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SALIENT FEATURES OF CHARAKA SAMHITA.pptx

7 de Feb de 2023
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SALIENT FEATURES OF CHARAKA SAMHITA.pptx

  1. SALIENT FEATURES OF CHARAKA SAMHITA PRESENTEDBY Dr.AARATHIHARIHARAN 2nd yearpg scholar (DEPT,AYU.SAMHITASIDDHANTA) GUIDEDBY DR.K.VENKATSHIVUDU(HOD,DEPTSAMHITASIDDHNTA) DR.KGOPALAKRISHNAIAH(ASSOCIATEPROFESSOR)
  2. ब्रह्मदक्षाश्विदेवेशभरद्वाजपुनववसुहु ताशवेशचरकप्रभृश्वतभ्यो नमो [१] नमः||३|| पातञ्जलमहाभाष्यचरकप्रश्वतसंस्क ृ तः| मनोवाक्कायदोषाणां हर्त्रेऽश्वहपत ये [२] नमः||४||
  3. Introduction सम्यक ् श्वहता: यस्य सा अर्ाव: संश्वहता॥ मन्त्र समूहा संश्वहता:॥ शास्त्रं ज्योश्वतः प्रकाशार्ं दशवनं बुद्धिरात्मनः| ताभ्यां श्वभषक ् सुयुक्ताभ्यां श्वचश्वकत्सन्नापराध्यश्वत|| (च. सू. ९/२४) Scientific scriptures(shastra) provides light For illumination(to remove darkness of ignorance) Ones intellect is like eyes.the physician who uses both the scientific knowledge and intellect never commits mistakes. First Brihatrayee 9295 sutras, 1949 yogas, 12000 shlokas 41 + Sanskrit commentaries Ayurveda Deepika- Chakrapani Charakopaskara- Yogendranath sen Jalpakalpataru- Gangadhar rai Charaka nyaasa – Bhattara Harishchandra TOTAL STHANA – 8 ADHYAYA – 120 TOTAL SOOTRA – 9295 AUSHADHI YOGA – 1950
  4. HISTORY ADYUPADESHTA-PUNARVASU ATREYA TANTRAKARTA- AGNIVESHA(1000 B.C) PRATISAMSKARTA- CHARAKA(2-3 CENT.B.C) SAMPURAKA- DRIDABALA(4 CENT AD)
  5. STRUCTURE अर् श्वभषगाश्वदत एव श्वभषजा प्रष्टव्योऽष्टश्ववधं भवश्वत - तन्त्रं, तन्त्रातवः,स्र्ानं, स्र्ानार्वन्, अध्यायं, अध्यायार्ावन्, प्रश्नं,प्रश्नार्ावन् शेश्वत प्रुष्टेन चतद्वक्तव्यशेषेण वाक्यशो वाक्यार्वशो ऽ र्ाववयवशेछेश्वत। GURU SUTRA: Statements made by the teacher SISHYA SUTRA: Statements or enquiries made by the disciple PRATISAMSKARTR SUTRA: Statements of the redactor EKIYA SUTRA:Statements made by individual scholars
  6. STHANAS SECTIONS CONTENTS Sootrasthana Origin and propagation of Ayurveda Nidana sthana Causation and Pathology of predominant diseases Vimana sthana Fundamental principles of drug administration Sharira sthana Philosophical aspects (Srishti utpatti, moksha,upadha etc.,),anatomical aspects Indriya sthana Fatala signs, prognosis Chikitsa sthana Treatment aspects Kalpa sthana Formulations used in Purificatory measures Siddhi sthana Instructions of purificatory measures and the management of complications of procedures SOOTRA STHANA 30 NIDANA 8 VIMANA 8 SHAARIRA 8 INDRIYA 12 CHIKITSA 30 KALPA 12 SIDDHI 12 TOTAL -120 द्वे त्रिंशक े द्वादशक िं रयिं च रीण्यष्टकका्ेु समा प्तिरुक्ता| श्लोकौुधारि्टकत्िकल्पत्सप्तित्िदािमािाश्रयसञ्ज्ञ क े ु||३४||(Cha.su,30)
  7. SUTRASTHANA • औुधस्वस्थत्िदेशकल्पिािोगयोजिााः| चतष्ााः ुट् क्रमेणोक्तााः सिमश्चान्नपात्िकाः||४४|| द्वौ चान्त्यौ सङ्ग् रहाध्यायात्ित्त त्रिंशकमथथित्| श्लोकस्थाििं समत्ि्टकिं तन्त्रस्यास्य त्शिाः शभम् [३] ||४५|| चतष्ाणािं महाथाथिािं स्थािेऽप्तिि् सङ्ग् रहाः क ृ ताः| (Cha.su,30) • First section dealing with fundamental principles of Ayurveda. • Foundation for the whole samhita • The sutra sthana contains various sutrasshlokas related to other sthanas , hence also known as shloka sthana. The sutra sthana lies as the nectar of knowledge, which has been stored in the form of sapta chathushkas. These chathushkas are the heart of the text providing nourishment to the rest of the Samhita and evidence of the practical access of Charaka Samhita as a text of therapeutics. Chatushka study can be analyzed as: CELL : whole Samhita NUCLEUS ; Sutra sthana GENES : Chathushka CHROMOSOMES: 4 Adhyayas In a Chathushka , the four chapters speaks about the same subjects in different angles. KEY POINTS 1.TITLE OF CHAPTERS : The title of chapters are based on the first word occurring in the chapters, which are also suggestive of its contents. In some other cases, the name of a chapter is based upon the subject matter discussed. For eg., the 9th chapter is named as KHUDDAKA CHATHUSHPAADA. Intrestingly.. 10 TH chapter : MAHA CHATHUSHPAADA 20TH CHAPTER : MAHA CHATHUSHPAADA 30TH CHAPTER: ARTHEDASAMAHAMULIYA
  8. CHATHUSHKAS NAME CHAPTERS CONTENTS BHESHAJA (Quadrate on drugs) Deerghanjeeviteeyam, Apamargatanduleeya Aragvadheeyam, Shadvirechana Shataasriteeya Tridosha (Vata, Pitta and Kapha), Rasa(taste), Shad padartha siddhanta (six basic principles), etc. Phalini Dravya (therapeutically useful fruits as drugs), Moolini Dravya(therapeutically useful roots as drugs), Mahasneha (four kinds of fats), Lavana(salts), various types of mutra(urine) and ksheera(milk). herbs and medicines to be used during and after Panchakarma (five methods of bio-purification). use of topical medications, or medicines to be applied externally, i.e.,lepa etc. details of fifty Mahakashaya SWASTHYA (quadrate on regimens) Maatraaseetiya, Tasyashiteeya Navegandhaaraneeya, Indriyopakramaneeya Ahara Vihara Achara Principles of personal & social hygeine NIRDESHA ( guidelines for health care management) Khuddaakachathushpaada, Mahaachathushpaada Tisraishaneeya, Vaatakalaakaleeya four aspects of therapeutics (Chathushpada), classification of diseases on the basis of prognosis, Trividha eshanas Sutrasthaana- vaatakalaakaleeyam=zero KALPANA (quadrate on therapeutic purification) Sneha Adhyaya, Sweda Adhyaya Upakalpaneeya, Chikitsapraabhrteeya Preparation of Patient Specialized shodhana chikitsa IPD Management Hospital training Shuddha Chikitsa ROGA (quadrate on classification of disease) Kiyantah Shiraseeya, Trishotheeya Ashtodariya, Mahaaroga adhyaya Kiyantah shiraseeya: Shiroroga,hridroga, eighteen types of kshaya, vidradhi and madhumeha. Trishotheeya: various types of edema. Ashtodareeya: 48 diseases that are caused by a combination of doshas. Maharoga adhyaya: diseases caused by single dosha(vata, pitta, or kapha). YOJANA (Guidelines for management of diseases) Ashtau ninditeeya, Langhana brmhaneeya Santarpaneeya, Vidhishoniteeya Association of diseases and therapeutics ANNAPANA Yajjapurusheeya, Atreyabhadrakapiya Annapaana vidhi, Vividha ashita pitiya Dietetics and nutrition in health as well as diseases
  9. BASIC CONCEPTS: KEY POINTS Shat padaartha Philosophical aspects Saamaanya vishesha siddhanta Bheshaja Guna siddhanta Therapeutic aspects Kaarya Kaarana vaada Naanatmaja vyadhi Swabhavoparama vaada Swastha vrutta Concept of Vyadhikshamatva Nutrition & Dietetics Bala Agrasangraha dravyas HIGHLIGHTS
  10. NIDANA STHANA सङ्क्ष े पेण हेतुश्वलङ्गाश्वभधायक ं सूर्त्रस्र्ानमनु प्र पञ्चेन हेतुश्वलङ्गाश्वभधायक ं श्वनदानस्र्ानमु्य ते; हेतुश्वलङ्गज्ञानपूश्वववका श्वह श्वचश्वकत्सा साध्वी भवश्वत| हेतव:पूववरूपाणीरूपाण्युपशयस्तर्ा। सम्प्राद्धि: पूववमुत्पश्वि: सूर्त्रमार्त्रं श्वचश्वकद्धत्सतात्॥ Nidana sthana acts as a model for remaining diseases. Samprapti vighatanam - chikitsa deals with principles of diagnosis of diseases. The term Nidana is applied for knowing the origin of disease (vyadhijanaka) and comprehensive information of disease (vyadhibodhaka). [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Nidana Sthana 1/1-2] Complete cure in curable diseases and management of palliable diseases can only be achieved after Nidana Parivarjana (removing the cause). If the cause is removed, then half the treatment is done.
  11.  PANCHA LAKSHANA NIDANA  VIKALPA SAMPRAPTI – AMSHA AMSHA KALPANA  NIDAANARTHAKARA ROGAS  CHIKITSA SUTRAS IN BRIEF  VIKARA VIGHATA KARA BHAVA ABHAVA HIGHLIGHTS NIDANAARTHAKARA ROGAS त्िदािाथथकिो िोगो िोगस्याप्यपलभ्यते||१६|| तद्यथा- ज्विसन्तापाद्रक्तत्पत्तमदीयथते| िक्तत्पत्ताज्ज्विस्ताभ्यािं शोुश्चाप्यपजायते [१] ||१७|| प्लीहात्भिृद्ध्या जठििं जठिाच्छोथ एि च| अशोभ्यो जठििं दाःखिं गल्मश्चाप्यपजायते||१८|| प्रत्तश्यायाद्भिेत् कासाः कासात् सञ्जायते क्षयाः| क्षयो िोगस्य हेतत्वे शोुस्याप्यपलभ्यते||१९|| VIKARA VIGHATA KARA BHAVA-ABHAVA Specific interaction of the etiological factors with doshas and dushyas, as well as the presence or absence of the disease resisting factors influences the outcome regarding the manifestation of the disease. VIKARA VIGHATA BHAVA-Factors hindering the disease is present-no disease VIKARA VIGHATA ABHAVA-Factors supporting the disease is present-disease manifested
  12. अतो वक्ष्यमाणदोषभेषजाश्वदश्ववशेषज्ञापक ं श्ववमानस्र्ानं ब्रूते| श्ववशेषेण मीयते ज्ञायते दोषभेषजाद्यनेनेश्वत श्ववमानं, दोषभेषजादीनां प्रभावाश्वदश्ववशेष इत्यर्वः ; दोषभेषजदेशकालबलशरीरसाराहारसात्म्यसत्त्वप्रक ृ श्वतवयसां [२] मानमवश्वहतमनसा यर्ाव ज्ज्ञेयं भवश्वत श्वभषजा, दोषाश्वदमानज्ञानायित्वात् [३] श्वियायाः| न ह्यमानज्ञो दोषादीनां [४] श्वभषग् व्याश्वधश्वनग्रहसमर्ो भवश्वत| तस्माद्दोषाश्वदमानज्ञानार्ं [५] श्ववमानस्र्ानमुपदेक्ष्यामोऽश्विवेश!||३|| Vimana sthana is a connecting link between Sootra,Nidana and Chikitsa. A unique contribution by Acharya charaka. Deals with the quantification of dosha vitiation. Aaturaparijnana Hetawah mentioned in Vimana Sthana that all the factors are pre- arranged in a chronological order to understand an individual according to one’s Desha as from birth till grown up stage, and also to understand about the illness and most common disorders. VIMANA STHANA
  13. CHAPTERS CONTENTS RASA VIMANAM Ashta ahara vishesha ayatana, pippali, kshaara, lavana – not to be used in excess TRIVIDHA KUKSHEEYAM Maatraavat aahaara, Aama pradoshaja vyadhis (alasaka and vishuchika) JANAPADODWAMSAM prevention of various epidemic disorders caused due to polluted air, water, soil and season. Pranjaaparadaa as a kaarana for janapadodwamsa. The lifespan and its gradual decrease according to change in era is predicted here. TRIVIDHA ROGA VISHESHA VINJANEEYAM PRAMANAS as a means for roga pareeksha: aptopadesha (authentic scriptural knowledge or knowledge given by authority), pratyaksha (direct perception by senses) and anumana (perception based on logical reasoning). SROTO VIMANAM detailed description of 13 srotas (transportation and perfusion channels) in the body. Moolasthana, Viddha lakshana, Chikitsa. ROGANEEKAM VIMANAM five categories of diseases based upon prognosis (curable, incurable), severity (mild, severe), origin (psyche or soma), etiology (endogenous, exogenous) and site of origin (amashaya, pakvashaya). It further describes the anubandhya (independent disease) and anubandha (dependent upon other disease). The differentiation of disease based upon predominant dosha and its management principles are described. VYADHITA ROOPIYAM Guru vyadhita and Laghu Vyadhita. The second part of the chapter is about krimi (micro-organisms and parasites) and their management. Since the field of microbiology has mostly developed in the last one hundred years, the treatment of krimi is not adequate but prevention methods are comprehensive. ROGA BHISHAGJITEEYAM Adhyayana , Adhyapana and Tadvidya Sambhasha Dasa vidha pareeksha bhaavas and Dasa vidha Pareekshya bhaavas Fundamentals of Research Protocol Vaadamargas
  14. JANAPADODHWAMSA : (Current Pandemic –COVID19) Agnivesha’s query: How do all individuals having dissimilar physical constituition etc.,(prakriti,ahara,desha,kala …) suffer from the same disease ? Atreya’s reply : Factors which are common for all the inhabitants of the country- Vayu, Udakam, desham, kaalam. Cause : pranjaaparada---adharma ROGABHISHAGJITEEYAM Trividha njaanopaayas: Adhyayana, Adhyapana and Tadvidya sambhasha (Paedagogical aspects) Vaadamaargas- Academmic debates Dasavidha pareeksha bhaavas & Dasavidha pareekshya bhaavas Research protocol HIGHLIGHTS OF VIMANA STHANA
  15. शरीरं श्वचन्त्यते सवं दवमानुषसम्पदा सववभावयवतस्तस्माच्छारीरं स्र्ानमु्यते॥ Shareera is narrated from all the perspectives i.,e, Daivi( supreme divinity) and manusha(human level) . The components of life as a whole has been explained not the physical body alone. This section offers a birds – eye view of very highly evolved philosophical concepts to practical aspects of human body system. Review of description of this section clearly explains that the human being includes physical body, mind and consciousness. SHARIRA STHANA
  16. CHAPTERS CONTENTS KADITHA PURUSHIYAM Knowledge of : Srushti utpatti,Purusha, atma, manas, pranjaaparada, yoga, moksha. ATULYA GOTRIYAM Micro composition of basic units of reproduction Shukra and Shonita and their role in formation of healthy (physically as well as mentally) child . Factors constituting sex abnormalities . KHUDDIKA GARBHAVAKRANTI Matruja, pitrujaadi bhaavas.- Shad bhaavas Heriditary abnormalities—beeja,beeja bhaga,beeja bhaga avayava MAHATI GARBHAVAKRANTI Maasanumasika garbha vrudhi (month wise fetal development) PURUSHA VICHAYAM LOKAPURUSHA SAAMYA SIDDHANTA SAREERA VICHAYAM Analytical study of the body, deals with knowledge of the human body. SHARIRA SANKHYA Anthropometry is the core subject of seventh chapter. JATISUTRIYA PUMSAVANA, Ante natal, Post-natal , Garbha paata, Garbha srava,Neo natal care, Dhaatri, Stanya.
  17. न च ररष्टप्रश्वतपश्विमन्तराऽसाध्यत्वप्रश्वतपश्विररश्वत ररष्टप्रश्वतपादकश्वमद्धियस्र्ानमेव श्वचश्वकत्सास्र्ानात् प्रागु्यते [१] | इिशब्देन प्राण उ्यते, तस्यान्तगतस्य श्वलङ्ग ं ररष्टाख्यश्वमद्धियं; यदुक्तं व्याकरणे- “इद्धियश्वमिश्वलङ्ग ं ” (पा.अ.५.२.१३) इत्याश्वद; तस्येद्धियस्य स्र्ानश्वमद्धियस्र्ानम्| तर्त्राश्वप चेद्धियस्र्ाने वक्तव्ये व्यक्ततमररष्टाश्वभधायकतया (Chakr.comm.) Indriya Sthana deals with the observation of signs predicting lifespan and signs indicative of reduced duration of remaining life (also called arishta lakshana). The word Indriya literally means organ, sense, force, vigor. In the present context, it means prana or vital life force. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Indriya Sthana 1/1-2] . Indriya (sense organs) are said to be the linga (organs) of prana. An important concept discussed in this section is termed Indriyadushti (damage to the sensory system). HIGHLIGHTS •Signs and symptoms (arishta) of imminent death can be perceived by specific changes in sensory system (e.g., varna (color), swara (voice), gandha (smell), rasa (taste), sparsha(touch),along with chhaya (complexion) and prabha (radiance)) are addressed . •Clinically useful early warning signs have been mentioned. • examples of arishta that could be perceived on the physical level (or, are Bahyakarana) as well as on the mental, intellectual, and emotional levels (or, afflicting the Antahkarana ), with references to shakun( good / bad consequential happening)), doota( messenger), swapna ( dreams) and miscellaneous occult sciences. •Astrological predictions has been given importance. these signs and symptoms could serve as important indicators of prognosis of disease and therefore, would be helpful in prompt management to save life of patients. INDRIYA STHANA
  18. इश्वत सवव श्ववकाराणामुक्तमेतद्धिश्वकद्धत्सतम्। स्र्ानमेतद्धि तन्त्रस्य रहस्यं परमुिमम्। त्चत्कप्तितिं व्यात्धहििं पथ्यिं साधिमौुधम्| प्रायत्श्चत्तिं प्रशमििं प्रक ृ त्तस्थापििं त्हतम्||३|| त्िद्याद्भेुजिामात्ि, ...|४| यात्भाः [१] त्क्रयात्भजाथयन्ते शिीिे धातिाः समााः| सा त्चत्किा त्िकािाणािं कमथ तप्तद्भुजािं िृतम्||३४|| It is important to note that the status of health and etio-pathogenesis of disease depends upon status of Agni (digestion and metabolism). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/4] Therefore, the treatment is based upon correcting the digestion and metabolism. RASAYANA AND VAJEEKARANA has been mentioned in the beginning focusing on the concept of “swasthasya swaasthya rakshanam and aaturasya vikaara prasamanam” STRUCTURAL DIMENSION The first principle of treatment (chikitsa sutra) of that particular disease is given in terms of langhana or brimhana, snehana or rukshana, swedana or stambhana and related measures of shodhana . It is followed by description of single or compound preparations along with their constituents, method of preparation and indications. The drugs are mentioned in the form of fresh juice and paste, powder, tablet, decoctions, avaleha (jam), asava (fermented preparations mainly from juices), arishta (fermented preparations mainly from decoctions), medicated ghee and oil etc. CHIKITSA STHANA
  19. Being primarily a treatise of kayachikitsa (medicine), twenty three chapters in the Chikitsa Sthana deal with medical therapeutics. Due importance has been given to Grahani chikitsa. Focusing on the concepts of Agni Other aspects of therapeutics like preservation and promotion of physical, mental, spiritual and sexual health is dealt in the first two chapters of Rasayana Chikitsa and Vajikarana Chikitsa. The chapter Dwivraniya Chikitsa pertains to wound management and briefs about surgical procedures (shalya). The chapter Visha Chikitsa on the management of poisoning (visha) deals with agada-tantra (toxicology). In Ayurveda, psychiatry is dealt with under the heading of bhuta-vidya and two chapters viz. Unmada Chikitsa and Apasmara Chikitsa focus on this aspect of medicine. The last chapter Yonivyapat Chikitsa describes disorders of male and female infertility, gynecological disorders with paediatrics diseases. The chapter also mentions important principles of time of administration of medicine i.e. chrono- pharmacology and factors for deciding dose i.e. posology. HIGHLIGHTS…
  20. अर् खलु वमनश्ववरेचनार्ं [१] वमनश्ववरेचनद्रव्याणां सुखोपभोगतमः सहान्यद्रवव्यश्वववश्ववधः कल्पनार्ं भेदार्ं श्ववभागार्ं चेत्यर्वः [२] , तद्योगानां च श्वियाश्ववधेः सुखोपायस्य सम्यगुपकल्प नार्ं कल्पस्र्ानमुपदेक्ष्यामोऽश्विवेश!||३|| Kalpa Sthana deals with the study of formulations used in therapeutic purification procedures. vamana and virechana drugs are first described in Kalpa Sthana before the description of basti therapy, which is described in detail under Siddhi Sthana. VAMANA KALPA -6 VIRECHANA KALPA - 9 600 recipes prepared from these drugs (Total 15 Drugs) different dosage forms like kashaya (decoction), svarasa (juice), kalka (paste), churna (powder), peya (drinks), lehya (lickable ), and bhojya (foods). Salient features of Kalpa Sthana Factors responsible for therapeutic efficacy Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Similarities/ Dissimilarities of virya Modification of drug activity Weight and measures Snehapaka (preparation of medicated oil or ghee) Purification of drugs KALPA STHANAM
  21.  Siddhi Sthana deals with the standardization and successful administration of various therapeutic purification procedures.  imparts knowledge regarding successful modes of therapeutic administration.  Siddhi Sthana deals with the scientific explanations of Panchakarma procedures and details the optimal response of each procedure, major pitfalls in diagnostic outcomes along with possible complications and their management strategies.  Major share has been devoted in explaining various aspects of basti, its importance, types, clinical relevance and practical aspects.  Basti has been equated to half of the whole treatment or as the whole treatment itself. HIGHLIGHT The list of tantrayukti described in the last portion explains the richness of literary perfection possessed by the contributor of the text. Tantrayukti is the methodology or technique or systemic approach of studying a Tantra (science) to interpret its correct, unambiguous meaning for the precise practical application. SIDDHI STHANAM
  22. Charak categorically states that the concept of siddhi is established on the basis of yukti principle. Yukti itself is dependent on matra (posology) and kala (time of administration). Ascertaining the optimal dose at optimal time is the key to successful outcome in therapeutics. Hence Siddhi Sthana can be considered as the portion where the philosophical principle of yukti associates with siddhi, the pragmatic success. मार्त्राकालाश्रया युद्धक्तः, श्वसद्धियुवक्तौ प्रश्वतश्विता| श्वतित्युपरर युद्धक्तज्ञो द्रव्यज्ञानवतां सदा||१६|| (Cha.su.2/13)
  23. यश्वदहाद्धस्त तदन्यर्त्र यन्नेहाद्धस्त न तत्क्वश्वचत्| CONCLUSION इदमद्धखलमधीत्य सम्यगर्ावन् श्ववम्रुशश्वत योऽश्ववमना: प्रयोगश्वनत्या:। सा मनुजसुखजीश्ववतप्रदाता भवश्वत ध्रुश्वत स्म्रुश्वत बुश्वध धमव व्रुि:॥ ( Cha.Si 12) AGADATANTARA: 23rd chapter of chikitsa sthana BHUTAVIDYA:9th& 10th chapters of chikitsa sthana, 7 th & 8th Chapters of Nidana KAUMARA BHRUTYA:8th chapter of Shareera RASAYANA: 1st chapter of Chikitsa VAJEEKARANA: Last chapter of chikitsa STREEROGA: Last chapter of chikitsa sthana
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