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Lesson 1 - What is Sociology
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  1. 1. Sociology Unit 1: Foundations and Research
  2. 2. • Attendance • Fire Drill Procedures • Medical Team/Crisis Response Team • Bathroom Sign-out • Syllabus • Assign Books • Questions First Day of Class
  3. 3. Unit 1 Overview • Explain origins of sociology • Explain the difference between the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology. • Analyze sociological research through a seven step research process and an ethical perspective. Unit EQ: How does sociology view and think about society? You will need to be able to “Do” the following:
  4. 4. • Sociology is a social science that looks at human society. • Social upheaval in Europe during the 1700-1800’s led to the development of the academic discipline of sociology. • Sociology employs three major theoretical perspectives— functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism. • Sociologists use several approaches to conducting research, all sociologists follow a seven step research process, ,and sociologists are bound by ethical guidelines. You will need to be able to “Understand” the following:
  5. 5. Unit 1 Outline Concept 1: Examining Social Life Concept 2: The Development of Sociology Concept 3: Modern Perspectives Concept 4: Conducting Sociological Research Lesson 1 2 3 Lesson 21
  6. 6. Examining Social Life EQ: What is sociology? How does sociology differ from the other social sciences? • Social sciences • Sociology • Social interaction • Social perspective • Social imagination Vocabulary
  7. 7. Lesson 1: Sociology and The Social Sciences After directed, discuss and explore using textbook (pg 5) Brainstorm the following questions: 1) What are social sciences? 2) What is sociology?
  8. 8. The Social Sciences
  9. 9. Sociology and Other Social Sciences Similarities Differences Anthropology Psychology Economics Political Science History Compare and Contrast Sociology and the Other Social Sciences using textbook pages 5 & 6.
  10. 10. Assignment: Lunch Observation
  11. 11. Lesson 2: Sociological Perspective Activator: Share Lunch Observations
  12. 12. Sociological Perspective • Sociology can help you gain a new perspective on yourself and the world around you. • This new view involves looking at social life in a scientific, systematic way rather than depending on common-sense explanations usually found in the media. • You can look beyond commonly held beliefs to the hidden meanings behind human actions.
  13. 13. Sociological Perspective Cont. It can also be said that “sociological perspective can help you find an acceptable balance between your personal desires and the demands of your social environment.” • Identify one area in your life where you experience this tension. • Write it down and raise your hand when finished.
  14. 14. Case Study: Tattoos Read with a Purpose Highlight the following from the article: • Old norms • Reasons given for subgroups to get them (assigned) • Limitations
  15. 15. Sociological Imagination “the capacity to range from the most impersonal and remote [topics] to the most intimate features of the human self—and to see the relations between the two.” C. Wright Mills described the sociological imagination as… 1) What does this mean? 2) Why would Mills think that all good sociologists need to possess this?
  16. 16. The Development of Sociology EQ: How did sociology develop? Vocabulary • Auguste Comte • Harriet Martineau • Herbert Spencer • Social Darwinism • Karl Marx • Emile Durkheim • Max Weber • W.E. B. Du Bois Activator: Discuss Key Factors/Events that led to sociology
  17. 17. The Development of Sociology • Using the section The Development of Sociology on p. 9, create a web outlining the major factors that led to sociology becoming a distinct a field. Factors of Development
  18. 18. Effects of the Industrial Revolution 1. Farms/cottage industry gives way to large scale production 2. Factories replaced the home 3. Growth of factories resulted in the growth of cities 4. Rapid growth of urban population produced many social problems • Housing shortages • Crime • Pollution • Difficulty adapting to impersonal urban life 5. Political movements (Revolutions)
  19. 19. Key Contributors to Sociology Individuals Key Contributions Auguste Comte Harriet Martineau Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber W.E.B DuBois
  20. 20. Early European Scholars • Founder of sociology • Coined the term sociology • Scientific method to study social life • Studied social order/change • Established the focus of sociological study- marriage/family, race, education, and religion • Translated Comte’s work • Scholars should advocate for change
  21. 21. Early European Scholars • Adopted biological model • Society is a set of interdependent parts • Influenced by Darwin • Social change is a natural occurrence • Social ills shouldn’t be corrected • Survival of the fittest-Social Darwinism • Society is influenced by economy • Conflict between haves and have- nots. (bourgeoisie v. proletariat) • Led to the development of 1 major sociological perspective—Conflict Theory.
  22. 22. Later European Scholars
  23. 23. American Scholars: Jane Addams 18 Nationalities living in the area $9.44 Average weekly wage for garment workers 12 Hours per day worked by garment workers $1.25 Average daily wage for laborers 17-32 Weeks per year laborers were unemployed $8.47 Average monthly rent Answer the question on pg. 13 in the textbook.
  24. 24. American Scholars • First African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard • First empirical community studies in the U.S. • Helped found the NAACP
  25. 25. Summarizing Activity • 3 Factors that led to the development of sociology • 2 Contributors • 1 Question
  26. 26. Modern Perspectives EQ: How do the three theoretical perspectives differ in terms of their levels of analysis? Vocabulary • Functional perspective • Conflict perspective • Interactionist perspective • Macrosociology • Microsociology
  27. 27. Functionalist Perspective • AKA Structural Functionalism • Views society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system • Society is held together through consensus • Views the elements of society in terms of their function • Function = positive consequences for society’s stability • Dysfunction = negative consequences for society’s stability • Manifest function = intended consequence of an element • Latent function = unintended consequence of an element
  28. 28. Conflict Perspective • Focus is on the forces that promote competition and change • Competition over scarce resources is the basis of social conflict • Power/Wealth are in limited supply • Power dynamics between those in control and those who are not. • Once a group obtains power, it uses its power to create a system to keep them in power • men/women, different age groups, or racial groupings • Conflict leads to social change • Topics of interest: family, racial relationships, workplace
  29. 29. Interactionist Perspective • AKA Symbolic Interactionism • Focus is on how individuals interact with one another in society • How do individuals respond to one another? • Interested in the meanings that individuals attach to their own actions and to the actions of others. • Interested in the role that symbols play • Symbol: anything that represents something else. Ex. Words, gestures, events • Ex. American flag, bald eagle, Fourth of July, Uncle Sam • Topics: child development, relationships with small groups and mate selection
  30. 30. 1. Symbolic interaction theory analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviors. 2. Subjective meanings are given priority because it is believe that people behave based on what they believe and not just on what is objectively true. 3. Thus, society is thought to be socially constructed through human interpretation. 4. People interpret one another’s behavior and it is these interpretations that form the social bond. EX. Studies find that teenagers are well informed about the risks of tobacco, but they also think that smoking is cool, that they themselves will be safe from harm, and that smoking projects a positive image to their peers. So, the symbolic meaning of smoking overrides that actual facts regarding smoking and risk. Symbolic Interactionism
  31. 31. Assignment • Locate a media article on a social issue • Discuss the social issue in terms of Sociological Perspectives. • Articulate how each perspective would view the issue from your article. • Compose a small paragraph for each of the three perspectives.
  32. 32. Conducting Sociological Research EQ: How is sociological research conducted? Vocabulary • Scientific method • Hypothesis • Variable • Correlation
  33. 33. Activator: 1. What role do scientific methods play in sociology? 2. Steps of the Scientific Method
  34. 34. Durkheim and the Scientific Method Step Durkheim Example 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
  35. 35. ScientificMethod
  36. 36. Assignment Read: Causation and Correlation pg. 22-23 1. What is the difference? 2. How are they related to variables?
  37. 37. Correlation
  38. 38. Summarizing Activity Steps of the Scientific Method and Questions Remaining
  39. 39. Conducting Sociological Research EQ: How is sociological research conducted? Vocabulary • Scientific method • Hypothesis • Variable • Correlation • Survey • Sample • Historical method • Content analysis • Participant observation • Case study • Experiment • Statistical analysis • Ethics
  40. 40. Activator: 1. Other than experimentation, what other research methods are there? 2. Steps of the Scientific Method
  41. 41. Methods of Sociological Research Method Definition Advantages Disadvantage Survey Analysis of Existing Documents Observation Experiment In pairs, complete the chart below. Use p.24-27 in the textbook. Collect data on attitudes and opinions. (Interviews or Questionnaires) Large amount of information gathered quickly Sample needs to be random. Bias of response is a potential problem. Historical: Examining documents from the past. Content: counting the amount of times a idea, word or symbol appears. Historical: Allows for comparison between time periods and trend study. Content: Inexpensive. Observe behavior in actual social setting either from a distance or while involved. Behavior not changed by researcher presence. Using controlled conditions to gather data Setting may not accurately reflect real life. Variable can be controlled.
  42. 42. Enrichment Assignment In Pairs, Complete “Conducting Interviews on p. 24
  43. 43. Ethical Standards • Confidentiality • Deception • Informed Consent

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