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HACIA UNA MEMORIA COMPARTIDA, informe sobre vulneraciones de derechos humanos y acciones violentas acaecidas en Arrasate-Mondragón desde 1956 a 2018.

HACIA UNA MEMORIA COMPARTIDA, informe sobre vulneraciones de derechos humanos y acciones violentas acaecidas en Arrasate-Mondragón desde 1956 a 2018.

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Hacia una-memoria-compartida-arrasate-mondragon-es-201-328

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  13. 13. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 PIW GSRZIVWEGMSRIW TIPʧGYPEW RS WʣƏ )WS IW TVMQSVHMEPɸ
  14. 14. 4MIRWS UYI LE] CG7 7IB;53D 5e?A H;H;?AE 3CG7A 7@ 3CG7 ?A?7@FA W*7@Fc A6;A B7DA ?7 6; 5G7@F3 67 CG7 3Ec @A ;43 3 @;@9G@3 B3DF7 A CG7 7D3 G@ A4EFa5GA 7@ ?; H;63 @A E7@Fc3 B3K 7@ ?; ;@F7D;ADYX W@ B3@ BAE;F;HAX 0E QIQSVME TVMRGMTEPQIRXI IW YR XIQE HI VIƽIMʬR (I LIGLS IWXʛ PE QIWE HI BADF3HA57E 3:c 7E 6A@67 67 39G@3 8AD?3 F;7@7 CG7 E3;D E7 F;7@7 CG7 F77D 3 8AD?3 D7A CG7 @A BG767 :347D 67?3E;36AE BG@FAE JA 5D7A CG7 6AE A FD7E 5A?A ?G5:A B3D3 BA67D J3 67 39G@3 8AD?3 3E79GD3D 7 8GFGDA J 93D3@F;K3D B3D3 CG7 @A HAH3?AE AFD3 H7K 3 7EF3 H;A7@5;3 CG7 :3 7I;EF;6A CG7 @A E7 AH;67 J E;DH3 367?aE 67 3BD7@6;K37 EF3E 6AE 355;A@7E 6AE c@73E 67 35FG35;e@ 7EF3E EA@ 3E CG7 :3J CG7 67 39G@3 8AD?3 BA@7D3E 7@ BDa5F;53 5A@ AE 5;G 6363@AE J 5;G6363@3E Qe?A /A E79G;Dc3 :35;b@6AA BAD B3DF7E BAD 43DD;AE BAD KA@3E FD3@E?;F;b@6A 3E 5A@5GE;A@7E G@ FD343A 6;HG93F;HA D7A CG7 7 ;4DA 7EF7 5G3@6A E393 F;7@7 CG7 :357DE7 6;HG93F;HA CG7 @A CG767 L33 #;4DA J 3 3 7EF3@F7Dc3 %A 3EF3 CG7 E7 :3J3 :75:A G@ FD343A 67 7EFAE J H3?AE 7@ c@73 B3D3 5A@FD;4G;D G@FA 5A@ FA6AE AE BG@FAE 67 H;EF3 3J CG7 BA@7D7 53D3 J 67 39G@3 8AD?3 :3J CG7 B7@E3D 5e?A BD7E7@F3DA 3@F7 3 EA5;7636 CGc E79GD3?7@F7 E7 H3 3 793D 3 G@ B3@AD3?3 97@7D3 ;?BADF3@F7 B7DA :34Da AFD3 E7D;7 67 F7EF;?A@;AE J E7Dc3 4G7@A D75A97DAE 5G3@6A E7 :393@ 7EF7 F;BA 67 BD7E7@F35;A@7E '7DA F7@7?AE CG7 793D 3 :357DA 8.4.2 CÓMO RECORDAR. RELATO(S) B53?B41B 8?H 13?D539=95D?C DB1E=bD93?C 45 @1C14? 1 3E1AE95B1 C5 5 B5FE5F5 ?C B53E5B4?C H 1C F9F5391C AE5 3141 3E1 81 94? 13E=E14? 1 ? 1B7? 45 1 F941 H 5 CE @B?@9? 5D?B? ?B 5? AE5 ? 5C D1 6b39 3?C5CE1B AEd H 3h=? 81H AE5 B53?B 41B ? ?3EBB94? 5 5 @B?@9? =E939@9? ? 5 1 C?395414 5 755B1 3?C53E5391 C5 @?4Be1 4539B ? =9C=? C?2B5 5 B51D? ? ?C B51D?C AE5 5CDb @?B 3?CDBE9B E 1Ce D?41C 1C @5BC?1C 5DB5F9CD141C 45 E1 E ?DB1 6?B=1 5CDb 45 13E5B4? 5 1 535 C9414 45 @?5B 539=1 45 1 =5C1 D?41C 1C F5B4145C H 45 1 9=@?BD1391 AE5 5CD? D955 ?C945B1 9=@B5C394925 B53?75B 1C F5B4145C 45 E1C H 45 ?DB?C 5 D?41 CE GVYHI^E IR HIƼRMXMZE QSWXVEV XSHEW PEW ZYPRIVEGMSRIW HI HIVIGLSW LYQERSW TEVE UYI @?41=?C @1C1B @b791 45 F5B414 #A 67 E3c3E 3DD3E5A 8G7 F7DD;47 +3?4;b@ 7@FA@57E B7DA 7E 3:AD3 7@
  15. 15. 5G3@6A F;7@7 J 6747 F7@7D EG E;F;A /A F7@9A G@ :;A 67 3dAE 6AE :;AE 67 7E3 7636 '3D3 ?c E3c3E 3DD3E5A 7E G@ 63FA ;?BADF3@F7 7@ 7EF3 5A?3D53 B3D3 AE eH7@7E 67 7EF3 5A?3D53 Q(G7 BAD CGb 'G7E BADCG7 JA H7A 3 ?;E :;AE Y J 5A?A 7E @AD?3 F7 6;57@ WJ7 :7?AE AD93@;K36A G@ 3GFA4fE B3D3 ;D 7@ 7@7DA :35;3 7 6c3 67 )7J7E 3 3 ?3@;83 CG7 E7 :357 3 83HAD 67 AE BD7EAEX / E7 H3@ 3
  16. 16. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941
  17. 17. ;43A '7DA JA :7 F7@;6A G@3 5A@H7DE35;e@ 5A@ ?; :;A J 7 :7 6;5:A 7EFA W I3= H37 7EFa 4;7@ AE 67D75:AE 67 AE BD7EAE H7F7 3 ;43A '7DA CG7 E7B3E I3= CG7 :357 G@AE BA5AE 3dAE 3CGc ?;7@FD3E Ff 3@6343E 5ADD7F73@6A BAD 3:c 5A@ 3dAE ?3F3DA@ 3 G@3 B7DEA@3 67 G@ F;DA 7@ 3 5347K3 *G :;3 43e 3 5A5:7 J 7EA B3Ee 3:c ?;E?A 7@ 7 43DD;A 7@ 7 CG7 H;Hc3?AE @AEAFDAE :357 E7;E 3dAEX ;5:A 67 AFD3 ?3@7D3 WEFaE 67 39G@3 ?3@7D3 6787@6;7@6A 3 AE BD7EAE / 7EFa 4;7@ '7DA 7 ?AH;?;7@FA CG7 :3 :75:A 7EA 7 B79e G@ F;DA 7@ 3 5347K3 7@ DD3E3F7 3 G@ 5A4D36AD 67 B737 67 3 3GFAB;EF3 (G7 E7B3E CG7 3E 6AE 5G7EF;A@7E 7EFa@ 3:cX ?39;@A CG7 7 :3Dc3 B7@E3D E G@ BA5A A CG7 ?; 3;F3 :;KA 5A@ 3DD7DA CG7 ?7 6;A W: 7E5G5:3 @A F7 677E 7H3D BAD 7 3?4;7@F7 A4E7DH3 ?aE 3 8A@6A J G79A FG H7DaEX 'AD 7EA 7@ ?; AB;@;e@ E3c3E 3DD3E5A FA63Hc3 6747 7EF3D BD7E7@F7 3CGc + :3 6736A 67 35FG3D 3 357BF36A 7 63dA CG7 :3@ 53GE36A EGE 355;A@7E 3 ?AEFD36A D7EB7FA :35;3 3E Hc5F;?3E '3D3 39G@3E B7DEA@3E @A :3 E;6A WYƼGMIRXI 4IVS E UYMIRIW TMIRWER EWʧ ]S RS PIW LI SʧHS HIGMV UYI PIW KYWXEVʧE H7D 673@F7 67 G@ GK936A 3 AE BA;5c3E 9G3D6;3E 5;H;7E J 7DFK3;@3E CG7 :3@ BD35F;536A 3 FADFGD3 CG7 AE 6;D;97@F7E J 9A4;7D@AE CG7 :3@ BD35F;536A 3 FADFGD3 A 3 :3@ AD67@36A 674;7D3@ 67 B76;D B7D6e@ #A 67 E3EG3 J 7 53EA 67 3 $3@363 67?G7EFD3@ 53D3?7@F7 CG;b@ F;7@7 7 BA67D *7 :3@ 636A BAD 5A?BDA436AE 5G3FDA ?; 53EAE 67 FADFGD3 QGa@FAE GK936AE A 5A@67@36AE 5A@A57?AE ;Dc3 CG7 @A :3J CG7 7E5A@67DA 7EA 7E 4aE;5A (G7 F7@7?AE CG7 ;@F7@F3D 7@5A@FD3D G@3 D7EBG7EF3 3 FA63E 3E BD79G@F3E J E; @A BA67?AE D7EBA@67D 675;D CG7 @A BA67?AE D7EBA@67D B7DA CG7 Ec CG7 3:c :3J 39A %A Eb E; 39f@ 6c3 5A?B7F3D7?AE 7E7 83?AEA D73FA 363 5G3 F;7@7 EGE H7D6367E J E79G D3?7@F7 :34Da ?G5:3E /A 5D7A CG7 :3J CG7 ?AEFD3D FA63E 3E H7D6367E CG7 E73 BAE;47 67 3 ?3@7D3 ?aE 3?B;3 BAE;47 E H7D636 CG7 AE F;7?BAE :3@ 53?4;36A B7DA E; 39G;7@ @A 7EFa BG7EFA 7@ 7 F7?3 QCGb H3 3 FD3@E?;F;D QE7 7B;EA6;A EG576;6A 7@ G@ 36A 67 3 FD;@5:7D3 A 7@ 3 AFD3 @F7E 67 FD3@E?;F;D A 8G@63?7@F3 7E 5A@A57D Y D7A CG7 G@3 67 3E 5AE3E ?aE 6;8c5;7E CG7 CG7 63@ BAD :357D 7EFa 7@ 3 76G535;e@ 7@ 3 5GFGD3 /A 67E5A@8cA CG7 H3J3 3 E7D ?GJ fF; 7 F7?3 CG7 7EFa 7H3@6A 7 A4;7D@A -3E5A B3D3 F7@7D G@ D73FA 67 A CG7 :3 EG576;6A 'ADCG7 3 ?c ?7 B3D757 CG7 7EA F;7@7 CG7 :357DA 97@F7 ;@67B7@6;7@F7 7IB7DFAE 7@ 5363 G@3 67 3E ?3F7 D;3E QCGb 5A@E75G7@5;3E 67 FA6A F;BA :3 F7@;6A 7EF3 H;A7@5;3 6GD3@F7 F3@FA F;7?BA @ 7 3EB75FA 75A@e?;5A 7@ 7 53?BA EA5;3 7@ 7 F7DD7@A 67 B7@E3 ?;7@FAY E 3 f@;53 8AD?3 67 CG7 97@7D35;A@7E BAEF7D;AD7E E7B3@ A CG7 :3 B3E36A J 7H;F7@ 7E7 F;BA 67 5G7EF;A@7E
  18. 18. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 D7A CG7 :3J CG7 5A@F3D FA6A A CG7 :3 EG576;6A +A6A A CG7 E73 BAE;47 67E67 6;87D7@F7E BG@FAE 67 H;EF3 34Da 39G@3E B7DEA@3E CG7 ?;D3Da@ 3 A ?;E?A 67 G@3 ?3@7D3 J AFD3E A :3Da@ 67 AFD3 ?3@7D3 J 3G@ 3Ec F7@6Da@ AE ?;E?AE E7@F;?;7@FAE +A6AE 6747?AE :357D G@ B7CG7dA 7E8G7DKA B3D3 7IB; 53D %A A 7@F7@67Da@ BADCG7 3 H757E 6;57@ WQD3@5A Q,@ ?;;F3D B7CG7d;FA W'7CG7d;FA B7DA ?3Fe@X #A CG7 CG;7DA 675;D 7E CG7 AE eH7@7E B3E3@ ';7@EA CG7 7E3 ?7?AD;3 @A E7 BG767 B7D67D CG7 7E @G7EFD3 :;EFAD;3 J CG7 367?aE 7E ;?BADF3@F7 B3D3 @AEAFDAE (G7 :3 BDAHA536A ?G5:A 6AAD D7A CG7 6747 Dc3 E7D A4;93FAD;A ?AEFDaDE73 3 AE eH7@7E BD7@67Dc3@ G@ ?A@Fe@ 67 5AE3E H;7@6A A CG7 :3 B3E36A /A 5D7A CG7 @G7EFDA B3B7 6747 E7D :357D B7639A9c3 67 3E Hc5F;?3E A@F3D A CG7 @AE :3 B3E36A 5A@F3D @G7EFDA D73FA D7A CG7 7 B3EA 636A BAD A9AD3 IW MQTSVXERXI 'SRXEV PE LMWXSVME HI HʬRHI ZMIRI IP GSRƽMGXS =E WEFIQSW UYI 5363 5G3 F;7@7 EG H7DE;e@ J CG7 5G7@F3 EG D73FA B7DA JA 5D7A CG7 7E ;?BAD F3@F7 A8D757D F7EF;?A@;AE B7DEA@37E +7EF;?A@;AE 67 3E B7DEA@3E 67 97@F7 @AD?3 67 BG74A CGb :3@ B3E36A CGb :3@ E7@F;6A 67E67 7 BG@FA 67 H;EF3 B7DEA@3 J 7?A5;A@3 #3 :;EFAD;3 6;Da CG;b@ 7E5D;47 7 D73FA B7DA :3J ?G5:AE D73FAE J :34Dc3 CG7 5A@F3DAE FA6AE -7D AE 7DDAD7E 67 G@3E J AFDAE :357D G@ BA5A 67 3GFA5DcF;53 F3@FA 7@ G@ E7@F;6A 5A?A 7@ 7 AFDA /A 5D7A CG7 :3J CG7 E353DA FA6A :3 B3E36A :3 :34;6A 6AE D73;6367E 5363 5G3 F;7@7 EG D7EBA@ E34;;636 B7DA 3?43E :3@ E;6A 6GD3E J 5363 5G3 F;7@7 EG H7D636 *; @A :3J H7D636 7E 6;8c5; :357D FA6A A 67?aE B3D3 93D3@F;K3D CG7 @A HG7H3 3 EG5767D J BADCG7 3 EA5;7636 F;7@7 67D75:A 3 5A@A57D FA6A A CG7 :3 B3E36A /A 7EFA A H;HA E;7?BD7 5A?A G@3 B7E36;3 CG7 38ADFG@363?7@F7 F7 67EB;7D F3E J F7 63E 5G7@F3 67 CG7 :3 E;6A G@3 B7E36;3 Q@A EFA 7E G@3 7F3B3 67 3 H;63 67 7EF7 B3cE 7@ 7 CG7 @A 6747?AE 67 ?;D3D B3D3 3FDaE J F7@7?AE CG7 ?;D3D B3D3 3673@F7 ;@F7@F3D AH;63D FA6A A ?3A E;@ AH;63D FA63E 3E Hc5F;?3E CG7 :3 :34;6A L;9A FA63E 7: '7DA CG7 CG767 5A?A G@3 3@b56AF3 A?A 39A CG7 3 :;EFAD;3 A 3EG?3 B3D3 CG7 3BD7@63?AE 67 CGb 7E A CG7 @A 6747?AE 67 :357D (Gb 7E A CG7 E7 :3 :75:A ?3 J CG7 @A E7 HG7H3 3 D7B7F;D 7EF7 F;BA 67 :;EFAD;3E *; JA BA6Dc3 75:3D G@ F7e@ J @A HAH7D 3 H7D 7 B3E36A E79GD3?7@F7 CG7 JA ?7 E7@F;Dc3 ?GJ 4;7@ ?GJ 87;K J ?GJ 5A@F7@FA '7DA 7E ;?BAE;47 -3@ 3 B3E3D 97@7D35;A@7E B3D3 CG7 AH;67?AE FA6A 7 EG8D;?;7@FA CG7 :7?AE B3675;6A 7@7D35;A@7E / ?;D3 CG7 H3?AE DaB;6A Q7: BADCG7 H3?AE 3 G@3 H7A5;636 FD7?7@63 7 A CG7 :7?AE EG8D;6A 3 5e?A 7EF3?AE G@3 H7A5;636 FD7?7@63 G7@A BG7E 3Ec J FA6A FA63Hc3 97@7D35;A@7E @AE H3 3 5AEF3D
  19. 19. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 'AD 77?BA 7EF7 F7EF;?A@;A 5A@ A CG7 7EF3?AE 5A@FD;4GJ7@6A 3:AD3 5A@ 7 ;4DA 7EF7 BD;@5;B3?7@F7 6747Dc3 67 E7D B3D3 7EA B3D3 63D ;@8AD?35;e@ J 5A@A GMQMIRXS E XSHSW PSW QSRHVEKSRIWIW EVVEWEXIEVVEW %Lʧ ZER E ƼKYVEV XSHEW PEW Hc5F;?3E 67 G@ 36A 67 AFDA 7F5 / 3BDAH75:3D 7EA B3D3 BA67D 7@FD7 6;87D7@F7E LEGIVPIW PPIKEV E IWEW JEQMPMEW E IWEW ɸTIVWSREW E IWEW ZʧGXMQEW YR VIGSRSGM ?;7@FA G@ E7@F;?;7@FA J 63D7E 7 3BAJA Qe?A :3J CG7 D75AD63D A CG7 :3 B3E36A G7 G@ 7DDADY 67 + G7 G@ 7DDAD BAD 7EA J3 7@ 3 7E5;E;e@ @A ?7 ?7Fc 5A@ 7AE J A E;9A 6;5;7@6A 3:AD3 ,@ 7DDAD 67E67 7 BD;@5;B;A @F;7@6A CG7 7EAE 7DDAD7E @A E7 D75A@A57@ DaB;63?7@F7 B7DA J3 :G4A AFD3 AD93@;K35;e@ 3D?363 CG7 F3D6e :3EF3 7 J B;5A CG7 7EA 8G7 5G3@6A E7 6;EAH;e + BAcF;5A ?;;F3D /A 5D7A CG7 :34Dc3 CG7 5A?7@K3D @A 5A@ A CG7 E7 :3 H;H;6A 7@ GE=36; E;@A 7 BADCGb E7 :3 H;H;6A 3 E;FG35;e@ CG7 E7 :3 H;H;6A 7@ GE=36; 5A?7@K3D 67E67 3 D3cK /A 5D7A CG7 3 D3cK E7Dc3 D75AD63D G@ BA5A 3 ?7?AD;3 Q'AD CGb 7@ 7 J B;5A 5D7A D75AD63D CG7 5A?7@Ke + BAD CGb EGD97 3 ;673 /A 5D7A CG7 7E BAD G@3 D7BD7E;e@ CG7 :34c3 3 @;H7 7EF3F3 3 @;H7 67 GE=36; BAD G@3 6;5F36GD3 ,@3 6;5F36GD3 CG7 @AE 3 :3@ ;?BG7EFA BADCG7 @A :3J CG7 AH;63D CG7 8G7 G@ 9AB7 67 EF36A A CG7 :;KA D3@5A 8G7 G@ 9AB7 67 EF36A %AE ;?BA@7@ G@3 6;5F36GD3 @AE ;?BA@7@ G@3E 43@67D3E CG7 @A 7D3@ 3E @G7EFD3E @FA@57E JA 5D7A CG7 :34Dc3 CG7 5A?7@K3D B3D3 3E 8GFGD3E 97@7D35;A@7E @A 5A@Fa@6A7E A CG7 E7 :3 H;H;6A 7@ GE=36; EA3?7@F7 5e?A 7I;EFc3 + J 5e?A ?3F343 97@F7 /A 5D7A CG7 :3J CG7 7?B7K3D 67E67 3 6;5F36GD3 Ec 'ADCG7 7 BG763E :343D 67 + 7 BG763E :343D 67 3 +D;B7 A 67 # BADCG7 :34c3 BAD 3E 6AE B3DF7E / 6;93?AE CG7 + BA6c3 E7D G@ 9DGBA ;@5A@FDA36A B7DA A CG7 ?7 B3D757 ?GJ 8G7DF7 ?GJ 6GDA 7E CG7 67E67 7 BDAB;A A4;7D@A :357@ AFD3 + CG7 7D3 7 # EA ?7 B3D757 ?GJ 8G7DF7 D3 G@3 5A@FD3 + B7DA BAD G@AE CG7 D7BD7E7@F343@ 67 39G@3 8AD?3 3 BG74A :34c3@ E;6A 779;6AE BAD 7 BG74A 3E 8GFGD3E 97@7D35;A@7E JA 5D7A CG7 :3J CG7 5A?7@K3D 3 :343D7E 67 7EA 67 G@3 D7BD7E;e@ G@3 B7DEB75F;H3 ?aE 3D93
  20. 20. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 8.4.3 MEMORIA COMPARTIDA 1B1 17E1C @5BC?1C 5C EDh@93? @1B1 ?DB1C =E381C 535C1B9? D?4? 31C? 49B9 79BC5 81391 E1 =5=?B91 3?=@1BD941 H 5C6?BI1BC5 5 5C5 31=9? 5C E ?2:5D9F? AE5 =5B535 1 @51 @1B1 1 =1H?Be1 45 1C @5BC?1C 5DB5F9CD141C 1 @5C1B 45 1C 4E41C AE5 @E541 125B71B EAE5 ?C 49CD9D?C D9@?C 45 CE6B9=95D? 1C B53?BB94?C @5BC?1 5C H ?C @ED?C 45 F9CD1 @?eD93?C C? 4965B5D5C 3?=@1BD9B 5 31=9? 5 1 2iCAE541 HI PE QIQSVME IW EP ƼR ] EP GEFS YR SFNIXMZS IR Wʧ QMWQS QA?B7F3D G@3 ?7?AD;3 5A?B3DF;63 '3D3 ?c ?7D757 3 B7@3 ;@F7@F3DA /A 5D7A CG7 A ;@F7D7E3@F7 7@ 7EF7 53EA 7E 7 BDA57EA A CG7 :3J CG7 :357D 7E 75:3D 3 3@63D (G;F3D 7 8D7@A 67 ?3@A J 3@63D -7A CG7 FA63Hc3 :3J 5;7DF3 97@F7 ;@F7@F3@6A A4EF35G;K3D 5A@ 7 5A5:7 B3D36A 39G@AE 7EFa@ ?aE 3B3DF36AE 67 53?;@A J AFDAE ?aE 7@ 7 57@FDA B7DA FA6AE A4EF35G;K3@ D7A CG7 7E 7 ?A?7@FA 67 CG;F3D 7 8D7@A 67 ?3@A Q*; 3 ?7?AD;3 5ADD7EBA@67 EAA 3 AE CG7 :3@ E;6A Hc5F;?3E 6;D75F3E %A @A F;7@7 CG7 E7D 5A75F;HA /A 5D7A CG7 3 F3D73 F;7@7 CG7 E7D 5A?B3DF;63 67 FA6AE %757E;F3?AE 36CG;D;D G@AE ;9G3 ?aE CG7 AFDAE 7E7 5A@A5;?;7@FA 76G535;e@ 5GFGD3 B3D3 793D 3 7EA / 5A@A5;7@6A 3E H7D6367E 67 5363 G@A 67 FA6AE +7@7?AE CG7 E347D 7E5G5:3D *A4D7 FA6A 67F7D?;@363E ?A5;A@7E CG7 G@;3F7D3?7@F7 E353 5363 B3DF;6A +A63E 7EF3E ?A5;A@7E CG7 ;@F7DH;7@7@ 7@ 7 F7?3 67 3 H;A7@5;3 6747Dc3?AE 67 :357D3E 67 8AD?3 5A?B3DF;63 /A F7@9A 6G63E 67 CG7 :3J3 EAA G@3 ?7?AD;3 ,@3 ?7?AD;3 5A?B3DF;63 BAD FA6AE H3 3 E7D ?GJ 6;8c5; /A 5D7A CG7 :34Dc3 CG7 ;D 3 G@3 ?7?AD;3 5A?B3DF;63 BAD 3 ?3JADc3 B7DA BAD 3 ?3JADc3 BA@;7@6A E;7?BD7 BAD 673@F7 CG7 A CG7 UYIVIQSW IW ZMZMV XSHSW IR IP QMWQS WMXMS ɸ7M RS LE] QE]SVʧE WSGMEP RS LE] @363 3a 8G7E7 FA6A 7 ?G@6A B7DA JA 5D7A CG7 E;7?BD7 E7 H3 3 CG763D G@3 97@F7 CG7 @A 3J CG7 :357D 75FGD3E J 5363 G@A F7@6Da 3 EGJ3 67 5e?A :3 E;6A 7EFA J 7 3EG@FA 67 5e?A ;D E353@6A ?c@;?AE 5A?G@7E 67@A?;@36AD7E 7@ FA6A 7EFA H3 3 E7D G@3 34AD CG7 3 ?c 3:AD3 ?7 EGB7D3 43EF3@F7 %757E;F3Dc3 ?3JAD F;7?BA Q'3D3 CGb CG7D7?AE G@ D73FA Q'3D3 5A@F3D CG;b@ :3 93@36A '3D3 7EA @A QGa 7E 7 A47F;HA +7@7D G@ 5A@A5;?;7@FA 97@7D3 67 A CG7 D73?7@F7 :3 B3E36A 3CGc +7@7D G@3 :7DD3?;7@F3 B3D3 3 5A@H;H7@5;3 7@ 7 BG74A 363 5G3 F;7@7 EG H7D636 G@ D73FA BDAB;A 67 A EG576;6A %A E7 BA6Da ?7K53D FA6A 7@
  21. 21. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 G@ f@;5A ;4DA B7DA 7@ 3E 4;4;AF753E :3J E;F;A B3D3 ?G5:AE ;4DAE 34Dc3 CG7 D7EB7F3D AE 5D;F7D;AE CG7 GF;;K3 3 :;EFAD;A9D38c3 673@6A 3 G@ 36A 3E ?7@F;D3E Qe?A 7E5D;4;D 3 ?7?AD;3 67 39A CG7 3f@ 7EFa E;@ 57DD3D *7 BG767@ 5A? B3DF;D G@3E B;@57363E J 7?B7K3D 3 :357D 7 53?;@A B7DA FA63Hc3 E7 EG8D7@ 67F7@5;A@7E G;5;AE J HG@7D35;A@7E 67 67D75:AE :G?3@AE 7@ 3E 5aD577E #3E JEQMPMEW XMIRIR UYI LEGIV GEHE ƼR HI WIQERE QMPIW HI OMPʬQIXVSW TEVE TSHIV H;E;F3D 3 EGE 83?;;3D7E A 3?;9AE 6GD3@F7 ?;@GFAE A@67@3@ 3 3E B7DEA@3E BD7E3E 9D3H7?7@F7 7@87D?3E 3 ?AD;D 7@ 3E 5aD577E *7 B;67 63D B3EAE J E7 LER HEHS QYGLSW TEWSW TEVE WSPYGMSREV IP GSRƽMGXS 4IVS TSV HIWKVEGME PE G@;3F7D3;636 E;9G7 3:c 8.4.4 TRANSMISIÓN =E WI LER XVEXEHS EPKYRSW EWTIGXSW MQTSVXERXIW WSFVI PE QIQSVME TIVS IR XSHS GEWS 1 C97E95D5 31F5 B14931 5 3h=? 531EI1B 5C1 =9B141 81391 5 @1C14? 5C1 =5=?B91 AE5 5CDb @?B 3?CDBE9B @B9=5B E71B 5 b=29D? 5C3?1B D5=1 AE5 C5 DB1D1Bb 5 5 @BhG9=? 1@1BD14? C5 @B5C5D1 3?=? E? 45 ?C =bC 1453E14?C @1B1 71B1D9I1B 1 DB1C=9C9h @5B? 145=bC 45 1 54E3139h 1C @5BC?1C 5DB5F9CD141C @B?@?5 ?DB?C =549?C @1B1 71B1D9I1B 5C1 DB1C=9C9h )R PS UYI EP ʛQFMXS PSGEP WI VIƼIVI IWXEW WSR PEW WYKIVIRGMEW VIGSKMHEW XVEXEV IP XIQE D1D? 5 5 1ID5DG5 3?=? 5 1C C?39139?5C 45 1 D5B35B1 5414 49B979B 49B53D1=5D5 1 1C E5F1C 755B139?5C ?C B51D?C 45 D5CD9=?9?C 49B53D?C B519I1B 13D?C 3?=? 1 1I1 45 1 #5=?B91 1 6E39h 45 HED1=95D? 5 3?12?B139h 3? 4965B5D5C 175 D5C ?315C D?=1B 3?395391 45 @597B? 45 1 F9?5391 C9=2h931 41B 1 3??35B 1C 5339?5C 45 92B? V1DB91W @B?=?F5B 5 3?=@B?=9C? C?391 5F9D1B 1C 456?B=139?5C AE5 @B?F?31 1C =9B141C @1B3915C #3 ?aE AH7@ 67 ?;E :;3E 7EFGHA H;7@6A @G7EFD3 WB3K3X 13 '3K3 67 3 $7?AD;32 7E 7H3DA@ 67 3 ;=3EFA3 @FA@57E F7@c3 3dAE G7@A 67 :75:A E7 7@F7De 7@ 3 ;=3EFA3 67 5e?A :34c3 ?G7DFA ?; B36D7 7@ 53E3 @A :34a43?AE 67 7EA 2S WEFʧEQSW GYʛP IVE IP QSQIRXS TEVE HIGʧVWIPS ] ]S RS LI UYIVMHS MRƽYMV IR WY JSVQE HI TIRWEV 4YIW EP ƼREP RS IW PS QINSV TIVSƏ WI IRXIVʬ JYIVE :MIVSR QM F7EF;?A@;A 73 J EGE 5A?B3d7DAE J 5A?B3d7D3E 67 53E7 3 ?3JADc3 J3 E34c3 CGb :34c3 B3E36A AFDAE @A '7DA B3D3 73 F3?4;b@ 8G7 ?GJ ;?BADF3@F7 G7 ;?BADF3@F7 CG7 eH7@7E 67 J 3dAE H;7D3@ J 7E5G5:3D3@ CGb :34c3 B3E36A 3CGc @A EeA 7@ @G7EFDA 53EA CG7 EGB;7D3@ A CG7 :34c3?AE H;H;6A 3CGc *c AE @;7FAE 6747@ 67 E347D
  22. 22. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 #A CG7 :3 EG576;6A 7 EG8D;?;7@FA CG7 :3 :34;6A FA6A A CG7 :3 B3E36A D7A UYI RS WI HIFI SPZMHEV UYI EP ƼREP WI SPZMHEVʛ )WXS IWXʛ FMIR TSVUYI EP ƼREP RS WI ZE E SPZMHEV HIP XSHS %P ƼREP XSHS IWXS GVIS UYI IW MQTSVXERXI UYI WI WITEɸ
  23. 23. 4EVE Qʧ IW MQTSVXERXʧWMQS 5YI TIVWSREW GSQS QM LIVQERS UYI 5G3@6A B3Ee FA6A F7@c3 5G3FDA 3dAE J 3:AD3 F;7@7 53FAD57 $; :7D?3@A @A H3 3 H;H;D @; H3 3 E347D A CG7 B3Ee :357 3dAE ?G5:AE 3dAE 5G3@6A JA @35c B7DA Ec CG7 7E ;?BADF3@F7 CG7 E7B3 FA6A 7 ?;76A CG7 :3 :34;6A FA6A CGc :3 :34;6A ?;76A $;D3 67EBGbE 67 A 67 ?; B36D7 3 97@F7 F7@c3 ?;76A 3 :343D?7 J F7 7EFAJ :343@6A 67 :357 6;7K 3dAE '3D3D?7 3 :343D 5A@ G@3 H75;@3 J 3 6c3 E;9G;7@F7 A 3 F;7?BA HAH7D 3 H7D3 JY WQ*347E A CG7 ?7 6;7DA@ (G7 5e?A BG76A :343D 5A@F;9A CG7 3 H7D E; @A ?7 63 ?;76AX QEF3?AE FA@FAE Q(Gb XI ZER E LEGIV E XM# c7M ERXIW UYI E TSV XM MVʧER E TSV Qʧ (MKS ]SƏ IW UYI EP ƼREP QCGb /A @A ?G7D6A #3E ;@EF;FG5;A@7E 6747Dc3@ 8A?7@F3D CG7 E7 6;7D3@ @G7HAE B3EAE B7DA 8G7D3 67 3E ;@EF;FG5;A@7E BDA?AH7Dc3 9DGBAE 7@ 83HAD 67 3 ?7?AD;3 9A 5A?A A CG7 E7 :;KA 5A@ 3 G7DD3 ;H; @ FA6A 53EA F7@9A G@3 ;?BD7E;e@ E 5A@A5;63 3 FD3J75FAD;3 67 CG;7@7E LIQSW IWXEHS E YR PEHS HIP GSRƽMGXS 0SW QIHMSW HI GSQYRMGEGMʬR LER TYFPM 536A FA63E 3E 5AE3E CG7 :3@ B3E36A %AEAFDAE @A 7E5A@67?AE @363 Q'7DA CGb B3E3 5A@ 3E AFD3E B3DF7E QGa@FAE 3E7E;@3FAE 5Ga@F3E FADFGD3E 5Ga@F3E HG@7D35;A@7E 67 67D75:AE :G?3@AE :3@ E;6A E;7@5;363E Q57BF3Da@ 39f@ 6c3 FA6A A CG7 :3@ :75:A EA E7Dc3 @757E3D;A B3D3 7E5D;4;D G@3 ?7?AD;3 67 H7D636 Y A@H7DE35;A@7E @5G7@FDAE ,@ 5e6;9A bF;5A 67 GF;;K35;e@ 5FAE 5A?A 7 67 3FK J *3@6D3 835;;F3@ CG7 E7 7?B3F;57 5A@ 7 6AAD 67 AFDA /A Ec A 5D7A B7DA BD7H;3?7@F7 :3J CG7 :357D G@3 B7639A9c3 Q(Gb 7EFa A5G DD;7@6A 7@ 7EF3 H;63 (G7 5363 6c3 7EFa :34;7@6A @G7H3E @AF;5;3E 3E @AF;5;3E E7 H3@ AH;63@6A %A E7 6747@ 67 AH;63D +7@7?AE CG7 793D 3 G@3 5A@H;H7@5;3 ?aE 3GFb@F;53 ?aE D73 +7@7?AE CG7 57DD3D 4;7@ FA6A A CG7 :3 7I;EF;6A :3EF3 3:AD3 +A63Hc3 @A E7 7EFa H;7@6A 7EA +7@7?AE CG7 E7D 53B357E 67 FD3@E?;F;D 3 AE eH7@7E G@ ?7@E37 53DA B3D3 UYI NEQʛW TYIHE YXMPM^EVWI PE ZMSPIRGME GSQS QIHMS TEVE PSKVEV YR ƼR 'VIS UYI 7E 3 B3DF7 53H7 7 F7?3 67 3 76G535;e@ 7@ 7E3 c@73 J 3:c 7E 6A@67 :3J CG7 BA@7D FA6A 7EFA 7@ 7H;67@5;3 B3D3 CG7 7AE A 5A@AK53@ A D75A@AK53@ J 7H;F7@ 7@ A BAE;47 FA6A A CG7 BG763 67E7@5367@3D 3 H;A7@5;3 *;@ @;@9f@ A6;A J E;@ D7@5AD B7DA E;@ AH;6A Q'AD CGb F;7@7 CG7 H;H;D ?; :;A 7E3 E;FG35;e@ ?; :;A 5A@ 3dAE $;D3 7 AFDA 6c3 7EFGH;?AE :343@6A 67
  24. 24. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 ;4DA W'3FD;3X Y J 7 6;7 WE7 ;4DA 6747Dc3 67 E7D A4;93FAD;A B3D3 435:;7D3FA I MRGPYWS EPKʱR EʪS ERXIW
  25. 25. Ə IW YR VIƽINS HI PS UYI LIQSW ZMZMHS IR QYGLSW BG74AE 67 G;BfK5A3 CG7 E34c3?AE 67 8G3@A CG7 E34c3?AE 67 ?7@93@AYX AE H3E5AE 3 39G@AE @A 7E :3 9GEF36A B7DA 3 H3E5AE CG7 :7?AE H;H;6A 7E3E E;FG35;A@7E @AE :3 9GEF36A J @AE B3D757 67 A4;9363 75FGD3 Q(Gb @AE :3 6;5:A (G7 7E CG7 3E :7?AE H;H;6A @ 7 53EA 67 3 ?7?AD;3 5D7A CG7 3E D7B7F;5;A@7E :75:3E 367?aE 67 6;87 D7@F7E ?3@7D3E 3JG63@ Y ;Dc3 CG7 5363 G@A 67 @AEAFDAE J 67 @AEAFD3E 7E 67 ?3JAD 3JG63 F3?4;b@ B3D3 3E Hc5F;?3E E; EA?AE B7DEA@3E 5A@ 5GFGD3 E34;7@6A CGb :3 B3E36A 5e?A 5Ga@6A 7E5G5:3@6A 6;87D7@F7E 6;E5GDEAE J 67E3DDA3@6A 5363 5G3 EG BDAB;A 6;E5GDEA BADCG7 7EA 7E 36CG;D;D 5A@A5;?;7@ FAE 5GFGD37E *; @A @AE CG763?AE 7@ 7Ee93@7E H35cAE 7@ 7 7EA93@ CG7 :3 6;5:A 3CGb A 3CG73 J CG7 D7B7F;?AE 5A?A E; 8GbD3?AE AD;FAE @E7d3D7E 3 AE @;dAE 67E67 B7CG7dAE A CG7 :3 B3E36A 3CGc J 675;D7E WEc @A E7 5A@E;9G7 @363 EA3?7@F7 ?aE EG8D;?;7@FAX 3J G@ '3D3?7@FA J 7 CG7 UYMIVE HIJIRHIV WYW MHIEW UYI ZE]E E PEW MRWXMXYGMSRIW UYI TEVE IWS WI ZSXEɸɸ] E7 7;97@ 67?A5DaF;53?7@F7 3 AE D7BD7E7@F3@F7E 67 AE B3DF;6AE BAcF;5AE '7DA 7EA :3J CG7 7@E7d3D 67E67 B7CG7dAE @A EA3?7@F7 3 @;H7 83?;;3D E;@A 7@ AE 57@FDAE 67 7@E7d3@K3 E ?GJ ;?BADF3@F7 CG7 7@ G@ ?;E?A 9DGBA :3J3 B7DEA@3E 67 6;87D7@F7E 763 67E @A FD3@E?;F;D 7@ B3@ ?;F;@ $7 63 ;9G3 5A@ CGb J3 E73 7@ 7 3EG@FA 67 3E 43EGD3E A B3D3 :357D G@3 3GFAB;EF3 ;87D7@F7E 97@7D35;A@7E 7@ 7 ?;E?A 9DGBA #3 FD3@E?;E;e@ 67 H7D636 6747 :357DE7 3Ec Qe?A @ 83?;;3 '7DA F3?4;b@ 7@ 3 7E5G73 BAD 77?BA J 3 @;H7 A53 @ 39G@AE G93D7E H7A ?aE 8a5; 7H3D 3 534A G@ B3@ BAD 77?BA 7@ 7 3KF7FI7 :3J 97@F7 6;87D7@F7 'G767 E7D G@ 4G7@ 77D5;5;A :357D G@3E BD79G@F3E B3D3 H7D CGb E347@ J 3 B3DF;D 67 3:c ;D 5AE;7@6A J 5A?B7F3@6A 43DA3 H3 97@F7 ?3JAD CG7 E;7?BD7 7EFa@ 6;EBG7EFAE 3 FA6A 3 :343D 3 5A@F3D :c 7E ;?BADF3@F7 FD3@E?;F;D 3 3E @G7H3E 97@7D35;A@7E CG7 3 E3c3E 3DD3E5A 7 B793DA@ G@ F;DA 7@ 3 5347K3 J CG7 6747?AE ;@F7D;AD;K3D ?GJ 367@FDA 7E3 8AFA9D38c3 J CG7 7EA @A E7 BG767 :357D /A G@A 7EA 5A@ AFDA F7?3 #3 67E357D F363 A ;@5GEA 6;Dc3 B7DH7DE3 B7639A9c3 CG7 7@ ?; AB;@;e@ E7 :3 ;@EF336A 7@ 3 ;KCG;7D63 347DFK37 -3 G@ BA5A 7@ 53E5363 E; Ff BG767E 63D7 G@ F;DA 7@ 3 5347K3 3 G@3 B7DEA@3 BAD ?AF;HAE BAcF;5AE F3?4;b@ 7 BG767E :357D G@3 B;@ F363 J 53DA G@3 B;@F363 7E ?7@AE A F3?4;b@ 7 BG767E 675;D G@3 ?33 B334D3 A 7 BG767E 7E5GB;D EA4D7 G@ F3436A BADCG7 @A 7E 67 FG 9GEFA 6;93?AE CG7 7E
  26. 26. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 G@3 bF;53 B7;9DAE3 /A BG76A GF;;K3D 3 H;A7@5;3 E;?4e;53 7E 675;D ?;E D3KA RIW WSR PS WYƼGMIRXIQIRXI JYIVXIW GSQS TEVE HIWTVIGMEV EP SXVS S QEGLEGEVPS EA A CG7 E7 H7 7@ AE B;FAE 3 AE 6;D;97@F7E 7@ 7 53?B7A@3FA 67 47DFEA3D;E A 7@ 3E B;@F363E /A 5D7A CG7 :3J CG7 H7D FA6A 7EA 7@ EG 5A@G@FA @ ?; AB;@;e@ A 67 AE F7EF;?A@;AE 6;D75FAE 7E ;?BADF3@F7 J CG;Ka AE F7EF;?A @;AE 6;D75FAE @A F7@93@ CG7 E7D EeA 67 3E B7DEA@3E CG7 :3@ H;H;6A E;FG35;A @7E 7IFD7?3E (G;Ka F3?4;b@ E7Dc3 ;@F7D7E3@F7 7 D73FA 67 AFD3E ?G5:3E TIVWSREW TIVWSREW RSVQEPIW UYI WMR IQFEVKS LER LIGLS YRE VIƽIMʬR = TSV AFD3 B3DF7 AE F7EF;?A@;AE 67 3E B7DEA@3E CG7 D73?7@F7 :3@ H;H;6A 5AE3E ?GJ 6GD3E BADCG7 B;7@EA CG7 7EB75;3?7@F7 3E 97@7D35;A@7E 67 :AJ 7@ 6c3 @A 53?4;3@ 5A@ AE 6;E5GDEAE B7DA Ec 5A@ AE F7EF;?A@;AE D7A CG7 AE eH7 @7E @757E;F3@ F7EF;?A@;AE (G;Ka :34Dc3 CG7 :357D G@;6367E 6;6a5F;53E B7DA B3D3 G@ AH7@ G@3 G@;636 6;6a5F;53 7E 3 5G36D39bE;?3 G@;636 WL33 AFD3 ?aE X EA @A 793 B7DA 7 F7EF;?A@;A Ec @FA@57E A CG7 JA :39A 5A@ ?;E :;AE 7E 5A@F3D7E ?; F7EF;?A@;A B7DEA@3 ?;E :;AE JA CG;7DA 5A@F3D7E A 67 /AJ7E 5e?A A H;Hc J A 67 3DD3E5A J A 67 AFDAY / CG;7DA 5A@F3D7E F3?4;b@ A 67 E3c3E 3DD3E5A BADCG7 E7 A F7@9A CG7 5A@F3D JA 7EA Ec BDA6G57 G@ ;?B35FA @ 3 E;FG35;e@ EA5;3 7@ 3 CG7 7EFa@ 7 67E7?B7A eH7@7E 5A@ 7EFG6;AE J E;@ FD343A J E; 5A@E;9G7@ FD343A 3 ?7@G6A EA@ FD343AE ?3AE 3 5ADDGB5;e@ @ 7EF3 E;FG35;e@ 7E 6;8c5; F7@7D ;GE;A@363 3 G@3 EA5;7636 %G7EFDAE ?3JAD7E H;H;7DA@ 3 9G7DD3 5;H; J @AEAFDAE 7E5G5:a43?AE 7@ 53E3 3CG73E :;EFAD;3E 67 3 9G7DD3 %AEAFDAE H;Hc3?AE 7@ G@3 6;5F36GD3 J 53DA 7E3 7IB7D;7@5;3 F7 ?3D53 67 39G@3 ?3@7D3 J BAD 3:c 7E 8a5; CG7 @3K53 G@3 E7@E;4;;636 J G@ 5A?BDA ?;EA BAcF;5A 67?aE 67 7EA 7E5G5:a43?AE )36;A ';D7@3;53 FA6AE AE 6c3E 3 3@A5:757D 7 8GE;3?;7@FA 67 !G;a@ D;?3G 7@ 7 7F5 #3 E;FG35;e@ 35FG3 7E 6;87D7@F7 AE eH7@7E @A :3@ 7E5G5:36A 3E :;EFAD;3 67 3 9G7DD3 CG7 @AEA FDAE 7E5G5:3?AE @A :3@ H;H;6A G@3 6;5F36GD3 8D3@CG;EF3 J BAD A F3@FA EA@ ?A?7@FAE 6;87D7@F7E '7DA 7@ 3 35FG3 E;FG35;e@ EA5;3 F3?4;b@ 7I;EF7@ ?AF; ZSW TEVE XIRIV YR GSQTVSQMWS WSGMEP %P ƼR ] EP GEFS YRE ƈGSRGMIRGME HI GPEWIƉ 7E @757E3D;3 B3D3 CG7 3 EA5;7636 E7 6b 5G7@F3 67 CG7 5A@ 7 35FG3 E;EF7?3 75A@e?;5A 53B;F3;EF3 @36;7 H3 3 E7D ;4D7 @; F3?BA5A 87;K #3 GH7@FG6 3 D73;636 CG7 BG767@ 7@5A@FD3D 7E 3 67 CG7 :3 :34;6A G@AE ?3AE J G@AE 4G7@AE *c ?7 BD7A5GB3 :3J3 ?;D363E B3D5;37E /A 5D7A CG7 BAD EG7DF7 J3 @A 7I;EF7@ F3@F3E 6;87D7@5;3E /A 5D7A CG7 3 GH7@FG6 :AJ 6c3 H;H7 5A?A ?aE B3EAF3 ?aE 37@3 3 3 BAcF;53 A @A Eb ;?B;53 E ?; ;673 7: G@ BA5A H;EFA 67E67 8G7D3
  27. 27. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 5G3CG;7D 5:3D3 35G67 ?GJ BA53 97@F7 J 3 GH7@FG6 FA63Hc3 ?7@AE AE F;7 @7@ ;9G3 AFDA BG@FA 67 H;EF3 G AFDAE H3AD7E A?A E7 EG77 675;D 7EFa@ 7@ AFD3 A@63 (G;Ka :3J3 CG7 5A@F39;3D 7EA 9G3 E; 7?B;7K3@ G@AE G79A E7 3BG@F3@ ?aE D93@;K3D 39A 3Ec 3 @;H7 5GFGD3 H3 3 E7D G@ bI;FA E79GDA D7A CG7 7@ 7 a?4;FA EA5;3 67E67 ?; 5A?;E;e@ 7@ 7 JG@F3?;7@FA :3J CG7 FD3433D 7EA 3J CG7 5D73D G@3 5A?;E;e@ G@ BA5A A CG7 :7?AE :75:A 5A@ 7 BDAFA 5AA 67 35A9;63 BDAFA5AA 67 35A9;63 8G7 3Ec FD343AE 5A@ 6;87D7@F7E 397@ F7E 3@3;K3DA FA6A J E7 BGEA 7@ ?3D5:3 7 3dA B3E36A @ 7EF7 F7?3 F3?4;b@ :34Dc3 CG7 :357D G@3 ?7E3 5A@ 6;EF;@FAE 397@F7E J :34Dc3 CG7 FD3433DA 3c 8.4.5 EDUCACIÓN *?41C 1C ?@99?5C B53?7941C 3?93945 5 1 535C9414 45 5G@931B 5 @1C14? 1 1C E5F1C 755B139?5C ?BAE5 5C 5F945D5 AE5 1 54E3139h 5C E @91B 6E41=5D1 TEVE PE GSRZMZIRGME JYXYVE = TEVE EPGER^EV HMGLS SFNIXMZS PEW RYIZEW KIRIVEGMSRIW ] ? D1 E5F1C 4525 3??35B ? AE5 81 @1C14? @1B1 AE5 ? C5 FE5F1 1 B5@5D9B ?C =9C=?C 5BB?B5C C5 ?2:5D9F? C9 5=21B7? @E545 DB121:1BC5 45 =E381C =15B1C 1C 5DB5F9CD1C VIEPM^EHEW LER WEPMHS VIƽIMSRIW ] WYKIVIRGMEW IR XSVRS E IWXE GYIWXMʬR )RXVI SXVEW WI 45CD131 1C C97E95D5C @B?6E49I1B 5 1 54E3139h 5 F1?B5C 5F1B ?C D5CD9=?9?C 45 1C Fe3D9=1C 1 ?C 35DB?C 5C3?1B5C 496E49B E1 =1H?B 3EDEB1 45C1BB?1B 1 54E 3139h 5 1C 61=991C =1D55B C95=@B5 1 49F5BC9414 DB121:1B ?C 45B538?C 8E=1?C 5 1 E9F5BC9414 ED99I1B C?@?BD5C AE5 B5CED5 1DB13D9F?C @1B1 1 :EF5DE4 ?B7K3@6A BAD DD3E3F7 3J 5AE3E BAD :357D 7@ 3E 7E5G73E B7DA 7EA F;7@7 G@ B7;9DA FA6A H3 3 3 7E5G73 7E W7 E35A B3D3 FA6AX (G7 F7@7?AE CG7 :357D 3 97@63
  28. 28. CG7 F7@7?AE CG7 :357D 5A76G535;e@Y +A6A H3 3 3 7E5G73 %A A :357?AE 67 8AD?3 ;@F79D3 CG7 7@ 3 7E5G73 AE B3@7E J 7EA EA@ @757E3D;AE *7Dc3 ?GJ 8a5; 675;D 5A?A EA7?AE 675;D E;7?BD7 CG7 A :393 3 76G535;e@ CG7 A :393 3 7E5G73 Q@A Q/ 3 3 83?;;3 7 FA53 'G7E 53DA CG7 7 FA53 3 3 83?;;3 Q/ 7 5ADD7EBA@67 3 JG@F3?;7@FA 'AD EGBG7EFA Y 3J CG7 ;D 3 F73FDA 3 H7D G@3 A4D3 CG7 F7 :3Da B7@E3D 3J CG7 ;@H7DF;D 7@ 7EFA *; CG7D7?AE G@3 EA5;7636 ?7AD @757E;F3?AE ?3JAD @;H7 67 5GFGD3 F7?3 7E CG7 :3J YRMZIVWMHEHIW IR (IFEKSMIRE LS] IR HʧE IR PEW UYI PSW EPYQRSW XMIRIR HMƼGYP XEHIW TEVE EHMZMREV UYʣ WMKRMƼGER PEW WMKPEW )8% 'VIS UYI ERXIW HI IQTI^EV 3 :357D @363 F7@7?AE CG7 E347D 5e?A 7EFa AD93@;K363 D73?7@F7 7EF3 @G7H3 EA5;7636 +;7@7 CG7 7I;EF;D G@3 F7@67@5;3 3 :343D 3EF3 3:AD3 :3 E;6A G@ F34f *7Dc3 8a5; 675;D CG7 F;7@7 CG7 7I;EF;D G@3 FD3@E?;E;e@ B7DA @AEAFDAE @A 3 :7?AE F7@;6A 3 ?7@AE 7E7 7E ?; 53EA
  29. 29. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 'AD G@3 B3DF7 EB3d3 F;7@7 EGEB7@6;63 67E67 :357 F;7?BA 3 3E;9@3FGD3 67 3 D75A@5;;35;e@ 3 3E;9@3FGD3 67 B7D6e@ 3 3E;9@3FGD3 67 3 76G535;e@ AFDAE H3AD7EY :AD3 ?;E?A BAD 77?BA JA EAJ ?37EFD3 67 W6G535;e@ B3D3 3 5A@H;H7@5;3 76G535;e@ B3D3 7 D7EB7FAYX $GJ 4;7@ @A 6;9A CG7 @A 3:AD3 :3@ 7?B7K36A 3 FD3433D 7EA '7DA 7@ 3E BDAH;@5;3E 67 EB3d3 @A E7 FD3433 7EA J G79A @AE 3EGEF3?AE 5G3@6A B3E3 A 67 3F3Gd3 D3@5A ?GD;e B7DA 7EFAE AE 67 9A4;7D@A EA@ EGE :7D767DAE 7EA 7EFa ?GJ 53DA :c @A E7 :3 :75:A @;@9f@ FD343A J 7@ GE=3 7DD;3 BA5A G@ BA5A ?aE 3:AD3 Y ';7@EA CG7 5363 5G3 6747 :357D EG FD343A B7DEA@3 (G7 3 7E5G73 3:c F;7@7 ?G5:A CG7 H7D %A E7 BG767 AH;63D A CG7 B3Ee 3CGc EFA @A BG767 E7D G@3 3E;9@3FGD3 A?A 6;57@ 3:AD3 CG7 E73@ AE AE 3G?@AE J 3E 3G?@3E CG;7 @7E CG;7D3@ FD3433D 7E7 F7?3 7AE 7;97@ 7 F7?3 3 FD3433D *; 7E ;@F7D7E3 7E ?GJ ;?BADF3@F7 FD3433D 7EA Qe?A 'G7E @A Eb CGb BDA9D3?3 A B7639A9c3 6747Dc3@ 7H3D 3 534A 3E 7E5G73E :AJ 7@ 6c3 (G;Ka :3J3 CG7 7IB;53DA 5A?A E; 8G7E7 G@3 :;EFAD;3 AE :75:AE B7DA @A 3E H;H7@5;3E 7 83F3Dc3 7EA 7E3 AFD3 B3DF7 3 CG7 :7?AE H;H;6A D7A CG7 A 67 3 W$7?AD;3 B3K3X 7EFa ?GJ 4;7@ @ AE 5A79;AE F3?4;b@ :3Dc3 CG7 AE 5:3H37E J 3E 5:3H33E EGB;7E7@ G@ BA5A '3D757 CG7 @A B7DA BA@7@ ?G5:A ;@F7DbE 7@ 7E7 F7?3 @ A9AD3 67 ;43A F3?4;b@ 7EFGH7 E; 7E CG7 3 ƼREP ZS] E XSHSW ,EFPEVSR PSW IWXYHMERXIW RSW UYIHEQSW WSVTVIRHMHSW HI PE ;?B;535;e@ CG7 7AE F7@c3@ J 5e?A :34343@ D3@ 5:3H3;FAE eH7@7E J 7 7@FG E;3E?A CG7 7EF343@ BA@;7@6A 7@ 7E5G5:3D ,@3 B7DEA@3 CG7 7EF343 3 36A ?cA CG7 F3?4;b@ :34c3 ;6A 3 G@ 5A79;A 675c3 WE CG7 7D3 3G5;@3@F7 5G3@6A 8G; 3 63D 3 5:3D3 3 5A79;A 5e?A AE 5:3H37E BD79G@F343@ J 675c3@ X J 3 ?c ?7 B3Ee A ?;E?A 3 BA5A 67 A 67 ?; B36D7 3 3dA A 3 AE 6AE 3dAE 8G; 3 63D G@3 5:3D3 3 G@ 5A79;A 7@ 03?G6;A J 3 BDA87EAD3 ?7 6;A W$7 :7 CG7636A 3G 5;@363 BADCG7 @G@53 BD79G@F3@ F3@FA AE 3G?@AE J 7EF343@ H7@93 BD79G@F3DX 'VIS UYI IW MQTSVXERXI TSVUYI EYRUYI GVIEQSW UYI RSɸE PSW NʬZIRIW XSHEZʧE 3 AE 7EFG6;3@F7E 7E ;@F7D7E3 Y %A 7E A ?;E?A CG7 H3J3 3 G@ 5A79;A G@ BAcF;5A CG7 EG7F3@ 7 DAA 67 BAcF;5A 3 CG7 H3J3 G@3 B7DEA@3 5A?A JA 5A?A 3FKY CG7 7E 67 537 CG7 F7 :343 ?aE 67 537 CG7 F7 :357 E7D ?aE 57D53@A A@ G@ BAcF;5AY JA 5D7A CG7 @A BA@7@ F3@FA ;@F7DbE =S GVIS UYI IR PEW IWGYIPEW PPIKEW E XSHSW ELʧ RS IWXʛR GPEWMƼGEHSW TSV MHISPS 9c3E +;7@7 CG7 793D 7@ 3 6;H7DE;636 J 7 ?7@E37 F;7@7 CG7 793D 3 FA6AE J 3 FA63E BAD ;9G3 BAD A F3@FA 7E5G73E G6AF753E 3EA5;35;A@7E /A 5D7A CG7 :3J CG7 :357D 5AE3E 5A?A 3E CG7 7EFa;E :35;7@6A HAEAFDAE /A UYIVVʧE UYI PYIKS IWXI WSTSVXI IWGVMXS XYZMIVE PYIKS YR VIƽINS ]E WIE EYHMSZM EG3 J3 E73 7@ 3E 7E5G73E @FD7 AFD3E 7 EABADF7 6747 E7D Ee;6A BADCG7 7
  30. 30. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 EYHMSZMWYEP XMIRI IP VMIWKS HI WIV ʛKMP HI UYIHEVWI IR PS WYTIVƼGMEP % Qʧ WI QI A5GDD7@ BAD G@3 B3DF7 7 3G6;AH;EG3 J BAD 3 AFD3 3E 7E5G73E E5G73E @A EeA 7@ 3 7@E7d3@K3 8AD?3 F3?4;b@ 7@ 3 7@E7d3@K3 ;@8AD?3 D7A CG7 @757 E;F3?AE F3?4;b@ 3E 7E5G73E AE 53?B3?7@FAE 67 H7D3@A J AFDAE 7EB35;AE 67 76G535;e@ ;@8AD?3 7@ AE CG7 E7 ?G7H7@ AE eH7@7E B3D3 FD3@E?;F;D 7EF7 F7?3 5A?A 7E 674;6A /A BDABA@6Dc3 FA?3D 6AE 77?7@FAE 3 D76 67 7E5G73E 67 3 5A?3D53 3 7E5G73 Bf4;53 J 3 =3EFA3 D;K?7@6; F7@;7@6A 7@ 5G7@F3 3 5A?3D53 DD3E3F7 D7FI3437F3 J E=AD;3FK3 J G@3 ;@F7DH7@5;e@ 43E363 7@ AE F7EF;?A@;AE 67 3CGc 7@8A5363 3 AE 57@FDAE 76G53F;HAE / BAD AFD3 B3DF7 D75GDD;D 3 3 EA5;7636 5;H; @ @G7EFD3 5A?3D53 3 BDA?A5;e@ J D75A@EFDG55;e@ 67 A H3E5A 7E 39A CG7 7EFa H;HA 3J G@ ?AH;?;7@FA 3 83HAD 67 7GE=3D3 :3J F3?4;b@ AFDAE J :34Dc3 CG7 :357D G@ BDA57EA F3?4;b@ 5A@ FA6AE 7AE EFa A;7@3 CG7 7E G@3 :7DD3 ?;7@F3 ?GJ ;@F7D7E3@F7 F;7@7 G@3 9D3@ 3G6;7@5;3 7E67 7 BG@FA 67 H;EF3 67 3 5A?G@;535;e@ F7@7?AE G@3 5A?3D53 43EF3@F7 4;7@ 7EFDG5FGD363 34Dc3 UYI LEGIV YR TPER MRXIKVEP VIEPM^EV VIƽIMSRIW FEWEHEW IR PSW XIWXMQSRMSW ] 7H3DAE AE 57@FDAE 67 7@E7d3@K3 3 3 EA5;7636 5;H; J 7?B73D A;7@3 5A?A 3F3HAK *; E7 :;5;7E7 EAA 7@ DD3E3F7 E7Dc3 8a5; *; E7 :357 7@ AE FD7E ?7AD '7DA F3?4;b@ F;7@7 E7@F;6A :357DA EAA 7@ DD3E3F7 'ADCG7 7E H7D636 UYI )WOSVMEX^E ] %VIXEFEPIXE LER QSWXVEHS YR TIVƼP FENS IR IWXI XIQE IR 5G3@FA 3 ?G7DFAE BA5AE BD7EAEY '7DA BAD 77?BA 3 =3EFA3 D;K?7@6; 7E 3 ;=3EFA3 67 3 5A?3D53 J F;7@7 39G@AE 7EB35;AE 7@ DD3E3F7 J E=AD;3FK3 (G;Ka 6747Dc3?AE 63D ?aE 8AD?35;e@ EA4D7 AE 67D75:AE :G?3@AE 7@ 3 G@; H7DE;636 G@ 3Ec 7@ 97@7D3 Y CG;7@ ?aE CG;7@ ?7@AE 3EG?7 CG7 3 43E7 EA@ AE 67D75:AE :G?3@AE D7A CG7 6747Dc3?AE :357D ?G5:A ?aE BADCG7 XMIRI IP VMIWKS HI VIWYPXEV QY] WYTIVƼGMEP
  31. 31. 4IVS TSV SXVE TEVXI TSV HIGMVPS 67 39G@3 ?3@7D3 E; Ff :357E :AJ 3CGc G@3 B;@F363 7@ 5A@FD3 67 G@ 3G?@A A 3G?@3 3 ?3JADc3 D7355;A@3Da 6;5;b@6AF7 W%A E7 BG767 :357D 7EA 673 FD3@ CG;A 3 7E7 FcAX D7A CG7 7 D7EB7FA 3 3E ;47DF367E ;@6;H;6G37E :34Da 5336A 7@ 3 GH7@FG6 ?G5:A ?aE CG7 3@F7E / 7EA 7E 4G7@A 5D7A CG7 @A EeA F7@7?AE CG7 H7D 3E 5AE3E @793F;H3E 7@ AE eH7@7E @ 7E7 E7@F;6A H;7@7@ 5A@ G@3 bF;53 67 D7EB7FA ?G5:A ?aE ;@F7D7E3@F7 CG7 3@F7E #3 B7639A9c3 J AE 67D75:AE :G?3@AE EA CG7 7E 8a5; 67 BD76;53D J 675;D 5A@ 7 77?BA 6;3D;A 7@ 3 7@E7d3@K3 7EA F;7@7 CG7 7EF3D E;7?BD7 BD7E7@F7 7@ AE 6;87D7@F7E 77?BAE 35FG35;A@7EY BADCG7 7EFa 3 3 AD67@ 67 6c3 CG7 E; 5A@ ;@?;9D3@F7E 5A@ 7 4GJ;@9 7F5 #3 5GFGD3 67 67D75:AE :G?3@AE 6747 7EF3D ?aE BD7E7@F7 67 A CG7 7EFa ?G5:A ?aE 7?B7K3@6A BAD AE ?3;IGE 3E 3@67D7dAE F;7@7@ CG7 F7@7D J3 G@3 B7D57B5;e@ BADCG7 F;7@7@ G@3 9D3@ D7EBA@ E34;;636 Y @FD7 AE 7EFG6;3@F7E 7EFa A CG7 BG763@ D75A97D 67 53E3 J 7@ 3E 53E3E BG767@ F7@7D G@3 B7D57B5;e@ 6;93?AE ?GJ G@;3F7D3 G@3 B7D57B5;e@
  32. 32. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 BDAB;3 '7DA 7@ 3 7E5G73 6747Dc3@ 67 39GF;@3DE7 FA63E 73E J CG7 3 GH7@FG6 7?B;757 3 H7DA 67 8AD?3 6;87D7@F7 J3 (G7 7?B;757@ 3 B7@E3D 67 AFD3 8AD?3 BADCG7 E; @A H3?AE 3 ?3@F7@7D AE ?;E?AE 8D7@F7E #3 EA5;7636 7@ EG 5A@G@FA ?;D3 3 EGE b;F7E E; 3E b;F7E :357@ 97EFAE 67 7EF7 F;BA 39A CG763Da 4;7@ :75:A 7EFa '7DA JA 5D7A CG7 7E ?G5:A ?aE BDA8G@6A A CG7 7E @757E3D;A 67E67 3 76G535;e@ 67 5A?43F7 :35;3 7E7 F;BA 67 ;673E 67 CG7 @AEAFDAE EA?AE ?7AD7E CG7 7 AFDA Y !G@FA 3 FA6A 7EA B3@F73D AE H3AD7E / @A E7 FD3F3 EA3?7@F7 67 ?;D3D E;@A B3@F73D 5Ga7E 6747@ E7D AE H3AD7E #3 EA;63D;636 7E ;?BADF3@FcE;?3 3 7?B3Fc3
  33. 33. 1391 E1 #5=?B91 ?=@1BD941 8.5 NUEVAS FÓRMULAS !+ ) * % $ $$%! ! %$'* ! ' % !$ *1 H 3?=? C5 81 3?=5D14? 1AE5 13D? 4?45 )14B1 1BB1C3? H %1DI DG125 1@1 B5395B? :ED1C 5 1 @1I1 45 @E52? 5 BB1C1D5 5 49395=2B5 45
  34. 34. 45DB? 45 @B?7B1=1 45 1 1I1 45 1 #5=?B91 @1B1 1 =1H?Be1 45 1C @5BC?1C 5DB5F9CD141C 6E5 E =?=5D? =EH 5C@5391 D9DE1B @E29314? @?B 5 7BE@? 45 3?=E93139h ?951 @E545 C5B iD9 @1B1 B5CE=9B 1AE5 53E5DB? %1DI DG125 H )14B1 1BB1C3? B5=? F954? 5DB1f1C 1D5 1 39E4141e1 (53??3954? 5 4??B 45 E1 =9C=1 H B5C@5 D14? 5 4??B 45 1 ?DB1 5 1AE51 3?F5BC139h 1=21C 5=@5I1B? 1 D5:5B E1 B54 45 =5=?B91 3?=@1BD941 AE5 C5Bb 6E41=5D1 @1B1 3?CDBE9B 5DB5 D?41C H D?4?C E 6EDEB? 3?=i %1DI DG125 H )14B1 1BB1C3? ?D? A;7@3 ;?=E9;1I9? D1451 ?B 5? @?B 1 8E51 95AEeF?31 AE5 45:h 1AE5 4e1 5 =E381C 45 1C @5BC?1C 5DB5 F9CD141C @1B535 1@B?@914? B53?75B 1AEe 1C ?@99?5C C?2B5 1AE5 13D? @1B1 @?5B 5 TYRXS ƼREP EP ETEVXEHS HIHMGEHS E PSW XIWXMQSRMSW % WMQTPI ZMWXE TEVIGI UYI IWXEW HSW =E:5B5C D955 17? 5 3?=i 1EAE5 5:1? 1 @5C1B 45 AE5 1=21C C9DE139?5C C51 DBb7931C ? 5 F1? ?C @14B5C 45 1=21C 6E5B? 1C5C914?C 5 BB1C1D5 5 C54?C 1D5D14?C C9 B5139h 49B53D1 5DB5 Ce @B9=5B? DEF? E71B 5 =95DB1C AE5 5 C57E4? CE3549h 5
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