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3 The global burden of tuberculosis is truly enormous with some 1.9 million deaths per year according to the most detailed country-based analysis yet carried out and reported last year by the surveillance and monitoring unit of WHO's Communicable Disease Operational and Epidemiological Research Unit. Some 380,000 of these deaths occur in HIV infected individuals largely, but not solely, in Africa. And 98% of these deaths occur in the developing world. Staggeringly, for a disease many of us believed would disappear in our lifetime, TB is estimated to be the commonest cause of death of young women worldwide. Worse still, but at the same time providing cause for hope, these deaths are preventable. However, persistent poor practice in many countries is raising the spectre of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. This form of TB, if it became widely established, would make the control of the disease beyond the financial capacity of many countries.