to engage inhomosexual behaviors.[18]In both humans and bonobos the female undergoes relatively concealed ovulation, so that bothmale and female partners commonly do not know whether she is fertile at any given moment.One possible reason for this distinct biological feature may be formation of strong emotionalbonds between sexual partners important for social interactions and, in the case of humans, long-term partnership rather than immediate sexual reproduction.[12]Humans, bonobos and dolphins are all intelligent social animals, whose cooperative behaviorproves far more successful than that of any individual alone. In these animals, the use of sex hasevolved beyond reproduction apparently to serve additional social functions. Sex reinforcesintimate social bonds between individuals to form larger social structures. The resultingcooperation encourages collective tasks that promote the survival of each member of the group.Alex Comfort[citation needed] and others[12] posit three potential advantages of intercourse in humans,which are not mutually exclusive: reproductive, relational, and recreational. While thedevelopment of the Pill and other highly effective forms of contraception in the mid- and late20th century increased peoples ability to segregate these three functions, they still overlap a greatdeal and in complex patterns. For example: A fertile couple may have intercourse whilecontracepting not only to experience sexual pleasure (recreational), but also as a means ofemotional intimacy (relational), thus deepening their bonding, making their relationship morestable and more capable of sustaining children in the future (deferred reproductive). This samecouple may emphasize different aspects of intercourse on different occasions, being playfulduring one episode of intercourse (recreational), experiencing deep emotional connection onanother occasion (relational), and later, after discontinuing contraception, seeking to achievepregnancy (reproductive, or more likely reproductive and relational). Oral and anal sex Main articles: Oral sex and Anal sex Oral sex consists of all the sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, tongue, and possibly throat to stimulate genitalia. It is sometimes performed to the exclusion of all other Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 217
  • 219. forms of sexual activity. Oral sex may include the ingestion or absorption of semen or vaginalfluids.While there are many sexual acts involving the anus, anal cavity, sphincter valve and/or rectum,the specific meaning of anal sex is the insertion of a mans penis into another persons rectum.Sexual ethics and legality See also: Sexual ethicsUnlike some other sexual activities, vaginal intercourse has rarely been made taboo on religiousgrounds or by government authorities, as procreation is inherently essential to the continuation tothe species or of any particular genetic line, which is considered to be a positive factor, andindeed, enables most societies to continue in the first place. Many of the cultures that hadprohibited sexual intercourse entirely no longer exist; an exception is the Shakers, a sect ofChristianity that has four adherents at current[citation needed]. There are, however, many communitieswithin cultures that prohibit their members to engage in any form of sex, especially members ofreligious orders and the priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church and priests in Buddhistmonasteries. Within some ideologies, coitus has been considered the only "acceptable" sexualactivity. Relatively strict designations of "appropriate" and "inappropriate" sexual intercoursehave been in human culture for hundreds of years. These legal or cultural restrictions mayinclude: • Sex among partners who are not married (this is sometimes referred to as fornication) • Sex between a married person and someone to whom they are not married (called adultery or extramarital sex). • Commercial sex (also called prostitution). • Sex between partners of the same sex (also called homosexuality). • Sex between a living human and a human corpse (also called necrophilia). • Sex between close relatives (also called incest). • Adults having sex with children (also called child sexual abuse). • Humans having sex with non-human animals (also called bestiality). • Sex between members of different tribes, ethnic groups, or races, as in South Africa or the United States during periods of racial segregation. (also called miscegenation) • Sexual intercourse during a womans menstrual period, as in Islam and Judaism.Often a community adapts its legal definitions during case laws for settling disputes. Forexample, in 2003 the New Hampshire Supreme Court ruled that same-sex relations do notconstitute sexual intercourse, based on a 1961 definition from Websters Third New International Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 218
  • 220. Dictionary, in Blanchflower v. Blanchflower, and thereby an accused spouse in a divorce casewas found not guilty of adultery based on this technicality.Most countries have age of consent laws specifying the minimum legal age for engaging in sexualintercourse. Sexual intercourse with a person against their will, or without their informed legalconsent, is referred to as rape, and is considered a serious crime in many cultures around theworld, including those found in Europe, northern and eastern Asia, and the Americas. Sex,regardless of consent, with a person under the age of consent is often considered to be sexualassault or statutory rape. The age of consent varies from country to country and often by state orregion; commonly, the age of consent is set anywhere between twelve and eighteen years of age,with sixteen years being the most common age the law sets. Sometimes, the age of consent islowered for people near the same age wishing to participate in intercourse. For example, inCanada, the minimum age of consent for all couples is 14. However, the age of consent can gobelow 14 on the condition that the couple still are not 2 years of age apart. Religions may also setdiffering ages for consent, with Islam setting the age at puberty, which can vary from around 10to 14. There are exceptions in the case of anal sex or people in a position of trust/authority.Religious views Main article: Religious views on sexual intercourseReligious views on sexual intercourse vary widely between religions, between different sects ofthe same religion, and even between different members of the same sect.See also • Synonyms for sexual intercourse – the • Non-penetrative sex WikiSaurus list of synonyms and slang • Anal sex words for sexual intercourse in many • Oral sex languages • BDSM • Safe sex • Top and bottom in sex and BDSM • Sex in space • Sex toys • Sex magic • Sexual arousal • Sexual slang • Foreplay • Sexology • Biological reproduction • Orgasm • Sexual dysfunction • Human sexual behavior • Human sexual response cycle • Masturbation • Rape • TeledildonicsWikimedia Commons has media related to: Sexual intercourse Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 219
  • 221. References 1. ^ sexual intercourse Britannica entry 2. ^ a b "Sexual Intercourse". Retrieved on 2008-01-12. 3. ^ Kate Havelin (1999). Dating: "What Is a Healthy Relationship?". Capstone Press, 64. ISBN 0736802924. 4. ^ Isadora Alman (2001). Doing It: Real People Having Really Good Sex. Conari, 280. ISBN 1573245208. 5. ^ Ann van Sevenant (2005). Sexual Outercourse: A Philosophy of Lovemaking. Peeters, 249. ISBN 9042916176. 6. ^ Ian Kerner (2004). She Comes First: The Thinking Mans Guide to Pleasuring a Woman. HarperCollins, 240. ISBN 1573245208. 7. ^ Klein, Marty. "The Meaning of Sex". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Volume 1 August 10, 1998:. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. 8. ^ "Females of almost all species except man will mate only during their fertile period, which is known as estrus, or heat..." Helena Curtis (1975). Biology. Worth Publishers, 1065. ISBN 0879010401. 9. ^ Pineda, Leslie Ernest McDonald (2003). McDonalds Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. Blackwell Publishing, 597. ISBN 0813811066. 10. ^ Frans de Waal, "Bonobo Sex and Society", Scientific American (March 1995): 82-86. 11. ^ Dinitia Smith"Central Park Zoos gay penguins ignite debate", San Francisco Chronicle (February 7, 2004). Available online at bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/02/07/MNG3N4RAV41.DTL. a b c 12. ^ Jared Diamond (1992). The rise and fall of the third chimpanzee. Vintage. ISBN 978-0099913801. 13. ^ John, Gartner (2006-08-15). "Animals Just Want to Have Fun". Retrieved on 2007-10-15. 14. ^ Sexual Honesty, by Women, For Women, by Shere Hite (1974) 15. ^ a b c d e Parks, Jennifer (Thursday June 28 2007), “Enjoying the ride”, Ottawa 24 hours 1 (155): 11, <> 16. ^ Frans de Waal, "Bonobo Sex and Society", Scientific American (March 1995): 82-86. 17. ^ Dinitia Smith, "Central Park Zoos gay penguins ignite debate", San Francisco Chronicle (February 7, 2004). Available online at bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/02/07/MNG3N4RAV41.DTL. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 220
  • 222. 18. ^ Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity (St. Martins Press, 1999). ISBN 0-312-19239-8External links • The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality • Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas • Dutch Society for Sexual Reform article on "sex without intercourse" • UK legal guidance for prosecutors concerning sexual acts • Resources for parents to talk about sexual intercourse to their children • Planned Parenthood information on sexual intercourse • Medical Resources related to sexual intercourse • W. W. Schultz, P. van Andel, I. Sabelis, E. Mooyaart. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal. BMJ 1999;319:1596- 1600 (18 December). • Sexual Intercourse During Menstruation • Podcast series explores the question "What is Sex?" • Introduction to Animal Reproduction • Advantages of Sexual ReproductionSex organFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources. (June 2007) Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed.A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomicalparts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductivesystem in a complex organism; in mammals, these include: • Female o Bartholins glands o cervix o clitoris o clitoral hood o clitoral glans (glans clitoridis) o Fallopian tubes o labium o ovaries Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 221
  • 223. o Skenes gland o uterus o vagina o vulva • Male o bulbourethral glands o epididymis o penis o foreskin o glans penis o prostate o scrotum o seminal vesicles o testiclesThe Latin term genitalia, sometimes anglicized as genitals and genital area, is used to describethe externally visible sex organs, known as primary genitalia or external genitalia: in males thepenis, in females the clitoris and vulva.The other, hidden sex organs are referred to as the secondary genitalia or internal genitalia. Themost important of these are the gonads, a pair of sex organs, specifically the testes in the male orthe ovaries in the female. Gonads are the true sex organs, generating reproductive gametescontaining inheritable DNA. They also produce most of the primary hormones that affect sexualdevelopment, and regulate other sexual organs and sexually differentiated behaviors.A more ambiguously defined term is erogenous zone, subjectively, any portion of the body thatwhen stimulated produces erotic sensation, but always prominently including the genitalia.Development Main article: Development of the reproductive systemIt is only in males In typical prenatal development, sexual organs originate from a commonanlage anatomy during early gestation and differentiate into male or female variations. The SRYgene, usually located on the Y chromosome and encoding the testis determining factor,determines the direction of this differentiation. The absence of it allows the gonads to continue todevelop into ovaries.Thereafter, the development of the internal reproductive organs and the external genitalia isdetermined by hormones produced by certain fetal gonads (ovaries or testes) and the cellsresponse to them. The initial appearance of the fetal genitalia (a few weeks after conception) Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 222
  • 224. looks basically feminine: a pair of "urogenital folds" with a small protuberance in the middle, andthe urethra behind the protuberance. If the fetus has testes, and if the testes produce testosterone,and if the cells of the genitals respond to the testosterone, the outer urogenital folds swell and fusein the midline to produce the scrotum; the protuberance grows larger and straighter to form thepenis; the inner urogenital swellings grow, wrap around the penis, and fuse in the midline to formthe penile urethra.Each sexual organ in one sex has a homologous counterpart in the other one. See a list ofhomologues of the human reproductive system.In a larger perspective, the whole process of sexual differentiation also includes development ofsecondary sexual characteristics such as patterns of pubic and facial hair and female breasts thatemerge at puberty. Furthermore, differences in brain structure arises, affecting, but not absolutelydetermining, behavior.Anatomical terms related to sexThe following is a list of anatomical terms related to sex and sexuality: • areola • Bartholins gland • breast • bulbospongiosus muscle • bulbourethral gland • cervix • cleft of venus • clitoris • corona of glans penis • corpus cavernosum clitoridis • corpus spongiosum penis • cremaster muscle • dartos • deep perineal pouch • eggs • ejaculatory duct • endometrium • epididymis • Fallopian tube • foreskin Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 223
  • 225. • frenulum• frenulum clitoridis• frenulum labiorum pudendi• frenulum of prepuce of penis• fundiform ligament• G-spot• Gartners duct• genital tubercle• genitofemoral nerve• glans• glans penis• hymen• internal pudendal artery• intromittent organ• ischiocavernosus muscle• labia majora• labia minora• labium• mammary gland• meatus• mons pubis• Müllerian duct• nipple• ovary• ovum• penile artery• penis• perineum• prepuce• prostate• pubic hair• pubic symphysis• pubococcygeus muscle• pudendal nerve Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 224
  • 226. • raphe • ridged band • scrotum • seminal vesicle • seminiferous tubules • Skenes glands • spermatic cord • spermatozoon • splanchnic nerves • testicle • tunica albuginea • urethra • urethral sphincter • urethral sponge • uterus • vagina • vas deferensSee also • Castration • Circumcision • Genital modification and mutilation • Human sexuality • Hysterectomy • Intersexuality • Intimate parts • List of transgender-related topics • Mastectomy • Obstetrics and gynaecology • Oophorectomy • Secondary sex characteristics • Sex • Human sexual behavior • Sexual intercourse • List of sex positions Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 225
  • 227. Public nudityFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nudity portal 2006 Solstice Cyclists. Woman skinny-dipping in BC, Canada. a nude protest Public nudity or nude in public (NIP) refers to nudity not in an entirely private context. It refersto a person appearing nude in a public place or to be seen from apublic place. Nudity in the privacy of a persons home or privategrounds or facilities is not public nudity. Nudity at fitnessfacilities, swimming pools, saunas, or gymnasia, nudist or naturistclubs or resorts are also not public, since they take place on privategrounds. Naturism promotes social nudity, but mostly on privateproperties or officially sanctioned public areas.In some cases, public nudity may be legal. For example, there aremany countries which have designated public areas as nudebeaches, or where nude bathing is unofficially tolerated. In thoseplaces a person would not face legal prosecution merely for beingnude.Outside of those areas, community and legal acceptance of publicnudity varies considerably. To avoid offending the public ingeneral, public authorities maintain what are sometimes called Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 226
  • 228. "standards of decency". What falls outside these standards are usually termed "indecentexposure", or similar terminology. These standards, however, vary with time and place. Mostpeople object to public nudity in a sexualised context, or when children are in issue. Peopleregard those who appear nude in public as trying to draw attention to themselves. If the attentionseeking is to oneself, it may be referred to as exhibitionism, otherwise it may be to draw attentionto a cause (see nudity and protest). There are also some people who disrobe in public to attractpublicity to themselves, as a career move, such as some streakers at sporting events. There arealso others who spontaneously disrobe in public, as an expression of their freedom and theshedding of inhibitions; an example being skinny dipping.There are some people who object to any public exposure of a naked human body, on moral,religious or decency grounds, and regard the exposure of a naked body as inherently sexual. (Seealso gymnophobia.) The degree to which a person can be exposed to be considered "indecent" varies with cultural standards. At one extreme is the former Taliban regime in Afghanistan which considered the exposure of any part of a womans body in public as indecent, and required all women to wear a burqa in public. Less extreme is the requirementfor women who enter a church to wear "modest" clothing and to cover their heads. This is notentirely analogous, because this sort of requirement is not made in respect of a public place. (Seealso modesty.)In recent times, it appears that public nudity is becoming more common with nude sporting andother activities being held. These include naked hiking, the World Naked Bike Ride, Bay toBreakers, Solstice Cyclists, and modern art movements as seen in the work of Spencer Tunickand others. No general public outcry has accompanied these events.There are some people who consider nudity in art as public nudity, and by analogy nudity in themedia and on the internet; to which others retort that one can always "turn off the switch" or notenter a cinema or art gallery. However, the same cannot be said for some advertising whichcontains images of naked or semi-naked people on public highways (or which can be seen from apublic road) such as billboards, or displayed in shop windows, or magazines of naked people onthe cover displayed on news-stands. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 227
  • 229. Contents • 1 Legal position • 2 Necessity • 3 Advocates of the right to be nude • 4 Formal nudity • 5 Artistic expression • 6 Recreation and sport • 7 Public nudity in history • 8 Public nudity in legend • 9 Sexualized public nudity • 10 See also • 11 External links • 12 Further reading13 References Legal position Main article: Indecent exposure At Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, more nudity than would be accepted in North America is simply part of a festive atmosphere. It is generally accepted as a basic principle by most judges in western countries that a naked human body is not in itself indecent. That principle is reflected in depiction of the human form in art of various forms. This is the position, for [1]example, in Germany , Scandinavia and Spain. In Barcelona public nudity is a recognised right.Associations Addan, the organisation defending the right to nudity, Aleteia and BarcelonaCouncil have published the "Tríptic de Barcelona" that express this and clothes free rights.[2] Inthe Netherlands public nudity is allowed on sites that have been assigned by the local authorities [3]and other suitable places which effectively means any complaint will get you arrested as acomplaint is indication that the place was not "suitable".On the other hand, it is also recognised that there are large numbers of people, for variousreasons, who are offended by and even distressed with displays of nudity. To accommodate theseapparently conflicting principles, the courts will, in general, only intervene if there is more thanthe mere fact of nudity to consider. Courts will therefore usually consider the issue in terms of"indecent exposure". However, the exact standards of "decency" is subject to local community Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 228
  • 230. standards, which vary with time and place, and circumstances. In general, public nudity with asexual element will be prosecuted, as will one involving children.In many countries public nudity is forbidden outright on the basis that nudity is inherently sexual.Many states of the United States fine offenders on that basis.[4] (See indecent exposure in theUnited States.) In many contexts, public nudity has been more accepted, especially at designatedareas such as nude beaches and, evenin the United States, e.g. during WorldNaked Bike Ride events or Bay toBreakers.Necessity See also: ModestyAt times of public or privateemergency expectations of modestyare suspended, or modified to theextent of the emergency. For example,during the 2001 anthrax attacks in theUnited States, large numbers ofpeople had to strip to their underwearin parking lots and other public placesfor hosing down by fire departments,often in front of TV news crewscovering the events.[citation needed] Advocates of the right to be nude See also: Nudity and protest Nude participants in Swiss Street Parade 2004. Not all people who engage in public nudity see themselves as nudists or naturists or belong to traditional naturist or nudist organizations. Several activists, such as Vincent Bethell, claim that associations with naturism or nudism are unnecessary. Others will point out that many people who participate in events such as clothing-optional bike rides or visit clothing-optional beaches do so casually and without association or formal affiliation to groups or movements. Activist Daniel Johnsonbelieves that labels and affiliations overly complicate a relatively simple phenomenon, alienate Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 229
  • 231. others from a fear of over-commitment or undesirable stereotypes, and thus get in the way ofintegrating nudity into everyday life.Public nudity has sometimes been used to attract more attention to a public protest, a tactic usedby the Doukhobors in the early 20th century, and later (particularly from the 1960s onwards) usedmore widely. Modern slogans include "Disrobe for disarmament", "Nudes, not nukes!", "NakedFor Peace", and PETAs "Id rather go naked than wear fur!". Formal nudity Adamites dancing naked through the streets. See also: Clothes free organizations Although ceremony and traditions usually involve dressing up, often with some preferential attire, certain cultural or religious traditions actually prescribe(d)nudity, e.g., in the gymnopaidia or the sect of the Adamites.This may be symbolic, especially for rebirth to a new life phase, as in the case of baptism(originally taken by an adult, later often as a child - to symbolise the washing away of original sin- and/or at least partially covered up) or certain coming of age rites, such as cow jumping byyoung men of the East African Hammer people before they are eligible for marriage. Anotherexample is the neo-pagan tradition in some Wiccan covens of going skyclad for certain rituals.In other cases, the physical exposure is a functional part testing endurance, e.g., to undergoscarification, as among various Australian Aboriginal and Sepik River tribes in New Guinea.Artistic expression Nude Modeling: Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art.[5] Main article: Nudity in art • Small and big events where naked people appear with body painting. • While nude modeling is usually done in closed artistic company, the photography of Spencer Tunick is generally shot publicly, outdoors. Tunick is best-known for installations that feature large numbers of nude people (up to 18 thousand) posed in artistic formations. In these formal images the nude form becomes abstract due to the sheer number so closely placed together. For Tunick, Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 230
  • 232. the individual naked body is not important; it is the big group which becomes a "living sculpture" in the landscape. • San Francisco Bay area photographer Jack Gescheidt is staging his events as part of an ongoing series, called "The Tree Spirit Project".NakedBerlin - Group of nude men among hundreds of tourists at Berlin’s Brandenburg Gate;photographed by Team Henning von Berg/Marco. • The photography of Paul Harvey whose book The Spirit of Lady Godiva depicts nude models in urban environments. According to one tradition, Lady Godiva made her famous ride, naked on horseback, through the streets of Coventry, England on July 10 in 1040 in order to gain a remission of the oppressive toll imposed by her husband on his tenants. • The films of Charles MacFarland are featuring naked people in social settings. Locations include international naturist resorts and beaches. • Photographer Henning von Berg directs whimsical art happenings with small groups of completely naked people in public urban locations around the globe. While placing a few nude women and men at crowded landmarks in downtown metropolises, he is searching to capture the inter-action between the naked amateur models and the thousands of very surprised passers-by. [6] Von Berg also organized the world’s only-ever male nude photo shoot inside a parliament building, while hundreds of speechless people surrounded the group of six brave amateur models. [7] Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 231
  • 233. Recreation and sport Boys skinny dipping in a sacred tank of water in India. See also: Nudity in sport and Nude recreation Certain activities in public areas are more readily accepted to be done while naked, such as bathing and swimming. Hiking, bicycling, and other sports may also not be viewed as unusual tobe done while nude, especially in rural areas in northern Europe. Everyday activities such asriding a train or bus, shopping, or attending school or work are almost never considered by thepublic to be appropriatewithout clothing.Examples include goingSkinny-dipping at Hotsprings, nude beaches,naked hiking, streaking andeven skating. SandySnakenberg has organizednude skating androllerblading events in SanFrancisco, the largest oftheir kind in the world.Nude beaches are found inmany Western countries. • Clothing-optional bike rides Public nudity in history See also: History of nudity and Timeline of significant non-sexualized public nudity activities Throughout history, poverty has forced some warriors and sailors to be without clothing,[8] but these instances are unlikely examples of public nudity. The closest western historical example of free public nudity was ancient Sparta, a society with rigorouscodes of training and physical exercise, yet also having art and music. Spartan women worebriefer clothing than other Greek women, yet they sometimes dispensed with these garments andwent nude in the town if they wished.[9] (Customarily, they and other Greek men and women Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 232
  • 234. were nude at festivals of the Classical period). In Spartan society naked women or men in the citywould probably have been treated with the same respect as clothed people.[10] In general,however, concepts of either shame or offense, or the social comfort of the individual, seem tohave been deterrents of public nudity in the rest of Greece and the ancient world in the east andwest, with exceptions in what is now South America, and in Africa and Australia.Public nudity in legend • See Lady Godiva.Sexualized public nudityPublic nudity may be non-sexualized or sexualized in nature.Some people regard flashing, streaking and mooning as indecent exposure and as examples ofsexual public nudity, though usually of a partial nature. Similarly, dogging, exhibitionism, and voyeurism are regarded by some people as offensive behaviour. Not all people regard these acts as offensive sexualized acts. Burning Man camps are examples of a range of contexts from non-sexualized nudity to overtly sexually themed camps, while the Folsom Street Fair held in San Francisco is a leather and BDSM themed fair. See also • Bohemianism and Counterculture. • Culture jamming and Direct action and Flash mob and Smart mob. • Nudity in combat. • Intimate parts. • Nudism. • Public display of affection.External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to:Nude in public • Law of nature prevails in Vermont by Brian McQuarrie, The Boston Globe, August 23, 2006 Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 233
  • 235. • Photos from the National Penis Day in New Zealand • Urbanudismo is a Spanish organization that stages photo events to show the reactions towards nudity in public (in Spanish language)Further reading Main article: Public indecency • The Offense of Public Nudity by Mark Storey • Naturism and Civil Disobedience by Mark Storey • Nude & Natural 20.4 Summer 2001. Article by Jim Meyer on TFTBY titled Vincents Vision: Is Vincent Bethell a menace to decent society? Or the best thing to happen to naturism in years?. Includes an interview with Vincent Bethell. Seven pages with ten pictures. • Nude & Natural 21.2 Winter 2002. The Bethell Approach: A Protest Colloquy/The Bethell Approach: Is the Time for Mass Nude Protests Upon Us? Includes statements by Vincent Bethell, Mark Nisbet, Cec Cinder, Paul Rapoport, Les Rootsey, Morley Shloss, T.A. Wyner, and Mark Storey. Eight Pages, four pictures. Briefly Noted Vincent Victorious. • Nude & Natural Vol 21.3: 24-28, Spring 2002.Terri Sue Webb: An American Bethell/Beyond Safe Havens: Oregons Terri Sue Webb (written by Daniel Johnson). • Nude & Natural Vol 23.4: 73, Summer 2004.Takin It to the Streets: The Cutting Edge of Naturism by Mark Storey. Mark claims "The future of naturism is on public lands. To gain naturist freedoms on public lands will require getting naked in public". • Nude & Natural magazine issues 12.2, 12.3, 13.1 for coverage of Andrew MartinezReferences 1. ^ See German position (German) 2. ^ addan. Associació per a la Defensa del Dret a la Nuesa. - Asociacion para la defensa del derecho al desnudo 3. ^ Nudity and the law 4. ^ Vermont does not have a state law against nudity in public.[1] 5. ^ Imitation of Christ Runway Review, Laird Borelli,, September 17, 2002. 6. ^ NAKED BERLIN – NAKED SYDNEY. 7. ^ NAKED BERLIN – The Liberal Capital 8. ^ Chris Fitter, ELH 72 (2005) Emergent Shakespeare and the Politics of Protest: 2 Henry VI in Historical Contexts, p. 136 9. ^ Plutarchs lives, the Life of Lycurgus. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 234
  • 236. 10. ^ Though they lacked freedom in choosing a partner for marriage, the women were free to practice polyandry.Nudity & related topics Nudity • Human physical appearance • Clothing • Undergarment •General topics Dress code • Clothing laws by country Naturism • Issues in social nudity • Nudist community •List of social nudity organizations • Naturist magazines • Nudity and children •Social nudity Criticism of social nudity • Timeline of non-sexual social nudity • Public nudity • Nudity and protest • Topfreedom (barechested/toplessness) • Christian naturism • Gay naturism List of social nudity places • Nude beach • Clothing-optional bike ride • Naked hiking • Nudity in sport • Skinny dipping • Streaking • HotNude recreation springs • Sun tanning • Naked yoga • Barefoot • Massage • Hot tub • Bathing & Public bathing • Shower • Sauna • Naked party • Strip games Depictions of nudity • Model (art) • Figure drawing • Figure painting • Body painting • Sex in advertising • Nudity in film • Nudity inIn art American television • Nudity in science fiction • Nudity in music videos • Nudity in combat Gymnophobia • Modesty • Physical attractiveness • Vanity •Body image Objectification Nudity and sexuality • Exhibitionism • Indecent exposure • Mooning •Sexualized concepts Voyeurism • Erotic art • Sex-positive Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 235
  • 237. Sexual obsessionsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSexual obsessions are obsessions with sex,and in the context of Obsessive-compulsivedisorder (OCD) these are extremely common(Foa et al, 1995). Sexual obsessions canbecome extremely debilitating, making thesufferer ashamed of the symptoms andreluctant to seek help. Preoccupation withsexual matters, however, does not only occur as a symptom of OCD and may be enjoyable inother contexts (i.e. sexual fantasy). This article focuses on unwanted sexual obsessions.Contents • 1 Obsessive-compulsive disorder o 1.1 Sexual focus o 1.2 Self-Doubt o 1.3 Avoidance o 1.4 Sexual Fantasy • 2 Treatment o 2.1 Medication • 3 Related Links • 4 ReferencesObsessive-compulsive disorderObsessive-compulsive disorder involves obsessions -- unwanted thoughts or images that areupsetting or interfere with an individuals life, followed by compulsions -- actions thattemporarily relieve the anxiety caused by the obsessions (APA 2000). Obsessions are involuntary,repetitive, and unwelcome. Attempts to suppress or neutralise obsessions do not work and in factmake the obsessions more severe. OCD is considered an anxiety disorder.Typical obsessive themes center on contamination, illness, worries about disaster, andorderliness. However, people with OCD also obsess about violence, religious questions, and/orsexual experiences. Up to a quarter of people with OCD may experience sexual obsessions (Grantet al, 2006).Repetitive sexual thoughts are seen in many disorders in addition to OCD. Forexample, sexual thoughts are common to people with paraphilias, post-traumatic stress disorder,sexual dysfunction, sexual addiction and as part of the normal fantasy life of the general Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 236
  • 238. population. The recurrent sexual thoughts and feelings in these situations are sometimes referredto as sexual obsessions. However their content, form, and meaning vary depending on thedisorder (Gordon 2002).Sexual focusSince sex carries so much emotional,moral, and religious importance, iteasily becomes a magnet for obsessionsin people predisposed to OCD. Commonthemes include homosexuality,unfaithfulness, deviant behaviors,pedophilia, AIDS, intrusive thoughtsconcerning the unfaithfulness orsuitability of ones partner, and profanethoughts combining religion and sex.People with sexual obsessions may havelegitimate concerns about their attractiveness, potency, or partner, which can serve as anunconscious catalyst for the obsessions.Sexual obsessions take many forms. For example, a father might obsess about sexually abusinghis daughter. He might wonder if these thoughts mean that he is a pedophile and worry that hecould act them out, despite the fact that he has never sexually abused anyone and feels disgustedby the idea. A woman who has happily dated men all of her life might suddenly start to worry thather lukewarm feelings toward her boyfriend means that she is a lesbian. She might then start tolook at every woman wondering if, in fact, she is attracted to someone of the same sex. Anotherexample is a man who worries that he may accidentally impregnate a woman by shaking her handbecause he was not careful enough in washing his hands after touching his genitals (Williams2007). A patient may also experience fears that their obsession has already been carried out.In the midst of the thoughts, the sexual obsessions may seem real. Occasionally individuals withOCD believe that their obsession is true, and in such a case they would be said to have "poorinsight." But the vast majority of people with OCD recognize at some point that their fears areextreme and unrealistic. The problem is that even though they know the obsession is false, it feelsreal. These individuals cant understand why they are unable to dismiss the obsession from themind. The obsession may temporarily go away in the face of a logical argument or reassurancefrom others, but may spike when caught off guard by a sexual trigger (Gordon 2002). Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 237
  • 239. Sexual obsessions can be particularly troubling to the individual with OCD, as somethingimportant and cherished becomes twisted into its nightmarish opposite, and one will always fixateon the worst-case-scenario. People with sexual obsessions are particularly likely to have co-occurring aggressive and religious obsessions, clinical depression, and higher rates of impulsecontrol disorders (Grant et al, 2006). Self-Doubt Obsessions are often viewed by the patient as a series of "What if"s. They may wonder, "What if I am really a homosexual?" "What if I really want to seduce my student?" "What if I got AIDS from visiting a prostitute while sleepwalking?" The chance of an obsession coming true is remote but often the concern can never be completely disproved (i.e. "What if I really was aroused by that picture of a child?") Arguing with a person with OCD is usually futile. Objective feedback contradicting the obsession is dismissed because it lacks one-hundred percent certainty. For someone with OCD, no possibility is ever remote enough to permanently banishthe fear. Attempts to prove the unprovable leads to circles of doubt, reassurance seeking, andchecking compulsions (Gordon 2002).Sexual obsessions can occur with or without compulsions. A compulsion can be a behavioral actor a mental ritual. Examples of mental rituals include silent prayers, repeating special phrases (i.e."I truly love my wife,") and mental arguments with oneself about the validity of the obsession.Compulsions are performed as an attempt to counteract the obsession. Compulsions temporarilyreduce anxiety, but ultimately they make the OCD more severe. This type of checking can beextremely destructive to the person with sexual obsessions as they use the very existence of thecompulsive behavior as a sign that they are in fact sexually deviant.Another form of OCD that can take hold of a person is a fear that they do not love their partnersufficiently (ROCD). As with sexual obsessions, and quite often in response to them, a personmay feel the need to end a perfectly good relationship based on their inability to feel how theywant to. Instead of finding good in their partner, they are constantly focused on theirshortcomings. They often overexaggerate these "flaws" and use them to prove the relationship isfundamentally bad. Even when they know they love someone, they constantly check and reassurethemselves that it is the right feeling. When they attempt to end the relationship, a surge ofanxiety takes hold of them because, although free from the obsessive thoughts, they may realizethat they prematurely ended a good relationship. The fact that they are unable to concentrate on Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 238
  • 240. anything but their partners flaws causes the sufferer great anxiety, and often leads to a strainedrelationship. [ Avoidance In the same way that those who have OCD fears of contamination avoid anything that will contaminate them (i.e., doorknobs, puddles, shaking hands), those who are suffering from such sexual obsessions may feel an overpowering need to avoid all contact with anythingthat can cause them to have anxiety, or spike. Such avoidance may be: Not looking at (forinstance) another member of the same sex in the face, avoiding locker rooms, showers, andbeaches, etc. It can also mean avoiding sexual situations with members of the opposite sex, forfear of what a particular circumstance (not being aroused enough, intrusive thoughts, etc.) mightmean. A sufferer may also avoid hugging children, including their own, a compulsion which maycause severe damage to the well-being of the child. It may cause social problems as the suffereravoids being with gay, or straight, friends, or people with children. The social isolation feeds theanxiety, and therefore the OCD. Sexual Fantasy It cannot be overemphasized that the sexual obsessions in OCD are the opposite of the usual sexual daydream or fantasy. Normal sexual fantasies are enjoyable and generally harmless. They may consist of wishes or memories of past sexual experiences. However, the sexual ideationin OCD is unpleasant and distressing. The individual with OCD does not want the thought tobecome real. The idea of acting out the obsession fills the OCD victim with dread (Gordon 2002).The sexual ideation in such situations is termed "ego-dystonic" or ego-alien, meaning that the Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 239
  • 241. behavior and/or attitudes are seen by the individual as inconsistent with his or her fundamentalbeliefs and personality.Sexual obsessions in OCD rarely produce sexual arousal because anxiety and arousal cannotoccupy the same space. As a result, OCD usually decreases sex drive. However, the sufferersconstant focus on not becoming aroused or checking that they do not become aroused may lead togroinal response. Many OCD sufferers take this groinal response as actual arousal, when inreality it is not. OCD sexual obsessions often result in guilt, shame, and may interfere with socialfunctioning or work.Treatment People with sexual obsessions can devote an excessive amount of time and energy attempting to understand the obsessions. They usually decide they are having these problems because they are defective in some way, and they are often too ashamed to seek help. Because sexualobsessions are not as well-described in the research literature, many therapists may fail toproperly diagnose OCD in a client with primary sexual obsessions. Mental health professionalsunfamiliar with OCD may even attribute the symptoms to an unconscious wish, sexual identitycrisis, or hidden paraphilia. Such a misdiagnosis only panics an already distressed individual.Conceptualizing a problem such as homosexuality fears as a struggle with "coming out of thecloset" can cause the patient to become even more upset and confused (Gordon 2002).Fortunately, sexual obsessions respond to the same type of effective treatments available for other forms of OCD -- cognitive-behavioral therapy and serotonergic antidepressant medications (SSRIs). People with sexual obsessions may, however, need a longer and more aggressive course of treatment (Granta et al, 2006). Medication Many people with sexual obsessions are alarmed that they seem to lose their sex drive. People with OCD may see this as evidence that they no longer have normal sexual attractions and are in fact deviant in some way. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 240
  • 242. Some may wonder if medication is the answer tothe problem. Medication is a double-edged sword.Drugs specifically for erectile dysfunction (i.e.Viagra, Cialis) are not the answer for people withuntreated OCD. The sexual organs are workingproperly, but it is the anxiety disorder thatinterferes with normal libido.Medications specifically for OCD (typically SSRImedications) will help alleviate the anxiety butwill also cause some sexual dysfunction in about athird of patients (Bystritsky 2004). For many the relief from the anxiety is enough to overcome the sexual problems caused by the medication. For others, the medication itself makes sex truly impossible. This may be a temporary problem, but if it persists a competent psychiatrist can often adjust the medications to overcome this side-effect. Related Links • Im Gay But Youre Not: Understanding Homosexuality Obsessions • NeuroticPlanet OCD Online Forum • I Think it Moved References • A Bystritsky. (2004). Current Pharmacological Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Essent Psychopharmacol 5:4. • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition – Text Revision, Washington D.C., USA: American Psychiatric Press. • Foa EB, Kozak MJ, Goodman WK, Hollander E, Jenike MA, & Rasmussen SA. (1995). DSM-IV field trial: Obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(1): 90-96. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 241
  • 243. • WM Gordon. (2002) Sexual obsessions and OCD, Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 17(4). • JE Grant, A Pintob, M Gunnipb, MC Mancebob, JL Eisenb, SA Rasmussen. (2006). Sexual obsessions and clinical correlates in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47: 325-329. • MT Williams. BrainPhysics Mental Health Resource, accessed 01/20/2007. Retrieved from "" Sexual addiction From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2007) Not to be confused with Erotomania or NymphomaniaSexual addiction is a term used to describe the behavior of a person who has an unusuallyintense sex drive or obsession and addiction with sex[1]. Sex addicts are people who, desperatelyafraid of any truly intimate relationship, repeatedly and compulsively try to connect with othersthrough highly impersonal nonintimate behaviors: masturbation, empty affairs, frequent visits toprostitutes, voyeurism, and the like. Sex addicts—numbering in the millions, both men andwomen, young and old, of all races and religions—become mesmerized with the thrill and rush ofadrenaline that they can achieve only through their obsessive, highly ritualized patterns of sexualbehavior.[2] Sexual addiction, also called sexual compulsion is a form of psychological addiction.The behavior of sex addicts is comparable to behavior of alcoholics and [drug] addicts, where sexfunctions like a drug. A common definition of alcoholism is that a person has a pathologicalrelationship with this mood altering drug.[3] It provides a quick mood change, works every time Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 242
  • 244. and the user loses control over their compulsion.[4] Like alcoholics, sex addicts lives rotatearound the constant desire for their "drug" of choice. • The Mayo Clinic uses compulsive sexual behavior for sexual addiction, and identifies characteristics of the sex addict as "an overwhelming need for sex and are so intensely preoccupied with this need that it interferes with your job and your relationships. [...] You may spend inordinate amounts of time in sexually related activities and neglect important aspects of your day-to-day life in social, occupational and recreational areas. You may find yourself failing repeatedly at attempts to reduce or control your sexual activities or desires."[5] • According to Counseling Affiliates, an addiction is at work when sex becomes shameful, secret, or abusive. • The Society for the Advancement of Sexual Health further illustrates addiction by outlining several key components: "Compulsivity, that is, loss of the ability to choose freely whether to stop or to continue; Continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences, such as loss of health, job, marriage, or freedom; Obsession with the activity."Contents • 1 Diagnosis • 2 Symptoms • 3 Epidemiology • 4 Manifestation • 5 Consequences of sexual addiction • 6 Sexual addiction cycle • 7 Etiology • 8 Treatment • 9 Controversy o 9.1 Diagnostic criteria • 10 Portrayal in popular culture • 11 References • 12 See also13 External linksDiagnosisThere is no consensus in the medical community that sexual addiction actually exists, and it is notpresently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (D.S.M.). Those Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 243
  • 245. who support its diagnosis describe it as being in many ways similar to other addictions, where theactivity comes to be used as a way to manage mood or stress and may become more severe withtime. Diagnostic criteria have been suggested that are closely analogous to those the D.S.M.provides for other addictions.Patrick Carnes, a pioneer researcher in the field of sexual addiction, asserts there are ten specificcriteria of addiction:[3] 1. Recurrent failure (pattern) to resist impulses to engage in specific sexual behavior. 2. Frequent engaging in those behaviors to a greater extent or over a longer period of time than intended. 3. Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to stop, reduce, or control those behaviors. 4. Inordinate amount of time spent in obtaining sex, being sexual, or recovering from sexual experience. 5. Preoccupation with the behavior or preparatory activities. 6. Frequent engaging in the behavior when expected to fulfill occupational, academic, domestic, or social obligations. 7. Continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, financial, psychological, or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the behavior. 8. Need to increase the intensity, frequency, number, or risk of behaviors to achieve the desired effect, or diminished effect with continued behaviors at the same level of intensity, frequency, number, or risk. 9. Giving up or limiting social, occupational, or recreational activities because of the behavior. 10. Distress, anxiety, restlessness, or irritability if unable to engage in the behavior. Symptoms Schneider,[6] identified three indicators of sexual addiction. These indicators are Compulsivity, Continuation despite consequences and Obsession. • Compulsivity: This is the loss of the ability to choose freely whether to stop or continue a behavior [7]. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 244
  • 246. • Continuation despite consequences: When addicts take their addiction too far, it can cause negative effects in their lives. They may start withdrawing from family life to pursue sexual activity. This withdrawal may cause them to neglect their children or cause their partners to leave them. Addicts risk money, marriage, family and career in order to satisfy their sexual desires.[8] Despite all of these consequences, they continue indulging in excessive sexual activity. • Obsession: This is when people cannot help themselves from thinking a particular thought. Sex addicts spend whole days consumed by sexual thoughts. They develop elaborate fantasies, find new ways of obtaining sex and mentally revisit past experiences. Because their minds are so preoccupied by these thoughts, other areas of their lives that they should be thinking about are neglected.EpidemiologyThe prevalence of sexual addiction would be hard to determine, in part because addicts aresecretive. Proponents of the concept suggest it is commonly seen in combination with otheraddictions as well as mood and stress disorders. Sometimes when multiple addictions are present(food, alcohol, drugs, gambling), sexual addiction can be said to be the "core" addiction; othertimes, one of the others is seen as the "core." Sexual addiction has in the past been conceptualizedas a largely male problem, but more recent writers have suggested it may also be prevalent inwomen, usually manifesting in different ways.Sexual addiction is hypothesized to be (but is not always) associated with Obsessive-compulsivedisorder (OCD), Narcissistic personality disorder, and manic-depression. There are those whosuffer from more than one condition simultaneously (known as a dual diagnosis or a co-occurringdisorder), but traits of addiction are often confused with those of these disorders, often due tomost clinicians not being adequately trained in diagnosis and characteristics of addictions, andmany clinicians tending to avoid use of the diagnosis at all.Specialists in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addictions use the same terms to refer todifferent symptoms. In addictions, obsession is progressive and pervasive, and develops alongwith denial; the person usually does not see themselves as preoccupied, and simultaneouslymakes excuses, justifies and blames. Compulsion is present only while the addict is physicallydependent on the activity for physiological stasis. Constant repetition of the activity creates achemically dependent state. If the addict acts out when not in this state, it is seen as being spurredby the obsession only. Some addicts do have OCD as well as addiction, and the symptoms willinteract. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 245
  • 247. Addicts often display narcissistic traits, which often clear as sobriety is achieved. Others doexhibit the full personality disorder even after successful addiction treatment.Some bipolar people are misdiagnosed as sex addicts. Some sex addicts are misdiagnosed asbipolar. Some addicts do also suffer from bipolar disorder.ManifestationAccording to proponents of the concept, sexual addicts may enjoy frequent sexual intercourse andother sexual activities including sexual fantasies, but the key to this addiction is more theenjoyment of the journey rather than the destination. That is, sexual addicts do not require anorgasmic event in order to feel accomplished in the pursuit of their addiction. This is why sexaddicts are sometimes referred to as "chemical addicts", because of the high dose of brainchemicals that are released during sexual activity, arousal and sexual fantasizing. This heavy doseof brain chemicals is what the sex addict is really after (although many do not even realize it).Some reports indicate that these chemicals are hundreds of times more addictive than heroin orcocaine. While sexually, and even romantically, stimulating activities are what they seek,internally the shot of brain chemicals released when they engage in these activities is what theycrave. One such brain chemical released by their activities is the "feel good" neurotransmitterdopamine. Dopamine levels rise dramatically when they are engaged in romantically and sexuallyenjoyable activities. It is this heightened level that provides them with a feeling of euphoria. Anorgasm boosts this level even higher. Certain illegal drugs also facilitate the same release, forexample methamphetamines or cocaine. These drugs are believed to raise the level of dopaminein the brain to as much as thirty times that which is present during an orgasm. This makes thesedrugs effects on the brain extremely enjoyable and highly desirable to people seeking moodelevation[citation needed].Individuals who experience mood issues and discover the soothing effects brought on by thesebrain chemicals quickly learn which behaviors can effectively repeat the experience. Thereafter, acascading effect begins. Already prone toward tendencies for compulsive or obsessive behavior,the sexual addict starts repeating rewarding activities with a repetition that quickly creates aconditioned response[citation needed] . Over time, however, the constant release of these mood-elevating brain chemicals into the body causes them to lose their effectiveness and so addicts findthemselves needing to increase, vary or intensify their activities more in order to achieve a similar [9]effect (Interestingly, the brain chemical releases triggered by the sexual addict are similar tothose experienced by gamblers and food addicts.)[citation needed]According to proponents of the sexual addiction concept, the addicts obsessive/compulsivetendencies are demonstrated by the frequency with which they use masturbation for stimulation. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 246
  • 248. Quite often they will perform this activity to the point of injury or to where it interferessignificantly with ordinary life. Masturbatory activities, because they are an effective andefficient path to success, combined with the sex addicts fear of truly intimate relationships,makes them a desirable alternative to sexual interactions with others. When a sexual addict doesfeel comfortable enough to involve other people, quite often they seek out strangers foranonymous sex or look for new love through infidelity. Prostitutes are also employed because oftheir anonymity and non-judgmental willingness to engage in the sometimes unconventionalsexual requests of sex addicts. The varying nature of a sexual addicts activities are in sharpcontrast to individuals who commonly prefer more narrowly focused sexual activities such asthose engaging in fetishism. But this is not to say that sex addicts cannot be found pursuingfetishes.As mentioned before, a key feature of sexual addiction is its supposedly compulsive,unmanageable nature. Whereas a normal person might stare as they drive past an attractiveperson, a sexual addict will drive around the block to stare again. They may even plan futureways to spot attractive people so they can repeat the experience over and over. Addicts can spendan extraordinary amount of time and money on their habit, entirely lacking the ability to controlit. They often experience an almost trance-like state in which acting out can go on for manyhours. As with other addictions, some addicts experience episodic binges (between which theymay believe there is no problem), while others experience more continuous problems. Somesexual addicts also swing into the opposite end of the spectrum, engaging in sexual anorexia,where they so tightly control themselves that they have absolutely no sexual experiences. Thisdoes not control or cure the basic compulsion but, like food addictions, is simply anothermanifestation of the addiction.Some sexual addicts act in more intrusive ways, or progress to them, as they experiencediminishing "highs" for their original activities. A Level 2 addict might include voyeurism,exhibitionism, and frotteurism. A Level 3 addict involves much more serious and intrusive sexualoffenses, and has more harmful consequences.[citation needed]Patrick Carnes states that specific activities are not what identify addiction. Even a rapist may notnecessarily be a sexual addict. Rather, it is the compulsive nature of the behaviors thatdemonstrates addiction.For sex addicts who try often to stop and fail, their behavior generally conforms to a cycle: 1. Preoccupation — the addict becomes completely engrossed with sexual thoughts or fantasies. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 247
  • 249. 2. Ritualization — the addict follows special routines in a search for sexual stimulation, which intensify the experience and may be more important than reaching orgasm. 3. Compulsive sexual behavior — the addicts specific sexual acting out. 4. Despair — the acting out does not lead to normal sexual satisfaction, but to feelings of hopelessness, powerlessness, depression, and the like.To escape these negative feelings, the addict soon becomes preoccupied with sexual thoughts andfantasies again, restarting the addictive cycle. Risk factors for the addict include unstructuredtime, need for self-direction and demands for excellence, because they all push the addict towardrestarting the cycle.A variety of questionnaires and tests have been devised in attempts to evaluate sexual addiction,but few if any have been formally evaluated, normed, or proven accurate. Proponents of thesexual addiction concept believe the cycle and beliefs above strongly characterize the sexualaddict, however. In addition, Carnes proposes a basic test for whether a particular sexual behaviorhas become addictive: 1. It is a secret. 2. It is abusive or degrading to self or others. 3. It is used to avoid (or is a source of) painful feelings. 4. It is empty of a caring, committed relationship.Consequences of sexual addictionSome consequences that often result from sexual addiction and indicate the existence of sexualaddiction include: • Social: Addicts become lost in sexual preoccupation, which results in emotional distance from loved ones. Loss of friendship and family relationships may result. • Emotional: Anxiety or extreme stress are common in sex addicts who live with constant fear of discovery. Shame and guilt increase, as the addicts lifestyle is often inconsistent with the personal values, beliefs and spirituality. Boredom, pronounced fatigue and despair are inevitable as addiction progresses. Compulsive sexual thoughts and/or behavior leads to severe depression, often with suicidal ideation, low self-esteem, shame, self-hatred, hopelessness, despair, helplessness, intense anxiety, loneliness, resentment, self pity, self blame, moral conflict, contradictions between ethical values and behaviors, fear of abandonment, spiritual bankruptcy, distorted thinking, remorse, and self-deceit. The ultimate consequence may be suicide. Many sex addicts suffer from broken relationships. Some experience severe marital and other relationship problems. Sexual activities outside the primary relationship result in loss of self-esteem to both partners as Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 248
  • 250. well as severe stress to the relationship. The sex addict is frequently absent, resulting in a loss of time in parental role modeling. Pressure is placed on the partner to provide parental support and nurturing of the children. Partners of sex addicts may develop their own addictions (co-addictions) and compulsions, psychosomatic problems, or depression and other emotional difficulties.• Physical: Some of the diseases which may occur due to sexual addiction are genital injury, cervical cancer, HIV/AIDS, herpes, genital warts and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sex addicts may place themselves in situations of potential harm, resulting in serious physical harm or even death. Automobile accidents can result when sexual activity causes the drivers attention to stray (e.g. watching porn movies on a mobile DVD player).• Legal: Many types of sexual addiction result in violation of the law, such as sexual harassment, obscene phone calls, exhibitionism, voyeurism, prostitution, rape, incest, child molestation, and other illegal activities. Loss of professional status and professional licensure may result from sexual addiction. Some sex addicts go to jail, lose their job, get sued, or have other financial and legal consequences because of their compulsive sexual behavior. Legal consequences of sexual addiction result when illegal behaviors such as voyeurism, exhibitionism, or inappropriate touching, result in arrest and incarceration. Child molesting and rape in some cases are addictive behaviors. Sexual harassment in the workplace can be part of a sex addicts repertoire, and may result in legal difficulties on the job. Over half the cases of sexual exploitation by professionals are perpetrated by sex addicts. Churches and synagogues are being subjected to greater scrutiny as more clergy are charged with some form of sexually inappropriate behavior. Sexual misconduct by licensed professionals (including physicians, therapists, clergy, and lawyers) result in loss of license, academic standing, and reputations, and victimization of those people they are mandated to help.• Financial/Occupational: Indebtedness may arise directly from the cost of prostitutes, cyber sex, phone sex and multiple affairs. Indirectly, indebtedness can occur from legal fees, the cost of divorce or separation, and decreased productivity or job loss. Financial difficulties from the purchase of pornographic materials, use of prostitutes and telephone and computer lines, travel for the purpose of sexual contacts, and other sexual activities can tax the addicts financial resources, sometimes to the point of bankruptcy, as can the expenses of legal representation. Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 249
  • 251. These consequences are progressive and predictable. The addict tends to minimize theconsequences and tends to blame others for them. Family and friends minimize consequences bybelieving the addicts promise that the behavior will change.Sexual addiction cycleAccording to Patrick Carnes (Out of the Shadows) - the cycle begins with the "Core Beliefs" thatsex addicts hold: 1. "I am basically a bad, unworthy person." 2. "No one would love me as I am." 3. "My needs are never going to be met if I have to depend on others." 4. "Sex is my most important need."These beliefs drive the addiction on its progressive and destructive course: • Pain agentFirst a pain agent is triggered / emotional discomfort (e.g. shame, anger, unresolved conflict) Sexaddict is not able to take care of the pain agent in a healthy way. • Disassociation.Prior to acting out sexually, the sex addict goes through a period of mental preoccupation orobsession. Sex addict begins to disassociate (moves away from his feelings). A separation beginsto take place between his mind and his emotional self. • Altered state of consciousness / a trance state / bubble of euphoric fantasized experienceSex addict is disconnected from his emotions and he becomes pre-occupied with acting outbehaviours. The reality becomes blocked out/distorted. • Preoccupation or "sexual pressure" involves obsessing about being sexual or romantic. Fantasy becomes an obsession that serves in some way to avoid life. The addicts thoughts become focused on reaching a mood-altering high without actually acting-out sexually. He thinks about sex to produce a trance-like state of arousal in order to fully eliminate feelings of the current pain of reality. Thinking about sex and planning out how to reach orgasm can continue for minutes or hours before moving into the next stage of the cycle. • Ritualization or "acting out".These obsessions are intensified through the use of ritualization or acting out. A sex addict firstcruises and then goes to a strip show to heighten his arousal until he is beyond the point of sayingno. Ritualization helps to put distance between reality and sexual obsession. Rituals are a way toinduce trance and further separate oneself from reality. Once the addict has begun his ritual, the Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 250
  • 252. chances of stopping that cycle diminish greatly. He is giving into the pull of the compelling sexact. • Sexual compulsivityThe next phase of the cycle is sexual compulsivity or "sex act". The tensions that the addict feelsare reduced by acting on their sexual feelings. They feel better for the moment, thanks to therelease that occurs. Compulsivity simply means that addicts regularly get to the point where sexbecomes inevitable, no matter what the circumstances or the consequences. The compulsive act,which normally ends in orgasm, is perhaps the starkest reminder of the degradation involved inthe addiction as the person realizes that he has become nothing more than a slave to the addiction. • DespairAlmost immediately reality sets in and the addict begins to feel ashamed. This point of the cycleis a painful place where the Addict has been many, many times. The last time the Addict was atthis low point, they probably promised to never do it again. Yet once again, they act out and thatleads to despair. He may feel he has betrayed spiritual beliefs, possibly a partner, and his or herown sense of integrity. At a superficial level, the addict hopes that this will be the last battle.For many addicts, this dark emotion brings on depression and feelings of hopelessness. One easyway to cure feelings of despair is to start obsessing all over again. The cycle then perpetuatesitself (Carnes, "Facing the Shadow" 2006).EtiologyProponents of sexual addiction theorize the following factors to be involved in the etiology of thecondition: • Trauma • Neurochemistry o Neural pathways, e.g. Mesolimbic pathway o Relationship of depression, anxiety, OCD, and Attention Disorders to Sexual Addiction • Social conditioning and imprinting • Developmental impairments • Interaction of loneliness, anger, boredom, and spiritual rebellion • Psychodynamic Perspective:The psychodynamic perspective is a very effective system to use when explaining sexualaddiction. This perspective places very much importance on early childhood development. Theway that a child is treated by his parents and his peers during his childhood and youth has a greatimpact on his later life. Negative events and maltreatment that occurs during this period can scar Wow! Breast Oh! Bra - A net compilation . . . . . 251
  • 253. the rest of a child’s life. The impression that these elements have on someone’s life are very hardto later eliminate.Patrick Carnes (2001, p.40) argues that when children are growing up, they develop “corebeliefs” through the way that their family functions and treats them. If a child is brought up in afamily where his parents take proper care of him, he has good chances of growing up, havingfaith in other people and having self worth. On the other hand, if a child grows up in a familywhere he is neglected by his parents he will develop unhealthy and negative core beliefs. He willgrow up to believe that people in the world do not care about him. Later on in life, the person willhave trouble keeping stable relationships and will experience feelings of isolation. Generally,addicts do not perceive themselves as worthwhile human beings (Carnes, Delmonico and Griffin,2001, p. 40). They cope with these feelings of isolation and weakness by engaging in excessivesex (Poudat, 2005, p.121).The development of a sexual addiction theoretically, for some, starts early in life throughadolescent experimentation, the discovery of self-stimulation, or early exposure to pornographyand other sexual stimulants. Sex becomes a powerful, exciting obsession very early on and theaddiction accelerates. For others it may start later in life—during graduate school, divorce, orwhen stresses become so great that an escape is needed. It becomes a way to self-medicate andcope with the pressures of life and the guilt and shame that follow the addictive behavior.TreatmentThe initial therapeutic intervention for sexual addiction needs to include an assessment for otheraddictions. It is impossible to expect treatment for one addiction to be beneficial when otheraddictions co-exist.The behavior of sex addicts has profound effects on partners, children, parents and siblings. Theaddict is usually partially or totally unaware that their behavior has affected their loved ones.Families develop unhealthy coping skills as they strive to adapt to the addicts shifting moods andbehavior. Curiously some addicts may act out in solo isolating behaviors leading to feelings offamily abandonment. For these reasons, friends and families will often need to be involved in therecovery process.Those who do not attend 12-step meetings have a much more difficult time recovering, if they doat all.[citation needed] In many ways recovery from significant sexual addiction can be more difficultthan recovering from some of the other add