5. Introduction of red fort
Red fort maker by the Shah jhan (A.D. 1628-58), The mughal emperor
shifted his capital form agra to delhi in A.D.1638 and established shajha bad,
the seventh city of delhi. He commenced the contraction for his citadel , lal
qila or the red fort on 12th may 1639 and took 9 year and 3 month to
complete it under the suprivision of maser builders hamid and ahmed.
Originally it was know as quila-i-mubrak.
The fort is built using red sandstone and is octagonal on plan with the
rampart surrounded by a most originally connected with river Yamuna. This
highly fortified citadel has two man gateways, the lohri gate on the west and
the delhi gate or hathi gate on the south.
6. Introduction of red fort…
Nadir shah the Persian invader plundered the city in Delhi in A.D 1739
and took away the prized booty including the takht-i-taus (peacock
throne) with the Kohinoor (worlds largest diamond). In A.D.1857
Bahadur shah II was proclaimed emperor by the freedom fighters. INA
offices shah nawaz khan, P.K.sehgal and G.S.Dhillon were trialed in
1945-46. These are some of the imprints of history left on the red
7. Feature’s of Red Fort
Lal Quila, or the Red Fort, conjures up the image of red sandstone walls full of
turrets and bastions. Founded
on a dry moat in the northeast corner of Shahjahanabad, the walls extend up to
two kilometers and are as
high as 33 meters.
8. Don’t Miss Red Fort In Delhi
You have to enter Red Fort, Delhi through the lofty Lahore Gate, which
structurally faces Lahore, now in Pakistan. You would feel thrilled to remember
that several speeches were delivered by freedom fighters and
National leaders of India here since the first war of independence.
The fort's center is Naubat Khana or the Drum House where the musicians
used to play for the emperor and announce the arrival of royalty.
Diwan-i-Amor, is the Hall of Public Audiences where the Emperor used to
listen to the complaints of his subjects.
Similarly, the Emperor held private meetings in the Diwan-i-Khas, the hall of
private audiences in which the centre-piece or the Peacock Throne was later
carried away to Iran by Nadir Shah in 1739.
The hammams or the Royal Baths, the Shahi Burj- Shahjahan's private
working area, and the Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque, built by Aurangzeb
for his personal use-draw equal attention from the tourists.
The Rang Mahal or the 'Palace of Colors' for the Emperor's wives and
mistresses, display gilded turrets, mosaics of mirrors, and a ceiling overlaid
with gold and silver reflected in a pool on the marble floor.
10. Modern history
Every year on 15 August, the day India achieved independence from the British.
Prime Minister hoists the national flag at the Red Fort, followed by a nationally
broadcast speech from its ramparts. The Red Fort is one of the most popular
tourist destinations in Old Delhi, attracting thousands of visitors every year. It
also happens to be the largest monument in Old Delhi.
Today, a sound and light show describing Mughal history is a tourist attraction in
the evenings. The general condition of the major architectural features is mixed.
None of the water features, which are extensive, contain water. Some of the
buildings are in fairly good condition and have their decorative elements
undisturbed. Walkways are left mostly in a crumbling state
11. Modern history…
The entrance through the Lahore Gate leads to a retail mall with jewellery and
crafts stores. There is a museum of "blood paintings" depicting young Indian
martyrs of the 20th century along with the story of their martyrdom. There is also
an archaeological museum and an Indian war memorial museum.
12. Security threats
To prevent terrorist attacks, security is especially tightened around the Red Fort
on the eve of Indian Independence Day.
Delhi Police and paramilitary personnel keep a vigil on the neighbor hoods
around the fort. Sharpshooters of the National Security Guard are deployed on
high rises near the Red Fort.
The aerial space around the fort is declared a no-fly zone during the
celebration to prevent aerial attacks, Safe houses are picked in nearby areas
where the Prime Minister and other Indian leaders can be rushed to in case of
The fort was the site of a terrorist attack on 22 December 2000 carried out by
six terrorists of the Lashkar-e-Toiba. Two soldiers and a civilian were killed, in
what was described by the media as an attempt to derail the India-Pakistan
peace talks and relations.
14. Lahori Gate
The main entrance to the red fort lies at the lahori Gate and the place are
approached apartments called the chhatta chowk. Situated on the western wall of
the fort Lahori Gate in those days led towards Lahore now in Pakistan.
This majestic three storied gateway decorated which square rectangular and
cusped arched pants is flanked by semi octagonal towers crowned by two open
octagonal pavilions. Between them is screen of dwarf coupled chattiest having
seven miniature marble domes. The flame shaped battlements continuing around
the whole wall is imposing.
The gate was provided with a barbican by shah jahan’s son Aurangzeb (A.D 16581707), with its entrance to the north it is said that shah jahan while in prison wrote
to Aurangzeb, You have made the fort a bride and set a veil on it.
The first job was to build the defenses for the city and, inside, the citadel- fort.
Twenty-one towers and seven main getaways punctuated the four mile long,
27foot high city wall. The walls encircling the 124 acre fort were even more
tremendous, ranging in height form 60 feet on the river side to 75 on the landward
side, and in width from 45 feet at ground level to 30 feet.
15. Chhatta chowk means covered
bazaar which in 17th century
India was extremely unusual
and this one especially is
unique in mughal architecture.
The nation of a covered bazaar
was stimulated by the one
shah jahan sow in Peshawar
in 1646(now in pak) this
bazaar was earlier know as
17. Naubat Khan
The naubat or naqqar khan (drum house) stands at the entrance to the palatial
complex. In its days of glory, musicians from the naubat khana announced the
arrival of the emperor or other prominent dignitaries at the court of the public
audience. Music was also played five times a day at chosen hours most of the
royal palaces of India have essentially the naubat khan at the entrance.
Faced with red sand stone, it is a large three storied building, rectangular on
plan. Richly carved floral designs on its red stone walls appear to have been
originally painted with gold, while the interior was painted in other colors. Several
layers of these paintings can be traced even now in the entrance chamber.
The later mughal kings jahandar shah (A.D. 1712-13) and farrukhsiyar (A.D.
1713-19) are said to have been assassinated here.
19. The Rang-Mahal, resting on a basement,
consists of a large hall, originally painted
on the interior, from which it derives its
name, meaning the ‘palace of colour’.
Divided into six compartments by
engrailed arches set on piers, the two apartments on its northern and
21. The museum is located in one of the palaces of the Red Fort, Delhi. It
is believed that this palace was built by Shah Jahan for his queen
Arjumand Banu Begum also famously known as Mumtaz Mahal. The
objects are displayed thematically in six galleries belonging to the
23. In the Diwan-i-Aam (or the Hall of
Public Audiences) the Emperor, seated
in a canopied alcove, would hear
complaints and pleas of the commoners
through a jharokha (balcony). The hall was ornamented with
stuccowork and featured a series of gold columns.
25. Moti Masjid
Moti masjid or the pearl mosque was built by Aurangzeb for his personal use. It
would take him just a short walk from his bed chamber to reach the sacred
place of worship at various time of the day or night. The mosque wall of the
The mosque is built over a raised plinth and is entered through an eastern
arched gateway with a copper plated door. The courtyard of this mosque is
enclosed by high walls. Though red sand stone has been used externally, its
interior is composed entirely of pure white marble. The prayer hall of the
mosque is inlaid without lines of musalla’s (small carpets of prayer) in black
marble and it hall is surmounted by there bulbous domes, originally copper
plated. In the courtyard is a tank with a fountain used for ablution.