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Colonialism

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Colonialism

  1. 1. Colonialism 5th A Saint Andrew
  2. 2. Colonialism in America 17th to 19th Century 16th century 17th century 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century 15th century Colonialism During the Colonial period America´s colonies depended politically end economically from European powers Conquest Early Modern Era Modern Era 2014Today 1492DiscoveryofAmerica
  3. 3. America´s Model of governing Spanish colonies were divided by the Crown in different administative regions Viceroyality Of La Plata Viceroyality Of Peru Viceroyality of Nueva Granada Viceroyality of New Spain
  4. 4. Colonial Institutions: Absolute Monarcy Absolute Monarchy King controlled Economy Politics Religion An absolute monarchy is a idealized form of  monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule their country and citizens freely with no laws or opposition telling the monarchy what to do. Basically an absolute monarch has total power over its people and land.
  5. 5. Colonial institutions: Spain Colonies In Spain: -Council of The Indies - House of Trade In the colonies: -Royal Audiencia -Viceroy -Governor These institutions represented the King and carried out his demands.
  6. 6. In the colonies Each colonial Town created a -Cabildo or Town Council To discuss their needs Indegenous people and mestizos were not allowed.
  7. 7. Political division: Viceryoalities and provincial goverments Viceroyality Of La Plata Viceroyality Of Peru Viceroyality of Nueva Granada Viceroyality of New Spain Chile depended on the Viceroyality of Perú, but was later converted into a Capitancy General. Oldest Oldest Added in the 18th Century Added in the 18th Century Chile was tuned into Capitany as a military stategy to fight the Mapuche resistance
  8. 8. Economy and labor In the 16th century economy was based on mercantilism Countries would get rich by accumulating prcious metals
  9. 9. Monopoly -The Spainish wanted to keep its colonies economically dependent. -Spanish Colonies were only allowed to trade with Spain. - The house of trade controlled the trade monopoly.
  10. 10. Economic activities in America Main economic activities Natural resources Precious metals Agriculture Livestock Production Production centersProduction centers Haciendas and Esancias: Mestizo and indigenous people -Livestock -Agriculture Plantations: Slave labour -Sugar -Cotton -Coffee Extracting Mines -Indigenous labors (slaves) -Gold -Silver Rivers Indigenous labors (slaves) -Gold
  11. 11. Economic activity in Chile  16th century gold panning in the Aconcagua River. (Marga Marga)  Panning in mapuche territory  The profits from gold panning financed great part of the conquest in Chile - Mining began to decline at the end of the 16th century -Over- explotation - Panning sites were in the Rebel Mapuche Territory. 16th Century Mining: Gold panning
  12. 12. Economic activity in Chile 17th Century Agriculture and Livestock Hacienda Leather Jerky Tallow Wheat Exported Potosí, Peru Minning region Viceroyality of Peru During the 18th century The central valley, Concepción, and La Serena became specilalized regions in wheat production
  13. 13. Labor during colonialism: Native workers -In the encomienda system a colonist was put in charge of a group of Native Americans. -Natives were considered subjects of the Crown -Natives had to pay tribute to the Crown by working for the Spaniards What should have happened -A colonist had to: -protect -convert -educate The native population -What really happened: -Colonists: treated their workes poorly. -Very few were protected or educated -educated
  14. 14. Labor during colonialism: Native workers Encomienda Distribution Systems of labor Mita: Forced labor Workers were removed from their homes and were forced to work inproduction centers Mining Livestock Agriculture A colonist is in charge of a group of natives. Natives must work as a tribute to the crown. A colonist must protect, convert and educate the natives Slavery: Peonaje* Temporary worker that receives daily pay -Brought from Africa -They were sold like animals * The peonaje system was used when the native populaion decreased
  15. 15. Labor during colonialism: Native workers Natives were not treated fairly ü Worked for long hours üIn difficult conditions üPerformed hard physical labor. üReceived a bad treatment Labor reform Chile´s first labor reform: 1559: Tasa of Santillan -Workers between 18- 50 years. -They would receive a daily ration of food. - They didn´t have to work on Sundays and Holidays

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