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What Is at Stake for the Philippines
What is at stake in the West Philippine Sea dispute are:
a.  80% of of the Philippine...
Gravest External Threat to Philippines since WWII
The shaded area, over 531,000 square kilometers of maritime space, toget...
The root cause of the South China Sea
dispute is China’s 9-dashed lines claim,
which gobbles up large areas of the EEZs an...
China’s 9-dashed Lines Gobble Up EEZs of Coastal States
China’s 9-dashed lines claim encloses 85.7% of the entire South Ch...
Nine-dashed Lines Map
Submitted by
China to United Nations
on 7 May 2009
China did not explain the
legal basis for the das...
“China has indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South
China Sea and the adjacent waters, and enjoys sovereign ...
China Seized Subi Reef in 1988
In 1988, China seized Subi Reef from the Philippines by erecting a radar structure and mili...
China Seized Mischief (Panganiban) Reef in 1995
In 1995, China seized Mischief Reef from the Philippines. Mischief Reef, l...
China Claimed Reed Bank in 2010
In February 2010, the Philippines awarded a Service Contract to Sterling Energy (predecess...
China Interfered Directly with a Philippine Contractor for Reed Bank in 2010
On 2 August 2010, the Nido Petroleum office i...
China Reiterated its Claim to Reed Bank in 2011
In 2011, the Philippines invited bids for the exploration of Area 3 and Ar...
Chinese Coast Guard Vessels Harassed
A Philippine Survey Ship in Reed Bank in 2011
In March 2011, two Chinese coast guard ...
In 2012, China invited an
international bidding for the
exploration of areas within
the EEZ of Vietnam.
China published th...
In 2013, China released a new map of China, adding a 10th dash on the
eastern side of Taiwan. In its 2013 map, China claim...
China Claims 10-dashed Lines
in 2013 Map Are China’s
“National Boundaries”
James Shoal - China’s “Southernmost” Border
Since at least 2012, China has been
periodically laying sovereignty steel
mark...
China Holds	Sovereignty Oath Swearing Ceremony
at James Shoal in January 2014
A Chinese taskforce composed of three warshi...
China Seized Scarborough (Panatag) Shoal in 2012
In 2012, China seized Scarborough Shoal from the Philippines. In November...
China Seized Luconia Shoals in 2013
In 2013, China seized Luconia Shoals from
Malaysia. Malaysian National Security
Minist...
China Installed HD 981 Oil Rig in 2014
In 2014, China placed its $1 billion deep-water HD 981 deep water oil rig 130 NM fr...
Article 35 of the Hainan Province’s 2014 Fishery
Regulations, which took effect on January 1, 2014,
mandate that foreign f...
Waters Hainan Claims under its Administration
The enclosed waters under Hainan’s administration comprise 2 million square ...
Since 1999, China thru Hainan Province has imposed
unilaterally a three-month annual fishing moratorium, from
mid-May to e...
The high seas have always been part of the global
commons, whether before or after UNCLOS. The high
seas could not be subj...
By appropriating for itself the fishery resources in
the high seas of the South China Sea, China is
committing a grand the...
On 19 March 2016, an Indonesian maritime enforcement vessel, the KP Hiu 11, arrested and put on board
8 Chinese fishermen ...
All these acts of China, among so many
others, demonstrate beyond doubt that
China is claiming sovereignty, sovereign
righ...
The Philippines loses about 80% of its EEZ facing
the West Philippine Sea, including the entire Reed
Bank and part of the ...
Philippines’ Sliver of Territorial Sea and EEZ
The Philippines will be left with a sliver of water as its territorial sea ...
Maritime Zones under UNCLOS
An island above water at high tide is entitled to a 12 NM territorial sea. If such island is c...
A Low-Tide Elevation (LTE) is a naturally formed
area of land (rock, reef, atoll or sandbar)
surrounded by water, above wa...
Low Tide Elevation vs. Rock/Island
A low-tide elevation is not entitled to a territorial sea or any maritime zone. A rock ...
China has built artificial islands on seven (7) reefs: Fiery Cross Reef,
Cuarteron Reef, Gaven Reef, Johnson South Reef, M...
China’s Island-Building on Seven Reefs
There are about 750 small maritime features in the Spratlys. The vast majority are ...
Fiery Cross (Kagitingan) Reef Before Island-Building
Fiery Cross Reef is about 1 meter above water at high tide. It is jus...
June 2015 Chinese Photo of Completed Island-Building on
Fiery Cross Reef - 274 Hectare Airbase With 3 KM Runway
As Admiral...
Test Flights on Fiery Cross Reef Runway
January 6, 2016
Johnson South (Mabini) Reef Before Island-Building
Johnson South Reef is an LTE within the Philippines’ EEZ. [Note: Chines...
Johnson South (Mabini) Reef December 26, 2015
In 1988, Chinese naval forces forcibly dislodged the Vietnamese soldiers gua...
McKennan (Chigua) Reef Before Island-Building
McKennan Reef is an LTE within the Philippines’ EEZ. It is within 12 NM of S...
McKennan (Chigua, Hughes) Reef May 5, 2015
As of November 2015, China has created an artifical island of 7.2 hectares in M...
Gaven (Burgos) Reef at Start of Island-Building
Gaven Reef is outside of the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental s...
Gaven Reef May 9, 2015
As of November 2015, China has created an artificial island of 13.6 hectares in Gaven
Reef.
Cuarteron (Calderon) Reef Before Island-Building
Cuarteron Reef is outside the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental...
Cuarteron Reef Jan 21, 2016
Cuarteron Reef is a tiny rock above water at high tide just outside the Philippines’ EEZ. As o...
Subi (Zamora) Reef Before Island-Building
Subi Reef is an LTE outside of the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental s...
Subi (Zamora) Reef December 23, 2015
3 km runway/air strip
Subi Reef Runway December 21, 2015 & Lighthouse April 2016
Source:www.ft.com Photo by Xing Guangli
Subi (Zamora) Reef January 8, 2016
Source:www.+.com	
Under UNCLOS, Subi Reef, an LTE in the high seas, cannot be used as a...
Mischief (Panganiban) Reef
January 2012 and March 2015
Mischief Reef is a circular atoll with a diameter of 7.4 KM, and it...
Mischief (Panganiban) Reef December 24, 2015
3 Km runway/air strip
Mischief (Panganiban) Reef January 8, 2016
The northwest side of Mischief Reef as of January 8, including a 1,900 foot sea...
Mischief Reef and Palawan, 125 NM Distance
Mischief Reef is an LTE that is 125 NM from Palawan, well within the 200 NM EEZ...
China’s island-building violates the 2002 Asean-
China Declaration of Conduct, which states that
the parties undertake to ...
China’s Airbases in Woody and Duncan Islands, the Paracels
Woody Island: As the largest island in the
Paracels, it is 213 ...
China is mass-producing destroyers, frigates,
corvettes and other warships at a faster rate than any
other country in worl...
China’s Type 056 Corvette
China launched its 25th Type 056 Corvette last March 19, 2015, out of a total planned 40
Type 05...
China’s Second Navy - The Coast Guard
China will deploy this year a 10,000-ton coast guard vessel, the world’s largest blu...
China’s Third Navy - Maritime Militia
China has a maritime militia consisting of hundreds of thousands of fishermen (“litt...
An ADIZ in the South China Sea?
China conducted in June 2015 its first air-sea military drill in the Bashi Channel, China’...
2015 China Military Strategy
Under its 2015 “China Military Strategy,” China will shift from “offshore waters defense” to
...
China’s Creeping Expansion in the SCS from 1946 to 2016
Before World War II, China’s
southernmost defense perimeter
was Ha...
China’s grand design is to control the South China Sea for economic and military purposes.
China wants all the fisheries, ...
Mischief Reef - A 30-Million Year Work of Nature
It takes 30 million years for the reefs of an atoll like Mischief Reef to...
Chinese Reef Killer Dredges 4,500 Cubic Meters of Sand per Hour
The Tiang Jing Hao (Heavenly Whale) dredger, a 127 meter-l...
How Dredging Is Done in the Spratlys
Coral reef and hard sediment on the seabed are pulverized by the rotating cutter.
Pul...
Fiery Cross Reef January 28, 2015
According to Dr. John McManus, a renowned marine biologist who has studied the
marine li...
Only the adjacent coastal state has the right to
create artificial islands, or erect structures on LTEs,
within its EEZ or...
Thus, Article 60, Part VI of UNCLOS, on “Artificial islands,
installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone,”...
Article 80, Part VI of UNCLOS, on “Artificial
islands, installations and structures on the continental
shelf,” states:
“Ar...
Maritime Zones under UNCLOS
No. UNCLOS defines an island as a “naturally formed” area of land,
surrounded by water, and above water at high tide. (Art...
Historic rights cannot be invoked to claim natural resources in the EEZ of
another state. UNCLOS granted to coastal states...
“The rights of a coastal state over the continental shelf do not depend on
occupation, effective or notional, or on any ex...
Continental Shelf - TS, EEZ and ECS
Compilation of Historical Archives on the Southern Territories
of the Republic of China - Published in July 2015 by Taiwan...
The Tribunal invited the Philippines to comment on Taiwan’s official
publication entitled Compilation of Historical Archiv...
Timeline of Key Events Starts in 1907
In its Position Paper dated 7 December 2014 submitted to the
UNCLOS Tribunal, China made this incredulous claim:
“Chinese ...
1595 Ortelius Map - Champa Kingdom and Champa Sea
Before Portuguese navigators coined the name South China Sea, the sea wa...
1600 Bussemachaer India Orientalis Map: “Pulo” in Tagalog means an “island, isolated place.”
https://www.tagalog-dictionar...
Islands in the Champa Sea Had Austronesian Names
1606 Hondius Map: “Pulo” in Tagalog means an “island, isolated place.” ht...
2002 ASEAN-China Declaration of Conduct
The South China Sea dispute shall be
resolved “in accordance with universally
reco...
After the Philippines filed in January 2013 its
arbitration case against China under
UNCLOS, China’s Foreign Minister Wang...
Official and unofficial maps of China from 1136
during the Song Dynasty until the end of the Qing
Dynasty in 1912 show tha...
1136 AD “Hua Yi Tu”
1896 “Huang Chao Zhi Sheng Yu Di Quan Tu” or The
Qing Empire’s Complete Map of All Provinces.
During the Chinese dynasties...
China’s Southernmost Territory Through the Dynasties – Hainan (1894)
1734 Murillo Velarde Map
1695 Coronelli Map of Southeast Asia
This 1695 map, entitled Isole dell’ Indie, shows the Spratlys as part of the Philippi...
1899 “Islas Filipinas, Mapa General Observatorio de Manila.”
Published in 1899 in Washington, D.C. by the U.S. Coast and G...
When the Qing Dynasty ended in 1912, the
Chinese republicans led by Dr. Sun Yat Sen
established the Republic of China. The...
Constitution of 1912
Article 3, Chapter 1, of the
Provisional Constitution of the
Republic of China of March 11,
1912 stat...
Article 3, Chapter 1 of the Constitution of the
Republic of China of May 1, 1914 states: “The
territory of the Republic of...
Official Publication of PROC: Territory of Republic of China Is the Same as
Territory of the Qing Empire, with Hainan Isla...
Article 3, Chapter 2, of the Constitution of the Republic of
China of October 10, 1924 states: “The territory of the
Repub...
As late as 1932, China has been telling the world
that its southernmost border was Hainan Island,
but that Hainan Island i...
“Note of 29 September 1932 from the Legation of
the Chinese Republic in France to the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, Paris
O...
“xxx The eastern group is called the Amphitrites
and the western group the Crescent. These groups
lie 145 nautical miles f...
“Southernmost Part of Chinese Territory” – the Paracels
The Paracels - “These groups lie 145 nautical miles from Hainan Is...
1933 “Zhonghua Min Guo Fen Sheng Xin Tu”
Despite Chinese maps that appeared in the 1930s and 1940s showing the Paracels as...
In a document entitled China’s Sovereignty Over Xisha and
Zhongsha Islands Is Indisputable issued on January 30, 1980,
Chi...
“Early in the Yuan Dynasty, an
astronomical observation was
carried out at 27 places
throughout the country. xxx
According...
Screenshot from China’s Manila Embassy Website
Huangyan Island was first discovered and drew into China's map in China's Y...
Gaocheng Observatory
This 12.6 meter high stone observatory in Henan Province is the only
extant astronomical observatory ...
A noted French geographer, Francois-Xavier Bonnet, has exposed that China planted antedated
sovereignty markers in the Par...
Chinese Sovereignty Markers in the Paracels
Steles from the Guangxu reign (1882-1902) on one of the Xisha Island
Source: T...
Francois-Xavier Bonnet writes: “Fortunately, the confidential annex of this report had been published in
1987 by the Commi...
第九区行政区督察专员 黄强
民国二十六年七月卅一日
Huang Qiang
Chief of No.9 Administrative Region
31 July 1937
附件:西沙群岛立碑记录表
石岛藏石碑一方,于石岛(对正林岛)老树侧,即...
“Stone Tablets Erection Records on the Paracel Islands
One stone tablet can be found beside the old tree on the southern s...
“At one end of the road at the southeast of Bei Dao (North Island), a tablet can be found
with the inscription “Commemorat...
“西月岛在太平岛的东北,距太平岛四十四海里。。。。岛上
寂无人烟。。。南端有椰树数株,树旁有一石碑,刻‘西月
岛’三字,字甚大,笔力有劲,右旁刻‘民国三十五年十二月
立’十个小字。另外,在海边有石板架成之小庙一座,但已破
旧不堪,上刻文字亦模糊...
“(南威岛)岛的中央有石碑一具,刻‘南威岛’三字,
旁注‘民国三十五年十二月立’一行字。。。岛西另
有高丈土地庙一座,内有香炉一只,但无神象,想
因年代湮化了”。(第72页)
A stone tablet was erected at the ...
——见《中国南海诸群岛文献汇编之八》,张振国:《南沙行,1957年5月成
书,台湾学生书局,1975年1月版。
Zhang Zhenguo. Trip to the Spratly Islands, written in May 1957 an...
What is the Legal Basis of the Philippines’
Claim to Scarborough Shoal
The 1898 Treaty of Paris
between Spain and the
Unit...
China’s Argument Why Philippines Does Not Have
Sovereignty Over Spratlys and Scarborough Shoal
Chinese Foreign Minister Wa...
In the 1900 Treaty of Washington, Spain clarified that it had
also relinquished to the United States “all title and claim ...
When the issue of whether Scarborough Shoal forms part of
Philippine territory, Secretary Cordell Hull of the U.S. State
D...
From 1960s to1980s, Scarborough Shoal was
used by the American and Philippine military
as an impact range for their warshi...
The Philippine Navy issued a Notice to Mariners on 18 September 1981 warning mariners
that the U.S. Navy would undertake g...
Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey, Notice to Mariners,
February 24, 1983
Source: Bajo de Masinloc, Maps and Documents, U...
In September 2014, Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-jeou, who
belongs to the Kuomintang Party, which controlled the
Chinese main...
In an October 21, 2014 interview with the New York
Times, President Ma, who earned an S.J.D. from
Harvard University with ...
Scarborough Shoal
Why fight over rocks like Scarborough Shoal? What is the value of these rocks?
As an island, Scarborough Shoal is entitled to a 12 NM territorial sea around it. This
amounts to 155,165 hectares of mari...
Okinotorishima
Japan’s Okinotorishima Rock In Philippine Sea:
Preventing Erosion of Tiny Rock
This rock is about 7 inches ...
In its Position Paper of 7 December 2014
submitted to the Tribunal, China claimed that the
arbitration is about –
a.  “ter...
The Tribunal ruled on 29 October 2015:
1.  “This is not a dispute concerning sovereignty or
maritime boundary delimitation...
The Tribunal ruled on 29 October 2015:
2.  In the southern sector (Spratlys, Palawan side), there
may be issues on “histor...
Northern and Southern Sectors
Article 288(4), UNCLOS: “In the event of a dispute as to whether a court or tribunal has jur...
The Tribunal ruled on 29 October 2015:
3. In the northern sector (Scarborough Shoal, Luzon side),
“given that Scarborough ...
1. In 1994, the Taiwan Government conducted an extensive
survey of Itu Aba. Taiwanese government scientists found
that in ...
2. A Taiwanese scholar and Taiwan Government consultant, Dr. Song
Yann-huei, wrote in 2000: “Taiwan’s Navy and Coastal Gua...
Palawan-Itu Aba EEZs Overlap
Palawan has an area of 1,464,900 hectares, and a 650 KM coast facing the West Philippine Sea,...
The overriding criterion is the length of the opposing relevant coastlines
in the overlapping maritime zones. In Nicaragua...
Nicaragua v. Colombia (ICJ, November 2012)
Sketch-Map Annexed to Decision
The lengths of the relevant coasts are 531 km fo...
Bangladesh v. Myanmar (ITLOS, March 2012)
St. Martin’s Island has an area of 800 hectares (17x larger than Itu Aba) and a ...
1.  British Foreign Minister Hugo Swire:
“Under the international rules-based system on which the world depends, we would ...
5. ASEAN-U.S. Special Leaders’ Summit at Sunnylands, California:
Reaffirmed the key principle of: “Shared commitment to pe...
The Philippines today is engaged in a historic battle to defend over
531,000 square kilometers of its maritime space (EEZ ...
End
The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute
The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute
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The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute

Our Stake in the West Philippine Sea
A Talk By Justice Antonio Carpio
Hosted by Pimentel Institute for Leadership and Governance
April 25,2016 Club Filipino

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The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute

  1. 1. What Is at Stake for the Philippines What is at stake in the West Philippine Sea dispute are: a.  80% of of the Philippines’ exclusive economic zone (EEZ), comprising 381,000 square kilometers of maritime space, and b.  100% of the Philippines’ extended continental shelf (ECS), estimated at over 150,000 square kilometers of maritime space, aggregating a huge maritime area of over 531,000 square kilometers, larger than the total land area of the Philippines of 300,000 square kilometers - either the Philippines keeps this huge maritime space, or loses it to China.
  2. 2. Gravest External Threat to Philippines since WWII The shaded area, over 531,000 square kilometers of maritime space, together with all the fisheries, oil, gas and mineral resources found within this vast area, is what China wants to grab from the Philippines. This Chinese aggression is the gravest external threat to the Philippines since World War II.
  3. 3. The root cause of the South China Sea dispute is China’s 9-dashed lines claim, which gobbles up large areas of the EEZs and ECSs of the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Root Cause of South China Sea Dispute
  4. 4. China’s 9-dashed Lines Gobble Up EEZs of Coastal States China’s 9-dashed lines claim encloses 85.7% of the entire South China Sea. This is equivalent to 3 million square kilometers out of the 3.5 million square kilometers surface area of the South China Sea.
  5. 5. Nine-dashed Lines Map Submitted by China to United Nations on 7 May 2009 China did not explain the legal basis for the dashes. The dashes had no fixed coordinates. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia protested China’s claim under this 9-dashed lines map.
  6. 6. “China has indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea and the adjacent waters, and enjoys sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the relevant waters as well as the seabed and subsoil thereof.” - China’s Note Verbale The terms “adjacent” and “relevant” waters are not UNCLOS terms. China refuses to explain the meaning of “adjacent” or “relevant” waters. Do these terms mean that China claims all the waters and resources enclosed by the 9-dashed lines? We shall examine China’s acts, regulations, declarations, and practices in the South China Sea to understand what China means by its 9-dashed lines claim, and how China interprets and applies the terms “adjacent” and “relevant” waters. China’s 2009 Note Verbale Explaining The 9-dashed Lines Map
  7. 7. China Seized Subi Reef in 1988 In 1988, China seized Subi Reef from the Philippines by erecting a radar structure and military facilities on the reef. Subi Reef is a Low-Tide Elevation (LTE) outside of the Philippines’ EEZ but within its extended continental shelf (ECS). Subi Reef is just outside the 12 NM territorial sea of the Philippine-occupied Pagasa (Thitu) Island. Under UNCLOS, only the Philippines can erect structures or create an artificial island on Subi Reef. The waters of Subi Reef are part of the high seas of the South China Sea.
  8. 8. China Seized Mischief (Panganiban) Reef in 1995 In 1995, China seized Mischief Reef from the Philippines. Mischief Reef, located 125 NM from Palawan, is a Low-Tide Elevation (LTE) within the Philippines’ EEZ. As an LTE beyond the territorial sea of any state, it is part of the submerged continental shelf of the adjacent coastal state, which is the Philippines. Under UNCLOS, only the Philippines can exploit its natural resources or erect structures on it.
  9. 9. China Claimed Reed Bank in 2010 In February 2010, the Philippines awarded a Service Contract to Sterling Energy (predecessor of Forum Energy) for Block SC 72 in the Reed Bank. China protested, sending a Note Verbale to the Philippines on 22 February 2010, "express[ing] its strong objection and indignation,” and asserting "indisputable sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the Nansha Islands (Spratlys) and its adjacent waters.” China demanded that the Philippines "withdraw the Service Contract immediately.” China sent another Note Verbale on 13 May 2010 again demanding that the Philippines "immediately withdraw the decision to award the Service Contract” to Sterling Energy. Block SC 72 is 85 NM from Palawan, well within the Philippines’ EEZ, and 595 NM from Hainan.
  10. 10. China Interfered Directly with a Philippine Contractor for Reed Bank in 2010 On 2 August 2010, the Nido Petroleum office in Manila received an email directly from the Chinese Embassy in Manila. The Embassy requested a meeting between the Chinese First Secretary and the Nido vice-president. The meeting was held on 6 August 2010. The Chinese First Secretary showed the Nido vice-president a map depicting China's 9-dashed lines, and informed him that the area covered by Nido Petroleum’s service contract (Block SC 58) was "claimed by" the People’s Republic of China. Since then Nido Petroleum has not made any exploration within Block SC 58. [Memorandum from Rafael E. Seguis, Undersecretary for Special and Ocean Concerns, Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines (30 July 2010); Letter from Mr. Anthony P. Ferrer, Country Representative, Nido Petroleum, to the Office of the Undersecretary, Department of Energy of the Republic of Philippines (7 Oct. 2013)]
  11. 11. China Reiterated its Claim to Reed Bank in 2011 In 2011, the Philippines invited bids for the exploration of Area 3 and Area 4 in the Reed Bank, well within the Philippines’ EEZ. On 4 July 2011, China protested and sent a Note Verbale to the Philippines, stating: “The Chinese government urges the Philippine side to immediately withdraw the bidding offer in Areas 3 and 4, refrain from any action that infringes on China's sovereignty and sovereign rights.”
  12. 12. Chinese Coast Guard Vessels Harassed A Philippine Survey Ship in Reed Bank in 2011 In March 2011, two Chinese coast guard vessels, the CMS-71 and CMS-75, prevented a Philippine- commissioned ship, the MV Veritas Voyager, from undertaking oil and gas survey in the Reed Bank, which is entirely within the Philippines’ EEZ. The 9-dashed lines cut through Malampaya, the Philippines’ largest operating gas field which supplies 40% of the energy requirement of Luzon. Malampaya will run out of gas in 10-12 years.
  13. 13. In 2012, China invited an international bidding for the exploration of areas within the EEZ of Vietnam. China published this map, naming it “Location for part of open blocks in waters under jurisdiction of the People’s Republic of China available for foreign cooperation in the year of 2012.” China Auctioned off Areas within Vietnam’s EEZ & ECS
  14. 14. In 2013, China released a new map of China, adding a 10th dash on the eastern side of Taiwan. In its 2013 map, China claims the 10-dashed lines are its “national boundaries,” without again explaining the legal basis or giving the fixed coordinates for the dashes. The 2013 China map was published by SinoMaps Press, under the jurisdiction of China’s State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping. This means the 2013 Map is an official Chinese government map. In its Note Verbale of June 7, 2013 to China, the Philippines stated it "strongly objects to the indication that the nine-dash lines are China's national boundaries in the West Philippine Sea/South China Sea.” China’s claim that the 9-dashed lines are China’s “national boundaries” contradicts its assurance to the world that there is “freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea in accordance with international law.” China’s 2013 Map with 10-dashed Lines As “National Boundaries”
  15. 15. China Claims 10-dashed Lines in 2013 Map Are China’s “National Boundaries”
  16. 16. James Shoal - China’s “Southernmost” Border Since at least 2012, China has been periodically laying sovereignty steel markers on the seabed of James Shoal. China claims James Shoal as its southernmost border. James Shoal is fully submerged at 22 meters below the water surface, and is situated more than 950 NM from Hainan Island and more than 400 NM from Itu Aba. Under UNCLOS, the maximum maritime zone that a state can claim is 350 NM from baselines along its coast (or 100 NM from the 2500m isobath, a limitation which does not apply to China based on the geology and geomorphology of the South China Sea). Under international law, a state’s border must either be a land territory, a river, or a territorial sea - which are all subject to its full sovereignty. A state cannot appropriate as its sovereign territory a fully submerged area beyond its territorial sea. James Shoal is 80 KM from Malaysia’s coast in Bintulu, Sarawak, within Malaysia’s EEZ.
  17. 17. China Holds Sovereignty Oath Swearing Ceremony at James Shoal in January 2014 A Chinese taskforce composed of three warships from the South China Sea Fleet of the Navy of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLAN) held a sovereignty oath-swearing ceremony on January 26, 2014 in the waters of James (Zengmu) Shoal off the coast of Sarawak, Borneo in the South China Sea. The Singapore Straits Times quoted China’s Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang that Malaysia did not lodge any protest against China. Photo: Xinhua
  18. 18. China Seized Scarborough (Panatag) Shoal in 2012 In 2012, China seized Scarborough Shoal from the Philippines. In November 2012, following a three-month standoff between Philippine and Chinese vessels around the shoal, China informed the Philippines that Chinese coast guard vessels would remain permanently on the shoal. Scarborough Shoal, including its lagoon, has an area of 58 square miles or 150 square KMs (15,000 hectares). Located 124 NM from Zambales, Scarborough Shoal is rich in fisheries and is one of the traditional fishing grounds of Filipino fishermen. The shoal is a high tide elevation, with the biggest rock protruding 1.2 meter above water at high tide. China claims that Scarborough Shoal generates a 200 NM EEZ.
  19. 19. China Seized Luconia Shoals in 2013 In 2013, China seized Luconia Shoals from Malaysia. Malaysian National Security Minister Shahidan Kassim posted on Facebook last June 4, 2015 the location map of Luconia Shoals, 54 NM from Sarawak, with this statement: "This small island is not a disputed territory but the foreign ship which came here has intruded into our national waters.” That foreign ship is the Chinese Coast Guard vessel Haijing 1123, which anchored on Luconia Shoals since April 2013 and has remained there up to now. Luconia Shoals, covering 100 square miles, are one of the largest reef formations in the South China Sea. Luconia Shoals, with a sandbar above water at high tide, are rich in fish, oil and gas. China claims that all geologic features in the Spratlys generate a 200 NM EEZ.
  20. 20. China Installed HD 981 Oil Rig in 2014 In 2014, China placed its $1 billion deep-water HD 981 deep water oil rig 130 NM from Vietnam’s coast, well within Vietnam’s EEZ. In protest, Vietnamese workers in export processing zones in Vietnam rioted, burning several Chinese factories. A Vietnamese fishing boat sank near the oil rig after being rammed by a Chinese vessel. Recent reports reveal that China is building three (3) more type HD 981 rigs for deployment in the South China Sea. Wang Yilin, chairman of China National Offshore Oil Corp., calls these oil rigs "strategic weapons" that form part of China's "mobile national sovereignty."
  21. 21. Article 35 of the Hainan Province’s 2014 Fishery Regulations, which took effect on January 1, 2014, mandate that foreign fishing vessels “entering the waters under the jurisdiction of this province (Hainan) to engage in fishery operations or fishery resource surveys shall secure approval from relevant departments of the State Council.” The Fishery Regulations apply to Macclesfield Bank, which is part of the high seas. Hainan’s 2014 Fishery Regulations
  22. 22. Waters Hainan Claims under its Administration The enclosed waters under Hainan’s administration comprise 2 million square kilometers out of the 3.5 square kilometers total surface area of the South China Sea. China claims a total of 3 million square kilometers or 85.7% of the waters of the South China Sea. Macclesfield Bank, which is part of the high seas, is within the enclosed waters.
  23. 23. Since 1999, China thru Hainan Province has imposed unilaterally a three-month annual fishing moratorium, from mid-May to end July, on waters in and around the Paracels, Macclesfield Bank and Scarborough Shoal. Violators of the ban face fines, confiscation of fishing equipment, and even criminal charges. Macclesfield Bank is part of the high seas. In a Note Verbale dated 6 July 2015, China demanded that the Philippines “respect China's territorial sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction, and xxx educate its own fishermen, so that they can strictly abide by the fishing moratorium xxx." China warned that "Chinese law-enforcing authorities will strengthen their maritime patrols and other law-enforcing actions, investigate and punish the relevant fishing vessels and fishermen who violate the fishing moratorium xxx.” China Imposes a Unilateral Annual 3-Month Fishing Moratorium In the South China Sea
  24. 24. The high seas have always been part of the global commons, whether before or after UNCLOS. The high seas could not be subject to sovereignty by any state, whether before or after UNCLOS. UNCLOS declares: “The high seas are open to all states, whether coastal or land-locked. Freedom of the high seas xxx comprises, inter alia, xxx freedom of fishing” (Art. 87, UNCLOS). UNCLOS declares: “No state may validly purport to subject any part of the high seas to its sovereignty” (Art. 89, UNCLOS). The High Seas Part of Global Commons
  25. 25. By appropriating for itself the fishery resources in the high seas of the South China Sea, China is committing a grand theft of the global commons. All states, coastal and landlocked, are interested parties in the South China Sea dispute because China is appropriating for itself the fishery resources in the high seas. Grand Theft of the Global Commons
  26. 26. On 19 March 2016, an Indonesian maritime enforcement vessel, the KP Hiu 11, arrested and put on board 8 Chinese fishermen illegally operating the fishing boat Kway Fey within the EEZ of the Indonesia’s Natuna islands facing the South China Sea. The KP Hiu11 towed the Kway Fey towards Natuna Island. A Chinese coast guard vessel followed, and within Natuna’s territorial sea, rammed the Kway Fey, successfully prying it loose from the towing KP Hiu 11. The KP Hiu 11 headed home with the 9 Chinese fishermen but without the Kway Fey. China later claimed that the Kway Fey was operating within China’s “traditional fishing grounds.” China Intrudes into Natuna’s Territorial Sea & EEZ in 2016
  27. 27. All these acts of China, among so many others, demonstrate beyond doubt that China is claiming sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction to all the waters, fisheries, oil, gas, mineral resources, seabed and subsoil enclosed by the 9-dashed lines. The South China Sea - A Chinese Lake
  28. 28. The Philippines loses about 80% of its EEZ facing the West Philippine Sea, including the entire Reed Bank and part of the Malampaya gas field. Malaysia loses also about 80% of its EEZ in Sabah and Sarawak facing the South China Sea, as well as most of its active gas and oil fields in the same area. Vietnam loses about 50% of its total EEZ. Brunei loses about 90% of its total EEZ. Indonesia loses about 30% of its EEZ facing the South China Sea in Natuna Islands, whose surrounding waters comprise the largest gas field in Southeast Asia. What is the Effect of China’s “National Boundaries” under the 9-dashed Lines?
  29. 29. Philippines’ Sliver of Territorial Sea and EEZ The Philippines will be left with a sliver of water as its territorial sea and EEZ. The Philippines and China will have a very long common sea border – 1,300 kms – from Balabac Island in southern Palawan to Yamin Island in northern Batanes. The dashed lines are just 64 KMs from Balabac Island, 70 KMs from the coast of Burgos, Ilocos Norte, and 44 KMs from Yamin Island. Last 25 February 2016, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi told his audience at the CSIS in Washington, DC: “We are neighbors (with the Philippines) just separated by a narrow body of water.” Wang Yi also declared in the same forum that the decision of Philippine officials to file the arbitration case was “irresponsible to the Filipino people and the future of the Philippines.” Wang Yi imperiously believes that Philippine officials will act responsibly if they accept as a fact that China and the Philippines are “just separated by a narrow body of water.”
  30. 30. Maritime Zones under UNCLOS An island above water at high tide is entitled to a 12 NM territorial sea. If such island is capable of human habitation or economic life of its own, it is entitled to a 200 NM EEZ. If there is a natural prolongation of its extended continental shelf, it is entitled to an ECS up to where the natural prolongation ends, but not exceeding 150 NM from the outer limits of its EEZ. The maximum maritime zone a coastal state can claim is 150 NM from the outer limits of its 200 NM EEZ (or 100 NM from the 2500 meter isobath, a limitation which does not apply to China based on the geology and geomorphology of the South China Sea). China is claiming maritime zones more than 150 NM from the outer limits of its EEZ.
  31. 31. A Low-Tide Elevation (LTE) is a naturally formed area of land (rock, reef, atoll or sandbar) surrounded by water, above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. An LTE is part of the submerged continental shelf. An LTE is not land or territory, and has no territorial sea or territorial airspace (Art. 13, UNCLOS). An LTE beyond the territorial sea is not subject to appropriation by any State (Nicaragua v. Colombia, ICJ, 2012). Low-Tide Elevation (LTE)
  32. 32. Low Tide Elevation vs. Rock/Island A low-tide elevation is not entitled to a territorial sea or any maritime zone. A rock above water at high tide is entitled to a 12 NM territorial sea. An island capable of human habitation or economic life of its own is entitled to a 12 NM territorial sea and a 200 NM EEZ, and if there is a natural prolongation of its extended continental shelf, it is entitled to an ECS up to the end of such natural prolongation but not exceeding 150 NM from the outer limits of its EEZ (or 100 NM from the 2500 meter isobath, if applicable).
  33. 33. China has built artificial islands on seven (7) reefs: Fiery Cross Reef, Cuarteron Reef, Gaven Reef, Johnson South Reef, McKennan Reef, Mischief Reef and Subi Reef. These are all the reefs China occupies. However, China has actually also dredged ten (10) other reefs for filling materials for the seven reefs on which China has built islands.* China has explained: “The primary purpose of these activities is to improve the working and living conditions of personnel stationed there, to better fulfill our international obligations concerning maritime search and rescue, disaster prevention, and mitigation, and to enable China to provide better services to vessels from China, her neighbors, and other countries sailing in the South China Sea.”** * J. Ashley Roach, an ASIL member, Captain, JAGC, USN (retired), Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State (retired), and Global Associate and Senior Visiting Scholar at the Centre for International Law (CIL) (2014–2015), National University of Singapore; see http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/marine-sovereignty/ 137126/china-s-shifting-sands-in-the-spratlys.html **Statement of Wang Min, China's deputy permanent representative to the United Nations. China’s Island-Building in the Spratlys
  34. 34. China’s Island-Building on Seven Reefs There are about 750 small maritime features in the Spratlys. The vast majority are submerged at all times while others are exposed only at low tide. There are, at most, only 28 features that remain above water at high tide. The largest high-tide feature, Itu Aba, is only 0.43 square kilometer. The rest range in size from a high of 0.36 square kilometers (Pagasa) to a low of less than 2 square meters.
  35. 35. Fiery Cross (Kagitingan) Reef Before Island-Building Fiery Cross Reef is about 1 meter above water at high tide. It is just outside the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental shelf. In 1987, UNESCO agreed that China would build a weather radar station on Fiery Cross Reef as part of UNESCO’s global oceanic survey. That weather radar station would later turn out to be a Chinese military air and naval base. China’s Airbase with Seaport on Fiery Cross Reef Source: China State Shipbuilding Corporation One of the islands built by China is an airbase with a seaport, completed in June 2015. The airbase, with a 3,000 meter runway, is on a 274-hectare area on Fiery Cross Reef, larger than 213-hectare Woody Island which hosts China’s airbase in the Paracels. This artificial island will also be larger than the combined area of the 20 largest islands in the Spratlys, and more than twice the area of Diego Garcia Island, the U.S. airbase in the Indian Ocean.
  36. 36. June 2015 Chinese Photo of Completed Island-Building on Fiery Cross Reef - 274 Hectare Airbase With 3 KM Runway As Admiral Harry Harris, commander of the U.S. Pacific Command stated, “A 10,000-foot (3 KM) runway is large enough to take a B-52, almost large enough for the Space Shuttle, and 3,000 feet longer than what you need to take off a 747.” Admiral Harris also stated that China is building on Fiery Cross Reef hangars for tactical fighters.
  37. 37. Test Flights on Fiery Cross Reef Runway January 6, 2016
  38. 38. Johnson South (Mabini) Reef Before Island-Building Johnson South Reef is an LTE within the Philippines’ EEZ. [Note: Chinese, Philippines and other countries’ nautical charts designate this as an LTE. Only the U.S. nautical chart designates this as a high tide feature.]
  39. 39. Johnson South (Mabini) Reef December 26, 2015 In 1988, Chinese naval forces forcibly dislodged the Vietnamese soldiers guarding this LTE. Sixty-four Vietnamese soldiers died in the battle. Johnson South Reef is within the Philippines’ EEZ. As of November 2015, China has created an artificial island of 10.9 hectares in Johnson South Reef.
  40. 40. McKennan (Chigua) Reef Before Island-Building McKennan Reef is an LTE within the Philippines’ EEZ. It is within 12 NM of Sin Cowe Island.
  41. 41. McKennan (Chigua, Hughes) Reef May 5, 2015 As of November 2015, China has created an artifical island of 7.2 hectares in McKennan Reef.
  42. 42. Gaven (Burgos) Reef at Start of Island-Building Gaven Reef is outside of the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental shelf. Gaven Reef is an LTE within 12 NM of Namyit Island.
  43. 43. Gaven Reef May 9, 2015 As of November 2015, China has created an artificial island of 13.6 hectares in Gaven Reef.
  44. 44. Cuarteron (Calderon) Reef Before Island-Building Cuarteron Reef is outside the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental shelf. It is above water at high tide.
  45. 45. Cuarteron Reef Jan 21, 2016 Cuarteron Reef is a tiny rock above water at high tide just outside the Philippines’ EEZ. As of November 2015, China has added 24.6 hectares to Cuarteron Reef. China is installing on Cuarteron Reef a powerful radar facility that can monitor aircraft flying anywhere in Palawan.
  46. 46. Subi (Zamora) Reef Before Island-Building Subi Reef is an LTE outside of the Philippines’ EEZ but within its continental shelf. Subi Reef is just outside the 12-NM territorial sea of the 36-hectare Pagasa (Thitu) Island, the largest island occupied by the Philippines in the Spratlys. Subi Reef is 231 NM from Palawan and 502 NM from Hainan.
  47. 47. Subi (Zamora) Reef December 23, 2015 3 km runway/air strip
  48. 48. Subi Reef Runway December 21, 2015 & Lighthouse April 2016 Source:www.ft.com Photo by Xing Guangli
  49. 49. Subi (Zamora) Reef January 8, 2016 Source:www.+.com Under UNCLOS, Subi Reef, an LTE in the high seas, cannot be used as a military facility. Article 88 of UNCLOS mandates that “the high seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes.” The total area of Subi Reef, including the lagoon and rim of the reef, is 16 sq. km. In its original state, the Subi Reef‘s lagoon was 22 meters deep. Subi Reef’s location, size and depth make it ideal for a naval base with an airfield. As of December 23, 2015, China has created an artificial island of 500 hectares in Subi Reef.
  50. 50. Mischief (Panganiban) Reef January 2012 and March 2015 Mischief Reef is a circular atoll with a diameter of 7.4 KM, and its lagoon has an area of 3,600 hectares. The average depth inside the lagoon is 26 meters. As of November 2015, China has created an artificial island of 590 hectares out of a planned 800 hectares. China can garrison thousands of troops on Mischief Reef. Mischief Reef is 125 NM from Palawan and 596 NM from Hainan.
  51. 51. Mischief (Panganiban) Reef December 24, 2015 3 Km runway/air strip
  52. 52. Mischief (Panganiban) Reef January 8, 2016 The northwest side of Mischief Reef as of January 8, including a 1,900 foot seawall and newly-constructed infrastructure including housing, an artificial turf parade grounds, cement plants, and docking facilities. - Source: www.ft.com
  53. 53. Mischief Reef and Palawan, 125 NM Distance Mischief Reef is an LTE that is 125 NM from Palawan, well within the 200 NM EEZ of the Philippines. As an LTE, Mischief Reef is part of the submerged continental shelf of the Philippines. With an air and naval base in Mischief Reef between Palawan and all the Philippine-occupied islands in the Spratlys, China can block Philippine ships re-supplying Philippine-occupied islands in the Spratlys.
  54. 54. China’s island-building violates the 2002 Asean- China Declaration of Conduct, which states that the parties undertake to exercise self-restraint, like “refraining from action of inhabiting on presently uninhabited islands, reefs, shoals, cays and other features.” Island-Building Violates the Declaration of Conduct
  55. 55. China’s Airbases in Woody and Duncan Islands, the Paracels Woody Island: As the largest island in the Paracels, it is 213 hectares in area. It has a 2,700 meter runaway that can handle all of China’s 4th generation fighter aircraft as well as the nuclear- armed H-6K strategic bomber. Recently (2016), China deployed on Woody Island two batteries of the long-range HQ-9 anti-aircraft missiles with a range of 200 kms. China has also deployed on Woody Island YJ-62 anti-ship missiles with a range of 400 kms, creating a naval anti-access zone of 200,000 square kilometers around Woody Island. Duncan Island: China has significantly expanded the size of this island, upgraded the harbor, and is building a helicopter base. Duncan Island is in the Crescent Group of the Paracels.
  56. 56. China is mass-producing destroyers, frigates, corvettes and other warships at a faster rate than any other country in world history during peacetime. According to the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence, “During 2014 alone, more than 60 naval ships and crafts were laid down, launched, or commissioned, with a similar number expected through the end of 2015.” China’s Continuing Mass Production of Warships
  57. 57. China’s Type 056 Corvette China launched its 25th Type 056 Corvette last March 19, 2015, out of a total planned 40 Type 056 Corvette fleet. The PLA Navy believes that it can control the South China Sea with 20 of these Corvettes.
  58. 58. China’s Second Navy - The Coast Guard China will deploy this year a 10,000-ton coast guard vessel, the world’s largest blue water coast guard vessel. A second 10,000-ton sister ship is under construction. China has more coast guard vessels than Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines combined. China’s Coast Guard is the largest blue water coast guard fleet in the world.
  59. 59. China’s Third Navy - Maritime Militia China has a maritime militia consisting of hundreds of thousands of fishermen (“little blue men”) who are well-trained to spy on foreign warships, harass foreign fishing vessels, and act as eyes and ears for the PLA Navy. Their fishing vessels, numbering about 20,000, are equipped with China’s Beidou satellite navigation and communications system. The PLA’s official newspaper declared: “Putting on camouflage these fishermen qualify as soldiers, taking off the camouflage they become law abiding fishermen.”
  60. 60. An ADIZ in the South China Sea? China conducted in June 2015 its first air-sea military drill in the Bashi Channel, China’s outlet to the Pacific for its nuclear-armed submarines. China announced that in the future it would conduct regular air-sea military drills in the Bashi Channel. China’s air and naval bases in the Spratlys can counter any attempt by other countries to block the Malacca Straits.
  61. 61. 2015 China Military Strategy Under its 2015 “China Military Strategy,” China will shift from “offshore waters defense” to the combined “offshore waters defense” and “open seas protection.” The CMS states: “The traditional mentality that land outweighs the sea must be abandoned, and great importance has to be attached to managing the seas and oceans and protecting maritime rights and interests.”
  62. 62. China’s Creeping Expansion in the SCS from 1946 to 2016 Before World War II, China’s southernmost defense perimeter was Hainan Island. Before the war, China did not have a single soldier or sailor stationed in any SCS island outside of Hainan Island. Right after the war, China took over the Amphitrite Group of the Paracels and Itu Aba in the Spratlys following the defeat of the Japanese, moving China’s defense perimeter southward. In 1974, China forcibly dislodged the South Vietnamese from the Crescent Group of the Paracels. In 1988, China forcibly evicted Vietnam from Johnson South Reef, moving further south China’s defense perimeter in the Spratlys. In 1995, China seized Mischief Reef from the Philippines, just 125 NM from Palawan and 594 NM from Hainan. In 2012, China seized Scarborough Shoal from the Philippines, just 124 NM from Luzon. In 2013, China seized Luconia Shoals from Malaysia, just 54 NM from Sarawak’s coast. In 2014, China started island-building on rocks and submerged areas in the Spratlys to construct air and naval bases.
  63. 63. China’s grand design is to control the South China Sea for economic and military purposes. China wants all the fisheries, oil, gas and mineral resources within the 9-dashed lines. China already takes 50% of the annual fish catch in the South China Sea as more than 80% of its coastal waters are already polluted. China has the largest fishing fleet in the world, with 200,000 sea-going vessels and 2,640 long-distance ocean-going vessels. China’s per capita fish consumption is the highest in the world at 35.1 kg/year to feed 1.4 billion people, while the rest of Asia’s per capita consumption is only 21.6 kg/year. A UN Food and Agriculture Organization study estimates that by 2030 China will account for 38% of the global fish consumption. China is the largest net importer of petroleum in the world. The South China Sea is rich in methane hydrates - said to be one of the fuels of the future. China wants to secure all these methane hydrates for itself. China also wants the South China Sea as a sanctuary for its nuclear-armed submarines – free from surveillance by U.S. submarine-hunting Poseidon airplanes or U.S. nuclear attack submarines. The island-building in the Spratlys is not a knee-jerk response to the Philippines’ arbitration case but part of China’s long-term grand design. As Zang Jie, head of the Asia Pacific Security program at the government-linked Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, stated: “China has wanted to do this for a long time. Now it has the dredging boats, the money and the people. So it is doing it.” China’s Grand Design in the South China Sea
  64. 64. Mischief Reef - A 30-Million Year Work of Nature It takes 30 million years for the reefs of an atoll like Mischief Reef to form. Reefs are the breeding ground of fish. In the Spratlys, the eggs and larvae spawned by fish are carried by currents to the Sulu Sea, the coasts of Palawan, Luzon, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Vietnam and even China. All the reefs in the seven built-up sites of China are now dead. Reefs need clear waters to grow. Island- building makes the waters in nearby reefs turbid, unhealthy for both reefs and fish. The coral reefs in the South China Sea comprise 34% of the world’s total coral reefs, despite the South China Sea occupying only 2.5% of world’s total ocean surface.
  65. 65. Chinese Reef Killer Dredges 4,500 Cubic Meters of Sand per Hour The Tiang Jing Hao (Heavenly Whale) dredger, a 127 meter-long seagoing cutter suction dredger designed by the German engineering company Vosta LMG. At 6,017 gross tons, this dredger is the largest in Asia. China has dozens of dredgers in the Spratlys.
  66. 66. How Dredging Is Done in the Spratlys Coral reef and hard sediment on the seabed are pulverized by the rotating cutter. Pulverized materials are sucked into the ship. Pulverized materials are transported by pressure through a floating pipe. Pulverized materials are deposited on the rim of the reef.
  67. 67. Fiery Cross Reef January 28, 2015 According to Dr. John McManus, a renowned marine biologist who has studied the marine life in the Spratlys, China’s island-building is the “most rapid permanent loss of coral reef in human history. It’s a terrible, terrible thing to do this.”
  68. 68. Only the adjacent coastal state has the right to create artificial islands, or erect structures on LTEs, within its EEZ or ECS (Arts. 60 & 80, UNCLOS). Thus, such artificial islands or structures put up by other states within the EEZ or ECS of a coastal state are illegal under UNCLOS. Who can create artificial islands, or erect structures on LTEs, in the EEZ or ECS?
  69. 69. Thus, Article 60, Part VI of UNCLOS, on “Artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone,” states: “1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have the exclusive right to construct and to authorize and regulate the construction, operation and use of: (a) artificial islands; (b) installations and structures for the purposes provided in Article 56 (exploitation of non- living resources in the seabed, marine scientific research, protection and preservation of marine environment) and other economic purposes; (c) xxx.” “2. The coastal state shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such artificial islands, installations and structures, including jurisdiction with regard to customs, fiscal, health safety and immigration laws and regulations.”
  70. 70. Article 80, Part VI of UNCLOS, on “Artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf,” states: “Article 60 applies mutatis mutandi to artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf.” Clearly, China’s island-building on LTEs in the EEZ and ECS of the Philippines violate UNCLOS and are thus illegal under international law.
  71. 71. Maritime Zones under UNCLOS
  72. 72. No. UNCLOS defines an island as a “naturally formed” area of land, surrounded by water, and above water at high tide. (Art. 121, UNCLOS) Article 60(8) of UNCLOS provides: “8. Artificial islands, installations and structures do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone, or the continental shelf.” Article 2(2) of UNCLOS states that “sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea.” While a coastal state’s artificial structure installed within its own EEZ is entitled to 500-meter safety zone (Article 60(5), UNCLOS), an illegally installed structure by another state is not entitled to this legal 500-meter safety zone. A legal right cannot arise from an illegal act. Do LTEs and artificial islands acquire a maritime zone if by island-building they are raised above water at high tide ?
  73. 73. Historic rights cannot be invoked to claim natural resources in the EEZ of another state. UNCLOS granted to coastal states “sovereign rights” to exploit its EEZ. “Sovereign rights” means supreme rights, superior to the rights of other states. This extinguished all historic rights or claims by other states in the EEZ of a coastal state. The word “exclusive” in the term EEZ means the economic exploitation of the zone is exclusive to the adjacent coastal state. China actively participated in the negotiations of UNCLOS from 1973 to 1982. China aligned itself with the developing coastal countries which demanded a 200 NM EEZ where the coastal state has exclusive sovereign rights to exploit the EEZ. China never claimed that historic rights could be an exception to the exclusive sovereign rights of coastal states in the EEZ. In fact, the 200 NM EEZ was agreed upon on the clear understanding that all historic claims of other states in the EEZ of a coastal state are deemed extinguished. Can a State Claim “Historic Rights” in the EEZ of another State?
  74. 74. “The rights of a coastal state over the continental shelf do not depend on occupation, effective or notional, or on any express proclamation” (Art. 77(3), UNCLOS). As the ICJ has explained, the rights of a coastal state “exist ipso facto and ab initio, by virtue of its sovereignty over the land.”* “[I]f the coastal state does not explore the continental shelf or exploit its natural resources, no one may undertake such activities without the express consent of the coastal state” (Art. 77[2]). This is an express prohibition to the application of historic rights claimed by other states in the continental shelf of another coastal state. The continental shelf of a state covers its EEZ and extended continental shelf. *North Sea Continental Shelf Cases (Federal Republic of Germany v. Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany v. Netherlands), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1969, paragraph 19. A Coastal State Has Inherent Right to its Continental Shelf
  75. 75. Continental Shelf - TS, EEZ and ECS
  76. 76. Compilation of Historical Archives on the Southern Territories of the Republic of China - Published in July 2015 by Taiwan This is a compilation of the most important documents relating to the 9-dashed lines culled from the thousands of records in the Kuomintang historical archives. The Kuomintang brought the records with them to Taiwan when they fled the mainland in 1949.
  77. 77. The Tribunal invited the Philippines to comment on Taiwan’s official publication entitled Compilation of Historical Archives on the Southern Territories of the Republic of China published in July 2015. The Philippines made the following comments, among others: 1.  Of the tens of thousands of historical records reviewed by the experts who compiled the archives, not a single document could be identified asserting China’s claim to the South China Sea before 1907. 2.  Taiwan’s President Ma himself wrote in the Preface of the book that China’s "sovereignty over the South China Sea islands" dates only to the "early 20th century,” 1935 to be exact, with the publication of the Map of the South Sea Islands and Maritime Features. The claim to sovereignty refers only to the islands and their territorial seas. 3.  The book contains a timeline of key events that summarizes China's historic evidence in support of its historic rights claim. The chronology of event starts in 1907. 4.  The events in the timeline from 1907 to 1935 refer to China’s claims to the Pratas and the Paracels, not to the Spratlys. Chinese claims to the Spratlys started only in 1935. Kuomintang’s Compilation of Historical Archives
  78. 78. Timeline of Key Events Starts in 1907
  79. 79. In its Position Paper dated 7 December 2014 submitted to the UNCLOS Tribunal, China made this incredulous claim: “Chinese activities in the South China Sea date back to over 2,000 years ago. China was the first country to discover, name, explore and exploit the resources of the South China Sea Islands and the first to continuously exercise sovereign powers over them.” Taiwan’s publication of Compilation of Historical Archives on the Southern Territories of the Republic of China, using the extensive archives of the Kuomintang, the originator of the 9-dashed lines, has definitively debunked the PROC’s claim that the 9- dashed lines were “formed in the long course of history,” dating back two thousand years ago. Taiwan Debunked China’s Incredulous Historic Claim to the South China Sea
  80. 80. 1595 Ortelius Map - Champa Kingdom and Champa Sea Before Portuguese navigators coined the name South China Sea, the sea was known as the Champa Sea, after the Cham people who established a great kingdom in central Vietnam from the late 2nd to the 17th century. The Chams had sailboats with South China Sea name was outriggers, just like the sailboats of the Austronesians. The ancestors of the Chams spoke a Malayo-Polynesian language that is derived from the Austronesian language, just like the Tagalog language. The word “cham” comes from the flower of the champaka tree. This flower is the symbol of the Cham Kingdom. The Chams are believed to have migrated from Borneo to central Vietnam. “For centuries the South China Sea was known by navigators throughout Asia as the Champa Sea, named for a great empire that controlled all of central Vietnam xxx.” - National Geographic, June 18, 2014
  81. 81. 1600 Bussemachaer India Orientalis Map: “Pulo” in Tagalog means an “island, isolated place.” https://www.tagalog-dictionary.com/search?word=pulo Islands in the Champa Sea Had Austronesian Names
  82. 82. Islands in the Champa Sea Had Austronesian Names 1606 Hondius Map: “Pulo” in Tagalog means an “island, isolated place.” https:// www.tagalog-dictionary.com/search?word=pulo
  83. 83. 2002 ASEAN-China Declaration of Conduct The South China Sea dispute shall be resolved “in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.”
  84. 84. After the Philippines filed in January 2013 its arbitration case against China under UNCLOS, China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi declared that the South China Sea dispute should be resolved in accordance with “historical facts and international law.” China Insists on Respect for Historical Facts
  85. 85. Official and unofficial maps of China from 1136 during the Song Dynasty until the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 show that the southernmost territory of China has always been Hainan Island. Official and unofficial maps of the Philippines from 1636 until 1933 show that Scarborough Shoal has always been part of the Philippines. The first name of Scarborough Shoal is “Panacot,” which appeared in the 1734 Murillo Velarde map published in Manila. Ancient Maps of China and the Philippines
  86. 86. 1136 AD “Hua Yi Tu”
  87. 87. 1896 “Huang Chao Zhi Sheng Yu Di Quan Tu” or The Qing Empire’s Complete Map of All Provinces. During the Chinese dynasties, Hainan Island was a part of Guangdong Province. Hainan became a separate province only in 1988. The Qing Dynasty was the largest expansion of Chinese territory throughout the Chinese dynasties. The Qing dynasty ceded Formosa to Japan in 1895 following the Qing’s defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).
  88. 88. China’s Southernmost Territory Through the Dynasties – Hainan (1894)
  89. 89. 1734 Murillo Velarde Map
  90. 90. 1695 Coronelli Map of Southeast Asia This 1695 map, entitled Isole dell’ Indie, shows the Spratlys as part of the Philippines. This map was created by the Venetian Vincenzo Coronelli, a Franciscan monk. The map was published in Venice in 1695. Coronelli, famous for his atlases and globes, became the Father General of the Franciscan Order. The Franciscans arrived in the Philippines in 1578.
  91. 91. 1899 “Islas Filipinas, Mapa General Observatorio de Manila.” Published in 1899 in Washington, D.C. by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
  92. 92. When the Qing Dynasty ended in 1912, the Chinese republicans led by Dr. Sun Yat Sen established the Republic of China. The following provisions of five (5) Constitutions of the Republic of China state:
  93. 93. Constitution of 1912 Article 3, Chapter 1, of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China of March 11, 1912 states: “The territory of the Republic of China is composed of 22 provinces, Inner and Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Qinghai.” As we have seen in the 1896 map of the Qing Dynasty, one of the 22 provinces is Guangdong, which includes Hainan Island as the southernmost territory of China. 1896 “Huang Chao Zhi Sheng Yu Di Quan Tu” or The Qing Empire’s Complete Map of All Provinces
  94. 94. Article 3, Chapter 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of China of May 1, 1914 states: “The territory of the Republic of China continues to be the territory of the former empire.” The editorial comment in the Regulations of the Republic of China Concerning Rule over Tibet (1999) explains the words “former empire” as “referring to the Qing Dynasty.” Constitution of 1914
  95. 95. Official Publication of PROC: Territory of Republic of China Is the Same as Territory of the Qing Empire, with Hainan Island as Southernmost Border All constitutional provisions cited are from an official publication of the People’s Republic of China entitled Regulations of the Republic of China Concerning Rule Over Tibet (China No. 2 History Archives, China International Press, January 1, 1999). “Former empire” means the Qing Dynasty Page 3 of the Regulations state:
  96. 96. Article 3, Chapter 2, of the Constitution of the Republic of China of October 10, 1924 states: “The territory of the Republic of China continues to be the traditional territory.” The Constitution of the Republic of China of January 1, 1937 states: “The territory of the Republic of China continues to be the territory it owned in the past.” Article 4, Chapter 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of China of December 25, 1946 states: “The territory of the Republic of China shall be that encompassed by its traditional boundaries.” Constitutions of 1924, 1937 and 1946
  97. 97. As late as 1932, China has been telling the world that its southernmost border was Hainan Island, but that Hainan Island included the Paracels. In a Note Verbale to the French Government on September 29, 1932 protesting the French occupation of the Paracels, the Chinese Government officially declared:
  98. 98. “Note of 29 September 1932 from the Legation of the Chinese Republic in France to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paris On the instructions of its Government, the Legation of the Chinese Republic in France has the honor to transmit its Government’s reply to the Foreign Ministry’s Note of 4 January 1932 on the subject of the Paracel Islands.” xxxx
  99. 99. “xxx The eastern group is called the Amphitrites and the western group the Crescent. These groups lie 145 nautical miles from Hainan Island, and form the southernmost part of Chinese territory.” (Emphasis supplied) xxx [Source: Sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands, Monique Chemelier-Gendreau, Annex 10, Kluwer Law International, 2000]
  100. 100. “Southernmost Part of Chinese Territory” – the Paracels The Paracels - “These groups lie 145 nautical miles from Hainan Island, and form the southernmost part of Chinese territory.” China’s Note Verbale to France of 29 September 1932
  101. 101. 1933 “Zhonghua Min Guo Fen Sheng Xin Tu” Despite Chinese maps that appeared in the 1930s and 1940s showing the Paracels as part of China, China’s Republican Constitutions of 1937 and 1946 still declared that its territory remained the same as the territory of the former empire.
  102. 102. In a document entitled China’s Sovereignty Over Xisha and Zhongsha Islands Is Indisputable issued on January 30, 1980, China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially declared that the Nanhai island that Guo Shoujing visited in 1279 was in Xisha or what is internationally called the Paracels, a group of islands more than 380 NM from Scarborough Shoal. China issued this official document to bolster its claim to the Paracels to counter Vietnam’s strong historical claims to the same islands. This Chinese official document, published in Beijing Review, Issue No. 7 dated February 18, 1980, states: China and Vietnam: Conflicting Claims over the Paracels
  103. 103. “Early in the Yuan Dynasty, an astronomical observation was carried out at 27 places throughout the country. xxx According to the official History of the Yuan Dynasty, Nanhai, Gou’s observation point, was “to the south of Zhuya” and “the result of the survey showed that the latitude of Nanhai is 15°N.” The astronomical observation point Nanhai was today’s Xisha Islands. It shows that Xisha Islands were within the bounds of China at the t i m e o f t h e Y u a n dynasty.” (Emphasis supplied)
  104. 104. Screenshot from China’s Manila Embassy Website Huangyan Island was first discovered and drew into China's map in China's Yuan Dynasty(1271-1368AD). In 1279, Chinese astronomer Guo Shoujing performed surveying of the seas around China for Kublai Khan, and Huangyan Island was chosen as the point in the South China Sea.
  105. 105. Gaocheng Observatory This 12.6 meter high stone observatory in Henan Province is the only extant astronomical observatory among the 27 that Guo Shoujing built during the Yuan Dynasty.
  106. 106. A noted French geographer, Francois-Xavier Bonnet, has exposed that China planted antedated sovereignty markers in the Paracels in 1937 and in the Spratlys in 1957 to bolster China’s historical claim. Bonnet wrote: “Between 1974 and 1979, several archeological expeditions were carried by the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and archeologists in the Paracel Islands. Among the artifacts these expeditions found were porcelains from different periods, the remains of temples and several sovereignty markers. These markers were dated 1902, 1912 and 1921. “Before 1979, neither western nor Chinese scholars had ever mentioned the existence of a 1902 expedition (to the Paracels and Spratlys). The only official voyage recorded in the Qing annals was the inspection tour led by Admiral Li Chun in 1909. “There is a simple reason why no scholar has been able to unearth any historical records of the 1902 expedition: it never happened. Instead, evidence of a 1902 voyage was concocted at a much later date: 1937. “[A] secret expedition took place xxx to plant false archaeological evidence on the islands in order to bolster China’s territorial claim. The same strategy has been applied in the Spratly islands: the sovereignty markers of 1946 had been placed, in fact, ten years later, in 1956.”* * François-Xavier Bonnet, ARCHEOLOGY AND PATRIOTISM: LONG TERM CHINESE STRATEGIES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA, Paper presented at the Southeast Asia Sea Conference, Ateneo Law Center, Makati City, Mach 27, 2015; http://www.imoa.ph/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/ ARCHEOLOGY-AND-PATRIOTISM.pdf China Planted Antedated Sovereignty Markers in the Paracels & Spratlys
  107. 107. Chinese Sovereignty Markers in the Paracels Steles from the Guangxu reign (1882-1902) on one of the Xisha Island Source: Thomas H. Hahn Docu-Images. http://hahn.zenfolio.com/xisha/ h1D468115#h1d468115
  108. 108. Francois-Xavier Bonnet writes: “Fortunately, the confidential annex of this report had been published in 1987 by the Committee of Place Names of Guangdong Province in a book titled “Compilations of References on the Names of All Our Islands of Nan Hai”. In this annex, Qiang (the head of the 1937 expedition to the Paracels), explained that, as planned, his boat was loaded with 30 sovereignty markers. Among them, four dated from the Qing dynasty, the others from 1912 (the first anniversary of the Republic of China) and 1921. He carried no markers dated 1937, however, because the mission was confidential. His team found the four markers dating from the Qing dynasty, dated 1902, in the city of Guangdong.” Page 289, the Annex Revealing the Planting of Antedated Markers in the Paracels Compilation of References of the Names of All the South Sea Islands
  109. 109. 第九区行政区督察专员 黄强 民国二十六年七月卅一日 Huang Qiang Chief of No.9 Administrative Region 31 July 1937 附件:西沙群岛立碑记录表 石岛藏石碑一方,于石岛(对正林岛)老树侧,即石岛之南部距离岸边50英尺,入土深一尺,该石碑刻“视察 纪念大中华民国元年立”等字。 林岛北便岸边(对正石岛)由藏石地点以罗盘测石岛之左边为N28°E,测石岛之右边为N52°E。 在林岛中央大路边水井之西北,距离井边5尺处,藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国十年立”等字。 在林岛之西南、孤魂庙仔(庙宽9英尺,高6英尺)之后背,相距庙墙6英尺,藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大中华 民国十年立”。 在玲洲岛北端石上距岸边大石边七十五尺,距离大石东边六十二尺,藏石一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国十年 立”等字 在玲洲岛北端中心树下,藏石一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国元年立”盖泥八寸。 在玲洲岛之东北端草棚后便大石上,距离草棚三十七英尺藏石碑一份,刻“视察纪念大清光绪二十八年立”等字。 在北岛之东南端小路口藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大清光绪二十八年立”等字。 在北岛之东南端南便岸边石角屋左角,藏碑石一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国元年立”等字 在北岛之南便岸边草屋前空地,藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国元年立”等字 在北岛之南便岸边草屋后,藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国元年立”等字 在北岛之东南角对正中岛处,藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大中华民国元年立”等字 在北岛之北岸边,藏石碑一方,刻“视察纪念大清光绪二十八年立”等字。 Page 289, the Annex to the 1987 Book Revealing the Planting of Antedated Markers In the Paracels Report of Huang Qiang, Chief of the Expedition to the Paracels in 1937
  110. 110. “Stone Tablets Erection Records on the Paracel Islands One stone tablet can be found beside the old tree on the southern side of Shi Dao (Rocky Island) facing Lin Dao (Woody Island), which is 50 feet from shore. The tablet’s base was buried at a depth of 1 feet. “Commemorating the Inspection of 1911” was carved on the tablet; A stone tablet can be found on the northern shore of Lin Dao (Woody Island). The left and right side of the stone read N28°E and N52°E on the compass, respectively; Northwest to the well near Central Road on Lin Dao (Woody Island), around 5 feet near the well, another tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1921”; At the southwest of Lin Dao (Woody Island), at the back of Guhun Temple (6 feet high and 9 feet wide), 6 feet from the temple wall, one tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1921”; 75 feet near the shore of the north side of Lingzhou Dao (Lingzhou Island), 62 feet to the east of a big stone, a tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1921”.” Page 289, the Annex to the 1987 Book Revealing the Planting of Antedated Markers In the Paracels
  111. 111. “At one end of the road at the southeast of Bei Dao (North Island), a tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1902; At the left corner of the stone house on the southern shore of southeast Bei Dao (North Island), a stone tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1911” In front of the straw huts located at the southern shore of southeast Bei Dao (North Island), a stone tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1911”; At the back of the straw huts located on the southern shore of southeast Bei Dao (North Island), a stone tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1911”; At the southeastern corner of Bei Dao (North Island), facing Zhong Dao (Middle Island), a stone tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1911”; At the northern shore of Bei Dao (North Island), a tablet can be found with the inscription “Commemorating the Inspection of 1902”.” Page 289, the Annex to the 1987 Book Revealing the Planting of Antedated Markers In the Paracels
  112. 112. “西月岛在太平岛的东北,距太平岛四十四海里。。。。岛上 寂无人烟。。。南端有椰树数株,树旁有一石碑,刻‘西月 岛’三字,字甚大,笔力有劲,右旁刻‘民国三十五年十二月 立’十个小字。另外,在海边有石板架成之小庙一座,但已破 旧不堪,上刻文字亦模糊不辨,也许是我早期渔民所 建。”(第66页) Xiyue Dao (West York Island) is located 44 nautical miles northeast of Taiping Dao (Itu Aba Island). … No residents inhabit the island. … Several coconut trees are located at the south side of the island. Besides trees, there is a stone tablet with the inscription “Xiyue Dao (West York Island)” in three large Chinese characters with ten smaller characters on its right with the inscription “Erected in December 1946”. In addition, a small and dilapidated temple can be found, possibly built by our fishermen, near the shore with characters carved on the wall but are no longer readable. (Page 66) Planting of Antedated Markers In the Spratlys
  113. 113. “(南威岛)岛的中央有石碑一具,刻‘南威岛’三字, 旁注‘民国三十五年十二月立’一行字。。。岛西另 有高丈土地庙一座,内有香炉一只,但无神象,想 因年代湮化了”。(第72页) A stone tablet was erected at the center of Nanwei Dao (Spratly Island), with the inscription “Nanwei Dao (Spratly Island)” and “Erected in December 1946”. … Another Earth God Temple can be found in the western part of the island with only the censer (container where incense is burned) present inside. The Earth God figurine may have already eroded. (Page 72) Planting of Antedated Markers In the Spratlys
  114. 114. ——见《中国南海诸群岛文献汇编之八》,张振国:《南沙行,1957年5月成 书,台湾学生书局,1975年1月版。 Zhang Zhenguo. Trip to the Spratly Islands, written in May 1957 and published in January 1975; In, The 8th compilation of documents on the South China Sea Islands. 编者按:据广东省接收南沙群岛专员麦蕴瑜谈,1946年太平舰和中业舰并没 有到西月岛和南威岛。据此两岛石碑可能是1956年台湾省海军巡视所立。 Editors' note: According to Mai Wenyu who was assigned by the Guangdong government to retake the Spratly Islands from the Japanese invaders, Chinese navy ships did not reach Xiyue Dao (West York Island) and Nanwei Dao (Spratly Island). Thus, stone tablets (with inscription “Erected in December 1946”) on these two islands might have been erected by the Taiwanese Navy in 1956. [Francois-Xavier Bonnet writes: “However, when the book of Zhang was published in 1975, the commander Mai Yun Yu was still alive and read it. This was a shock to him! In fact, he recognized that while his team went to Itu Aba island on December 1946, destroyed Japanese markers and planted two sovereignty markers (North and South of the island), they never went to Spratly island and West York island.”] Planting of Antedated Markers in the Spratlys
  115. 115. What is the Legal Basis of the Philippines’ Claim to Scarborough Shoal The 1898 Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States drew a rectangular line wherein Spain ceded to the United States all of Spain’s territories found within the treaty lines. Scarborough Shoal lies outside of the treaty lines.
  116. 116. China’s Argument Why Philippines Does Not Have Sovereignty Over Spratlys and Scarborough Shoal Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi stated: "The three treaties that stipulate the Philippines' territory, the first in 1898, the second in 1900 and the third in 1930, all regulated the Philippines' western boundary line at 118 degrees east longitude. Areas in the west of the 118 degrees east longitude do not belong to the Philippines. But the Nansha islands claimed now by the Philippines, the Huangyan Islands, are all in the west of the 118 degrees east longitude.” Speech on 25 February 2016 at the CSIS, Washington, D.C.
  117. 117. In the 1900 Treaty of Washington, Spain clarified that it had also relinquished to the United States “all title and claim of title, which (Spain) may have had at the time of the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace of Paris, to any and all islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago, lying outside the lines” of the Treaty of Paris. Thus, under the 1900 Treaty of Washington, Spain ceded to the United States all territories, to which Spain had title or claim of title, lying outside the lines of the Treaty of Paris. These territories outside the lines, west of the 118 degrees east longitude, included Scarborough Shoal and the Spratlys. *Treaty between Spain and the United States for Cession of Outlying Islands of the Philippines, signed on 7 November 1900.) 1900 Treaty of Washington between Spain & United States*
  118. 118. When the issue of whether Scarborough Shoal forms part of Philippine territory, Secretary Cordell Hull of the U.S. State Department stated in his Memorandum of July 27, 1938 to Harry Woodring, Secretary of War: Because of the absence of other claims, the shoal should be regarded as included among the islands ceded to the United States by the American-Spanish Treaty of November 7, 1900*… In the absence of evidence of a superior claim to Scarborough Shoal by any other government, the Department of State would interpose no objection to the proposal of the Commonwealth Government to study the possibilities of the shoal as an aid to air and ocean navigation. *Treaty of Washington; boldfacing supplied. Source: A CNA Occasional Paper, Philippine Claims in the South China Sea: A Legal Analysis, Mark E. Rosen, JD, LLM [citing François-Xavier Bonnet, The Geopolitics of Scarborough Shoal, available at www.irasec.com.] (2014) In 1938 the U.S. Had Already Determined Scarborough Shoal Is Part of Philippine Territory
  119. 119. From 1960s to1980s, Scarborough Shoal was used by the American and Philippine military as an impact range for their warships and warplanes. Notices to Mariners were issued worldwide by American and Philippine authorities thru the International Maritime Organization of the United Nations whenever bombing runs were made. Not a single country registered any protest to these military activities.
  120. 120. The Philippine Navy issued a Notice to Mariners on 18 September 1981 warning mariners that the U.S. Navy would undertake gunnery and bombing exercises in Scarborough Shoal. Source: Bajo de Masinloc, Maps and Documents, U.P. Institute for Maritime Affairs and Law of the Sea/NAMRIA, 2014 Bombing and gunnery exercise using live ammunition have taken place at 15 degrees 07 minutes North, 117 degrees 46 minutes East within 20 mile radius. The exercises are conducted more or less on a daily basis and likely to continue indefinitely. Philippine Navy Notice to Mariners in September 1981
  121. 121. Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey, Notice to Mariners, February 24, 1983 Source: Bajo de Masinloc, Maps and Documents, U.P. Institute for Maritime Affairs and Law of the Sea/NAMRIA, 2014 The missile firing ranges are bound as follows: Vessels may be requested to alter course within the above areas due to firing operations and are requested to monitor VHF Channel 16, 500 KHZ o r o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e m a r i n e broadcast frequencies for details of firing schedules before entering above areas. The Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey announces the following navigational warnings to all mariners and others concerned in surface navigation
  122. 122. In September 2014, Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-jeou, who belongs to the Kuomintang Party, which controlled the Chinese mainland government in 1947 that adopted the 9- dashed lines, clarified the extent of China’s claim under the lines. President Ma declared that the claim was limited only to the islands and their adjacent 3 NM (now 12 NM) territorial sea. President Ma unequivocally stated that there were “no other so-called claims to sea regions.” This express clarification from Taiwan directly contradicts China’s claim that China has “indisputable sovereignty” over all the waters enclosed within the 9-dashed lines. Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-jeou Statement
  123. 123. In an October 21, 2014 interview with the New York Times, President Ma, who earned an S.J.D. from Harvard University with specialty in the Law of the Sea, stated: “There is a basic principle in the Law of the Sea, that land dominates the sea. Thus, marine claims begin with land; xxx.” President Ma Ying-jeou: A Law of the Sea Scholar
  124. 124. Scarborough Shoal Why fight over rocks like Scarborough Shoal? What is the value of these rocks?
  125. 125. As an island, Scarborough Shoal is entitled to a 12 NM territorial sea around it. This amounts to 155,165 hectares of maritime space, more than twice the land area of Metro Manila of 63,600 hectares. Scarborough Shoal
  126. 126. Okinotorishima Japan’s Okinotorishima Rock In Philippine Sea: Preventing Erosion of Tiny Rock This rock is about 7 inches above water at high tide. Japan reportedly spent US$600 million to prevent erosion in three Okinotorishima rocks.
  127. 127. In its Position Paper of 7 December 2014 submitted to the Tribunal, China claimed that the arbitration is about – a.  “territorial sovereignty” which is outside the jurisdiction of UNCLOS, as well as about b.  “maritime delimitation” from which China has opted out of compulsory arbitration under Article 298 of UNCLOS. China’s Jurisdictional Objections to Arbitration
  128. 128. The Tribunal ruled on 29 October 2015: 1.  “This is not a dispute concerning sovereignty or maritime boundary delimitation. xxx This is a dispute concerning the interpretation and application of the Convention.” Maritime entitlement to a territorial sea, EEZ or ECS is separate from sovereignty and maritime boundary delimitation. “Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility”
  129. 129. The Tribunal ruled on 29 October 2015: 2.  In the southern sector (Spratlys, Palawan side), there may be issues on “historic bays or titles.” There may also be issues on “overlapping entitlements” (EEZs and ECSs) if any of the geologic features is capable of human habitation of its own. Thus, the Tribunal “reserve(d) a decision on its jurisdiction xxx for consideration in conjunction with the merits of the Philippines’ claim.” In short, the Tribunal could not decide whether it had jurisdiction in the Spratlys area without an evidentiary hearing. “Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility”
  130. 130. Northern and Southern Sectors Article 288(4), UNCLOS: “In the event of a dispute as to whether a court or tribunal has jurisdiction, the matter shall be settled by decision of that court or tribunal.” Article 296(1) provides: “Any decision rendered by a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section shall be final and shall be complied with by all the parties to the dispute.”
  131. 131. The Tribunal ruled on 29 October 2015: 3. In the northern sector (Scarborough Shoal, Luzon side), “given that Scarborough Shoal lies over 200 nautical miles from any maritime feature claimed by any State to generate an exclusive economic zone or continental shelf, no delimitation is required before the Tribunal may determine the status of Scarborough Shoal, nor is any delimitation potentially relevant to the determination. Article 298 does not, therefore, limit the Tribunal’s jurisdiction. Nor is any other exception or limitation in Article 297 or 298 potentially applicable to the status of Scarborough Shoal.” “Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility”
  132. 132. 1. In 1994, the Taiwan Government conducted an extensive survey of Itu Aba. Taiwanese government scientists found that in Itu Aba the “underground water is salty and unusable for drinking.”* Drinking water is essential, although not sufficient, for sustaining human habitation or economic life. Therefore, Itu Aba is not capable of “sustaining human habitation or economic life of its own” - the requirement under UNCLOS for an island to be entitled to a 200 NM EEZ. Itu Aba is entitled only to a 12 NM territorial sea. The Philippines has submitted this official Taiwanese scientific survey to the Tribunal at the Hague. * T-C Huang et. al., “The Flora of Taipingtao (Aba Itu Island)”, Taiwania, Vol. 39, No. 1-2 (1994), p. 1.MP, Vol. VII, Annex 254; Bill Hayton, The South China Sea: The Struggle for Power in Asia (2014), p. 111. Itu Aba is Not Capable of Human Habitation or Economic Life of its Own
  133. 133. 2. A Taiwanese scholar and Taiwan Government consultant, Dr. Song Yann-huei, wrote in 2000: “Taiwan’s Navy and Coastal Guard send vessels regularly to the islands three to four times a year. Cargo vessels of private shipping companies also sail to Itu Aba once or two times a month to supply the island’s daily needs.”* In 2008, Dr. Song also wrote that of “the 20 islands that protrude above sea level at the high tide, the largest is Taiping Island (Itu Aba), which is only 0.43 square kilometers ... The Spratly Islands have no permanent inhabitants and are too small to sustain permanent, independent settlement.”** 3. Law Professor Chiang Huang-chih of the National Taiwan University summed up succinctly the status of Itu Aba: “All necessities, except sunlight and air, have to be supplied from outside the island.”*** •  Yann-huei Song, “The Application of Article 121(3) of the Law of the Sea Convention to the Five Selected Disputed Islands in the South China Sea,” Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs, Vol. 27 (2009), p. 61 (Emphasis supplied). ** Yann-Huei Song, “The Potential Marine Pollution Threat from Oil and Gas Development Activities in the Disputed South China Sea/Spratly Area: A Role that Taiwan Can Play”, Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 39, No. 2 (2008), p. 153 (Emphasis supplied). *** http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2015/04/02/2003614945 Itu Aba is Not Capable of Human Habitation or Economic Life of its Own
  134. 134. Palawan-Itu Aba EEZs Overlap Palawan has an area of 1,464,900 hectares, and a 650 KM coast facing the West Philippine Sea, while Itu Aba has an area of 43 hectares and a 1.4 KM coast. The relevant coast for Palawan is about 495 KM, while the relevant coast for Itu Aba is about 1 KM, or a ratio of 1:495 in favor of Palawan. The relevant coast of Palawan should include Balabac Island and other nearby islands, following Nicaragua v. Colombia.
  135. 135. The overriding criterion is the length of the opposing relevant coastlines in the overlapping maritime zones. In Nicaragua v. Colombia (ICJ Ruling, November 2012), a ratio of 1:8.2 (for every 1 KM coastline of Colombia, 8.2 KM coastline for Nicaragua) was ruled as a substantial disparity, leaving Colombia no EEZ facing Nicaragua. In the case of Palawan and Itu Aba, the ratio of the relevant coastlines is 1:495 in favor of Palawan. This is not only substantial disparity, but also total disparity. In the event the Philippines files a compulsory conciliation case against China, Itu Aba cannot be given any EEZ facing Palawan. This overriding criterion will be applied in compulsory arbitration and in compulsory conciliation under UNLOS. The Overriding Criterion in Resolving Overlapping EEZs and ECSs
  136. 136. Nicaragua v. Colombia (ICJ, November 2012) Sketch-Map Annexed to Decision The lengths of the relevant coasts are 531 km for Nicaragua and 65 km for Colombia’s islands (San Andres, Providencia, Sta. Catalina, Albuquerque Cays, East-South Cays, Roncador and Serrana), a ratio of approximately 1:8.2 in favor of Nicaragua. San Andres Island has a land area of 2,600 hectares and a population 67,912 (2007). Nicaragua and Colombia agreed that San Andres Island is capable of sustaining human habitation or economic life of its own. San Andres Island is 56.5 times larger than Itu Aba
  137. 137. Bangladesh v. Myanmar (ITLOS, March 2012) St. Martin’s Island has an area of 800 hectares (17x larger than Itu Aba) and a population of 4,000. The island was given “no effect” in the delimitation of the EEZ and ECS because giving it effect will block the seaward projection of Myanmar’s EEZ and ECS. St. Martin’s coast has a length of 16 KM, while Myanmar’s coast has a length of 587 KM. St. Martin’s is only 4.5 NM from Myanmar’s coast.
  138. 138. 1.  British Foreign Minister Hugo Swire: “Under the international rules-based system on which the world depends, we would expect the ruling from The Hague to be adhered to by all parties concerned, whichever way it goes.” Statement at CSIS, Washington, D.C. on 19 April 2016 2.  Group of Seven (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) Foreign Ministers Conference in Hiroshima, Japan: The G7 Foreign Ministers called on the parties to the arbitration “to fully implement any decisions rendered by the relevant courts and tribunals which are binding on them, including as provided under UNCLOS.” Statement on Maritime Security, 11 April 2016 3. European Union Declaration: The EU, through its High Representative, called on “all concerned parties to abide by the legally-binding ruling of the tribunal.” EU Declaration of 11 March 2016 4. ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Statement in Vientiane, Laos: The ASEAN foreign ministers called for "full respect for the legal and diplomatic processes, without resorting to the threat or use of force.” ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Statement of 28 February 2016 World Support for Compliance with Arbitral Decision
  139. 139. 5. ASEAN-U.S. Special Leaders’ Summit at Sunnylands, California: Reaffirmed the key principle of: “Shared commitment to peaceful resolution of disputes, including full respect for legal and diplomatic processes, without resorting to the threat or use of force in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law and the 1982 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).” Joint Statement of 15-16 February 2016 6. European Parliament Resolution of 16 December 2015 on EU-China relations (2015/2003(INI): EU Parliament “considers it regrettable that China refuses to acknowledge the jurisdiction of both UNCLOS and the Court of Arbitration; urges China to reconsider its stance and calls on all the parties including China to respect the eventual decision of UNCLOS.” Resolution of 16 December 2015 7. Group of Seven (G7) – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States: “We call on all states to pursue the peaceful management or settlement of maritime disputes in accordance with international law, including through internationally recognized legal dispute settlement mechanisms, and to fully implement any decisions rendered by the relevant courts and tribunals which are binding on them.” - Declaration of 15 April 2015 World Support for Compliance with Arbitral Decision
  140. 140. The Philippines today is engaged in a historic battle to defend over 531,000 square kilometers of its maritime space (EEZ and ECS) in the West Philippine Sea, an area larger than the total land area of the Philippines of 300,000 square kilometers. This huge maritime space is part of Philippine national territory since the Constitution defines the “national territory” to include “the seabed, the subsoil, xxx and other submarine areas” over which the Philippines has “sovereignty or jurisdiction.” Under UNCLOS, the Philippines has “jurisdiction xxx with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures” within this huge maritime space. Can the Philippines prevent China from gobbling up this huge maritime space? All citizens of the Philippines – both government personnel and private individuals – have a solemn duty to prevent the loss of this huge maritime space. It is a duty we owe to ourselves, and to future generations of Filipinos. The Historic Battle for the West Philippine Sea
  141. 141. End

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