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Group dynamics

  1. 1. GROUP DYNAMICS Ibeh CC Mbanuzuru VA
  2. 2. Group •several individuals who come together to accomplish a particular task or goal.
  3. 3. Group Dynamics • refers to the attitudinal and behavioral characteristics of a group. • Group dynamics concern how groups form, their structure and process, and how they function. • Group dynamics are relevant in both formal and informal groups of all types.
  4. 4. Application • Group dynamics is applied in different fields including: oPsychology, oSociology, oEpidemiology, oAnthropology, oSocial Work, oLeadership Studies, oEducation, Etc.
  5. 5. Characteristics of a Group 1. Involves 2 or more persons 2. Formal social structure - the game has defined rules. 3. Common fate - they will swim together 4. Common goals - the destiny is the same and emotionally connected 5. Face-to-face interaction - they will talk with each other 6. Interdependence - each one is complimentary to the other 7. Self-definition as group members - what one is who belongs to the group 8. Recognition by others - yes, you belong to the group.
  6. 6. Theories of Group Development • Classic Theory: developed by George Homans. It suggests that groups develop based on activities, interactions, and sentiments. • This theory reveals that when individuals share common activities, they will have more interaction and will develop attitudes (positive or negative) toward each other. • The major element in this theory is the interaction of the individuals involved.
  7. 7. • Social Exchange Theory: This theory suggest that individuals form relationships based on the implicit expectation of mutually beneficial exchanges based on trust and felt obligation. • In this theory, a perception that exchange relationships will be positive is essential if individuals are to be attracted to and affiliate with a group.
  8. 8. • Social Identity Theory: This theory suggests that individuals get a sense of identity and self-esteem based upon their membership in salient groups. • The nature of the group may be demographically based, culturally based, or organizationally based. • Individuals are motivated to belong to and contribute to identity groups because of the sense of belongingness and self-worth membership in the group imparts.
  9. 9. Types of Groups
  10. 10. Difference between formal and informal groups
  11. 11. Group Formation (Bruce Tuckman in the 1960s) • According to Tuckman's theory, there are five stages of group development: 1. Forming, 2. Storming, 3. Norming, 4. Performing, 5. Adjourning (mourning).
  12. 12. Forming • At this stage, there are some uncertainty and confusion. The nature of the task or leadership of the group has not been determined • The major goals of the group have not been established • It is an orientation period when members get to know one another and share expectations about the group. Members learn the purpose of the group as well as the rules to be followed. • This stage should not be rushed because trust and openness must be developed. These feelings strengthen in later stages of development.
  13. 13. Storming • In this stage, the group is likely to see the highest level of disagreement and conflict. • Members often challenge group goals and struggle for power. Individuals often vie for the leadership position during this stage of development. • This can be a positive experience for all groups if members can achieve cohesiveness through resolution. Members often voice concern and criticism in this phase. • If members are not able to resolve the conflict, then the group will often disband or continue in existence but will remain ineffective and never advance to the other stages.
  14. 14. Norming • This stage is characterized by the recognition of individual differences and shared expectations. • At this stage the group members will begin to develop a feeling of group cohesion and identity. Cooperative effort should begin to yield results. • Responsibilities are divided among members and the group decides how it will evaluate progress.
  15. 15. Performing • This occurs when the group has matured and attains a feeling of cohesiveness. • At this stage of development, individuals accept one another and conflict is resolved through group discussion. • Members of the group make decisions through a rational process that is focused on relevant goals rather than emotional issues.
  16. 16. Adjourning • This stage is characterized by the disbandment of the group. It is also referred to as mourning. • Not all groups experience this stage of development. • Some groups are relatively permanent . • Reasons that groups disband vary, with common reasons being the accomplishment of the task or individuals deciding to go their own ways. • Members of the group often experience feelings of closure and sadness as they prepare to leave.
  17. 17. Group Structure • This is the pattern of relationships among members that hold the group together and help it achieve assigned goals. • It is the internal framework that defines members' relations to one another over time. • Group structure is also been defined as the underlying pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among members that define and organize the group. • Common considerations include: group size, group roles, group norms, and group cohesiveness.
  18. 18. Group Size • Small group • Large group
  19. 19. ROLES in Group • Roles can be defined as a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. • Roles may be assigned formally, or defined through the process of role differentiation. • Role differentiation is the degree to which different group members have specialized functions. • A key role in a group is the leader, but there are other important roles as well.
  20. 20. Task Roles (help group to accomplish task) • Initiator • Recorder • Information seeker & Information giver • Clarifier/Elaborator • Summarizer • Critic • Energizer • Technician • Coordinator, etc
  21. 21. Relationship Roles (help group members to get along better) • Gate keeper • Encourager • Compromiser • Follower • Harmonizer, etc
  22. 22. NORMS • They are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate members' behaviour. • Norms refer to what should be done and represent value judgments about appropriate behaviour in social situations. • They are a fundamental aspect of group structure as they provide direction and motivation, and organize the social interactions of members.
  23. 23. Types of Norms 1. Prescriptive Norms: socially appropriate ways to respond in a social situation, or what group members are supposed to do. 2. Proscriptive Norms: actions that group members should not do; prohibitive 3. Descriptive Norms: describe what people usually do. 4. Injunctive Norms: describe behaviours that people ought to do; more evaluative in nature than a descriptive norm.
  24. 24. Cohesiveness • This refers to the bonding of group members or unity, feelings of attraction for each other and desire to remain part of the group. • • Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness – agreement on group goals, frequency of interaction, personal attractiveness, inter-group competition, favourable evaluation, etc.
  25. 25. Turning Groups into Effective TEAMS • NB: All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. • Effective teams do not just happen. They are often difficult to form because it takes time for members to learn how to work together. • Teams are meticulously put together consisting of a group of highly skilled, highly motivated individuals who have a clear picture of their goals. • Team-building helps to increase intra-group and inter-group effectiveness to bring members together, make them share their perception of each other and understand each other’s point of view.
  26. 26. Eight Cs for effective TEAM BUILDING 1. Clear Expectations 2. Commitment 3. Competence 4. Control 5. Collaboration 6. Communication 7. Creativity 8. Coordination
  27. 27. Difference between Group and Team
  28. 28. Expected Qualities of Group Leader 1. Proven leadership competence, in other smaller areas eg as a class leader, etc. 2. Ability to create and sell a vision. 3. Inculcating a constructive spirit of discontent, or wanting to find out “a better way of doing things”. 4. Willingness to take on responsibility. 5. Ability to complete tasks. 6. Mental toughness to face and overcome adversity
  29. 29. Expected Qualities of Team (Group) members Reliability. Collaboration. Perseverance. Sense of humour. Creativity. Competence. Integrity. Commitment.
  30. 30. THANK YOU
  31. 31. Bibliography • Group Dynamics. Available at Int/Group-Dynamics.html#ixzz7IJhR5S9m (Accessed on 19/01/2022) • Smrti C. Group Dynamics: its characteristics, stages, types, and other details, Available at dynamics-its-characteristics-stages-types-and-other- details-management/5363. (Accessed on 19/01/2022)