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Weaning & artifical feeding

The slides contain description of weaning foods and artifical feeding given to the baby, important points to be considered while preparing feed for the baby

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Weaning & artifical feeding

  1. 1. CHILD HEALTH NURSING WEANING AND ARTIFICIAL FEEDING AMRITA A.S ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  2. 2. Meaning of weaning  Weaning means- to free from a habit  Process of gradual and progressive transfer of the baby from the breastfeeding to the usual family diet
  3. 3. Definition  Weaning is defined as ‘the systematic process of introduction of suitable food at the right time in addition to mother’s milk in order to provide needed nutrients to the baby’ (UNICEF, 1984).
  4. 4. Cont…  Weaning does not mean discontinuity of breast feeding. Weaning foods are given in addition of breast feed when the amount of breastfeeding is inadequate.
  5. 5. Qualities of complementary foods- 1. Liquid at starting then semisolid and solid 2. Clean and Fresh 3. Easily digestible & Palatable 4. Hygenic
  6. 6. Cont… 5. Easy to prepare 6. High in energy 7. Based on cultural practice and traditional beliefs 8. Well balanced and nourishing
  7. 7. Principles of introduction of weaning food- During introduction of weaning foods following principles to be remembered:- 1. Weaning foods should provide extra requirement as per need of the baby 2. Initially small amount should be given then increase gradually in course of a week
  8. 8. Cont…. 3.New food to be placed over the tongue of the baby to get the taste of food and to feel the consistency. 4. A single weaning food is added at a time. 5. Weaning should be started between 5 to 6 months of age but breastfeeding to be continued up to 2 yrs of age.
  9. 9. Cont…. 6. Additional food can be given in the day time. Initially it can be given once, then twice or thrice. 7. New foods should be given when the infant is hungry, but never force the child to take the feeds. 8. Delayed weaning result in malnutrition and growth failure.
  10. 10. Cont… 9. Observe the problems related to weaning process. The infant may have:- - indigestion - pain in abdomen - weaning diarrhea - skin rashes - psychological upset
  11. 11. Preparing and storing the weaning foods-  Carefull preparation and storage of the weaning food is essential to prevent contamination.  The following aspects need consideration in this context:-
  12. 12. 1.Hands-carefully washed with soap and water before preparing food 2.Utensils – washed and scrubed thoroughly 3. Clean cooking place and chopping board
  13. 13. 4.Foods should be- -Fresh for weaning -prepared immediately -cooked and boiled well -mashed with clean pestle, fork or spoon -use clean water for washing and making weaning food -not store for more then 2 hours
  14. 14. Complementary feeding at different age
  15. 15. Age Food items Amount Frequency At 5-6 Months Initiated with fruit juice •1-2 Teaspoon at first •Then 3-4 Teaspoon •Increased gradually •Breast feeding should be continued 4-6 Times per dayAt 6-7 Month •Soft mixture of rice and dal •Khichri,Pulses •Mashed and boiled potato •Bread or Roti soaked in milk or dal •Mashed fruits like banana, mango, papaya 7-8 Month 9Month •Egg yolk •Curd or Khir •enjoy bite of biscuit and
  16. 16. Age Food items Amount Frequency 9-12 Months •More variety of household foods can be added •Can eat everything cooked at home •Spices and condiments avoided •No need to mash food but should be soft 5-6 teaspoons •Increased gradually •Breast feeding should be continued 4-5 times per day
  17. 17. Age Food items Amount Frequency 12-18 Months -All food cooked in family -Breastfeed to be continued especially at night According to child’s need 4-5 times Or According to child’s need
  18. 18. Some points of importance- 1.Strict cleanliness i.e., hands washed, nails kept short before preparation and handling the feeds. 2.New foods have to be given in small quantities at first and then increased slowly. 3.Any one type of food should be given for 3 or 4 days before any new type of food is offered. -This ‘go slow’ process will help the baby to accept new foods without upsetting the bowels.
  19. 19. 4.Prevalent feeding habits of the community should be taken into consideration when parents are advised regarding weaning 5.If infant develop allergic reactions with some protein foods, such foods should be avoided. 6.weaning foods should be well balanced nutritionally. 7.Child’s personal likes and dislikes have to be considered.
  20. 20. ARTIFICIAL OR SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING
  21. 21. ARTIFICIAL FEEDING Introduction:-  Artificial feeding should be started only if mother is unable to breastfeed the baby  Mothers who are not motivated for breastfeeding may use this as an excuse for top feeding their babies.
  22. 22. Meaning  Artificial feeding means -to feed the child other than breast milk.  It involves the use of breast milk substitutes in the form of liquid milk, i.e.fresh cows or buffalo’s milk or commercially available dried whole milk.
  23. 23. Aims of artificial feeding:- -to provide adequate nutrition to the infant -to substitute breast milk and provide nutrients approx. as same as breastmilk -to fullfil the needs of the child for proper growth and development
  24. 24. Indications for artificial feeding- 1.Death or absence of mother 2. Prolonged maternal illness 3.Complete failure of breast milk production 4.Absolute contraindication of breast feeding 5.Expressed breast milk is not available
  25. 25. Factors contributing to rising incidence of artificial feeding:- Lack of interest in breast feeding Wrong beliefs and ignorance related to breastfeeding Increasing numbers of working mothers Aping the western countries Changing lifestyle Availability of alternatives of mother’s milk Publicity and appealing advertisements
  26. 26. Principles of artificial feeding- 1. The decision of giving artificial feeding must be taken after failure of all efforts to breastfeed the baby 2. Feeding should be given by spoon and bowel or cup or glass 3. In sick or preterm infant, the feeding can be given with dropper
  27. 27. Cont…. 4. Bottle feeding must be avoided and mothers need explanation or information about the hazards of bottle feeding 5. Strict cleanliness in the preparation and feeding procedure should be practiced. 6. Milk left over from previous feed should not be used again. 7. Feeding must be given with the calculated amount of fluids and calories according to the baby’s expected weight.
  28. 28. 8. Correct technique of feeding to be followed. 9. The milk should be warm, not too hot or cold. 10. An average 15 to 20 minutes may be needed to feed the total quantity, as required. 11. No. of feed can be 6 to 8 times in infant and 3 to 5 times in older babies.
  29. 29. Cont…. 12. Hygienic measures are very important. 13. If dried milk is used, it should be reconstituted as per direction given by the manufacturer. 14. Burping may be needed to allow to push out the swallowed air and to prevent vomiting, abdominal discomfort 15. Supplementation of vitamins and minerals may be needed for babies to prevent deficiency condition.
  30. 30. Choice of milk- Cow milk Buffalo milk Formula milk
  31. 31. COW’S MILK VS HUMAN MILK COW’S MILK PROTEIN Has more protein as calves need more to enable them to grow quickly HUMAN MILK Need less protein and more fat as required in development of brain, spinal cord and nerves
  32. 32. Protein divided into CASEIN: WHEY PROTEINS Normal ratio in cow milk is 80:20 Normal ratio in human milk is 40:60 CASEIN is difficult to digest and linked to various disease, allergies and diabetes in children
  33. 33. FAT Cow milk contain 3.9g Contain more of saturated fat Human milk contain 4.1g Contain more of unsaturated fat
  34. 34. CALCIUM Cow milk contain 120 mg /100ml Large quantity difficult for digestion for a newborn baby Human milk contain 34mg/100ml Easily absorbed
  35. 35. Cow milk contain very little iron, vitamin A, C & D cow milk has high protein, sodium, potassium, phorphorus, chloride which increase renal load
  36. 36. Important points-  Use katori spoon or cup for feeding  Avoid using bottle for feeding which is a source of infection.  If used, prefer glass bottles instead of plastic or metal bottles.  Clean feeding vessels and rubber Nipples using bottle brush & fresh clean water after each feed.
  37. 37. Cont…  Bottle and nipple need to be sterilized by boiling before each feed.  Boil rubber nipple for 1 or 2 minutes only &bottle for at least 10 minutes.  keep bottles and nipples in covered container, till these are used
  38. 38. Preparation of milk  If cow or buffalo milk,boil properly, boiling makes caesin curds finer and easily digestible  Commercially available dried powered milks are reconstitued by mixing – one level measure of milk powder + 30 ml of water
  39. 39. Feed requirement Age No. of feed in 24 hrs Amount (approx) At birth At least 6-10 Birth to Day 3-baby will need:- -Frequent feeding  ½ oz -2 oz at each feeding 2 weeks-1 months At least 6-10 2-4 oz (60-120 ml) 1-2 Months 6-8 2-4 oz (60-120 ml) 3-5 Months 5-7 5-6 oz (150-180 ml) 6-8 Months 4-5 6-8 oz (180-240 ml) 9-11 Months 3-4 6-8 oz (180-240 ml) 12 Months 0-3 6 oz (180 ml)
  40. 40. Hazardous factors related to artificial feeding- Danger of contamination Multiple nutritional deficiencies Gastro- enteritis
  41. 41. Long term sequeal of exclusive artificial feeding leads to:- Lactose intolerance Obesity Atherosclerosis Poor learning abilities Poor parent child relationship Frequent pregnancy Family disruption

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