A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose DNA has been modified in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products.
3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen made the first genetically modified organism in 1973, a
bacteria resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin.
The first genetically modified animal, a mouse, was created in 1974 by Rudolf Jaenisch, and
the first plant was produced in 1983.
In 1994 the Flavr Savr tomato was released, the first commercialized genetically modified
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialized was the GloFish (2003) and the
first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was the AquAdvantage salmon
5. WHAT ARE GMO’S?
(GMO’S) stands for “GENETICALLY MODIFIED
“GMO is any organism whose genetic material has been
altered using genetic engineering techniques“
Also called genetic modification
“Genetic engineering is the manipulation of an organism's
genome using biotechnology"
6. THE TWO MOST COMMONLY USED
TYPES OF GM ARE
1. Foods- canola , soya bean, golden rice, corn and aspartame
2. Medicines - Insulin, hormones and vaccine
GM IN FOODS:-
Crops are modified so when farmer kill weeds with herbicides the crops can withstand the exposure to the herbicide killing
the weeds and not the crop .
Although it is not as common, some types of GMO’s are modified to increase their nutrient content. Corn and soybeans are
two examples of crops that have higher-nutrient GMO versions available.
GM IN MEDICIENS:-
• Genetically modified medicines can be produced cheaper and easier.
• Some GMO's are: insulin, thyroid hormones and the hepatitis B
vaccine(insulin being the oldest).
9. GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS
Genetically modified crops Also called (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech
Plants with modified DNA by using genetic engineering techniques
The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur
naturally in the Species
Insect resistant cotton-BT toxin kills the cotton boll worm (transgene = BT
gene from Bacillus thuringiensis)
Insect resistant corn-BT toxin kills the European corn borer (transgene =
10. A gene gun uses biolistics to insert DNA into plant tissue.
12. GENETICALLY MODIFIED BACTERIA
1st organisms to be modified- (due to their simple genetics).
Used for several purposes
important in producing large amounts of human proteins-for use in medicine
Bacterial synthesized transgenic products
Hepatitis B vaccine
Tissue plasminogen activator
Human growth hormone
In 1978, a version of the human insulin gene was inserted
into the bacterium (Escherichia coli) to produce synthetic
E. coli bacteria to produce clotting factors to treat hemophilia
14. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ANIMALS
A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome
"The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methedology.
Process of GMO animals is slow (- tedious-expensive)
Genetically modified fish
Genetically modified mice
Genetically modified Chicken
Genetically modified Goat
Genetically modified pig
16. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
• Higher Yields
• Increased muscle bulk (animals)
• Prolonged shelf-life
• Higher nutritional value
• Less environmental hazards
• Decrease costs of growing and
• Source of more income for farmers
• Production of medicines and
• Upsetting the ecosystem
• Development of super pests
• Ethical issues (religious, health)
• Interfering the normal DNA system
• Disappointing crop yields (may be)
• Doubt over the environmental
• No good or natural taste
• Unpredictable results