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We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude
to our teacher Ms. Jasbir Kaur who gave us the golden
opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic
Global Warming(in mathematical aspects),which also
helped us in doing a lot of Research and we came to
know about so many new things we are really thankful
to them.Secondly we would also like to thank our
parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing
this project within the limited time frame.
WHERE IS GLOBAL WARMING GOING?
OBSERVED TEMP. CHANGES
HOW GLOBAL WARMING WORKS?
THE (ATMOSPHERIC)GREENHOUSE EFFECT
MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS ON GLOBAL WARMING
WITHOUT GREENHOUSE EFFECT
GLACIERS AND MOUNTAIN ARE SLOWLY MELTING
WHAT CAN WE DO TO STOP IT?
Global warming is the unequivocal and continuing rise
in the average temperature of Earth's climate
system.Since 1971, 90% of the warming has occurred
in the oceans. Despite the oceans' dominant role in
energy storage, the term "global warming" is also used
to refer to increases in average temperature of the air
and sea at Earth's surface. Since the early 20th
century, the global air and sea surface temperature has
increased about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), with about two-thirds
of the increase occurring since 1980.Each of the last
three decades has been successively warmer at the
Earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850.
OBSERVED TEMP CHANGES
The Earth's average surface temperature rose by 0.74±0.18 °C over the
period 1906–2005. The rate of warming over the last half of that period
was almost double that for the period as a whole (0.13±0.03 °C per
decade, versus 0.07±0.02 °C per decade). The urban heat island effect
is very small, estimated to account for less than 0.002 °C of warming
per decade since 1900 . Temperatures in the lower troposphere have
increased between 0.13 and 0.22 °C (0.22 and 0.4 °F) per decade since
1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. Climate
proxies show the temperature to have been relatively stable over
the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally varying
fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.
How Global Warming Works
Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s
This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and
cannot pass back through the windshield, causing
the inside of the car to warm up.
• Examples of greenhouse gases: H2O, CO2, CH4, CFC.
• Currently, CO2 is the main suspect of causing the global warming
since the 20th century because combustion of fossil fuel naturally
injects CO2 into the atmosphere and it has increased dramatically since last century.
Remember this chart?
This chart shows a steady increase of CO2 concentration in the last five decades. Although this
chart is based on Mauna Loa’s data, the same trend has been found in many other places.
Parametric Analysis / Inferential
• It is best characterized by the 3-par. Weibull, and its cumulative form is given by
• X: Atmospheric CO2
• Thus, we can obtain, E[X], Var[X], S.D[X], Confidence limits, etc.
• The where gamma function
• Best Fit
• Thus, F(x) as a function of time, is
• Using this result we can obtain projections with a desired degree of confidence, ten, twenty,
fifty years from now.
• After expanding the model and inserting the coefficients, we have
Total Atmospheric CO2
E CO2 emission (fossil fuel
C1 Gas fuels
C2 Liquid fuel
C3 Solid fuel
C4 Gas flares
C5 Cement production
D Deforestation and destruction D1 deforestation
D2 destruction of biomass
D3 destruction of soil carbon
R Terrestrial plant respiration Only one variable
S Respiration S1 respiration from soils
S2 respiration from decomposers
O the flux from oceans to atmosphere Only one variable
P terrestrial photosynthesis Only one variable
A the flux from atmosphere to oceans Only one variable
B burial of organic carbon and
B1 the burial of organic carbon
B2 burial of limestone carbon
8 Contributable Variables
E CO2 emission (fossil fuel combustion)
D Deforestation and destruction
R Terrestrial plant respiration
O the flux from oceans to atmosphere
P terrestrial photosynthesis
A the flux from atmosphere to oceans
B burial of organic carbon and limestone carbon
Of course the physical environmental change will lead
to changes in the biosphere – including our society.
Sea-level rise projections : a few inches to a
•2 ft: U.S. would lose 10,000 square miles
•3 ft: Would inundate Miami
•Affects erosion, loss of wetlands, freshwater
•Half of the world’s population lives along
•Big question: Ice sheets
Plastic bags and cups do not
decompose so harmful to
Paper bags and cups
are eco friendly and
Reduce the usage of
cars for short
Walk /use cycles for
Avoid turning up the air conditioner.
Instead dress lightly or use a fan.
Keep rooms cool by closing the
Blinds, shades, or curtains.
Turn off the lights when you leave.
DO NOT leave appliances
on standby .