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With the rise of microservices and distributed cloud architectures, the web has grown increasingly complex. As a result, “random” failures have grown difficult to predict. At the same time, our dependence on these systems has only increased.
Traditionally, these sensible measures to gain confidence are taken before systems or applications reach production. Once in production, the traditional approach is to rely on monitoring and logging to confirm that everything is working correctly. If it is behaving as expected, then you don't have a problem. If it is not, and it requires human intervention (troubleshooting, triage, resolution, etc.), then you need to react to the incident and get things working again as fast as possible. This implies that once a system is in production, "Don't touch it!"—except, of course, when it's broken, in which case touch it all you want, under the time pressure inherent in an outage response.
GameDays were coined by Jesse Robbins when he worked at Amazon and was responsible for availability. Jesse created GameDays with the goal of increasing reliability by purposefully creating major failures on a regular basis.
Super power with Docker (Dockerfiles) instead of Chef or Puppet.
Invest time to save time
Write and updates Counters!!!! Not on the DB – redis!!
Database Federation is where we break up the database by function. In our example, we have broken out the Forums DB from the User DB from the Products DB Of course, cross functional queries are harder to do and you may need to do your joins at the application layer for these types of queries This will reduce our database footprint for a while and the great thing is, this does prevent you from having to shard until much further down the line. This isn’t going to help for single large tables; for this we will need to shard.
Sharding is where we break up that single large database into multiple DBs. We might need to do this because of database or table size or potentially for high write IOPs as well. Here is an example of us breaking up a database with a large table into 3 databases. Above we show where each userID is located, but the easiest way to describe how this would work would be to use the example of all users with A-H go into one DB, and I – M go in another, and N – Z go into the third DB. Typically this is done by key space and your application has to be aware of where to read from, update and write to for a particular record. ORM support can help here. This does create operation complexity so if you can federate first, do that.
This can be done with SQL or NoSQL, and DynamoDB does this for you under the covers on the backend as your data size increases and the reads / writes per second scale.
Route your website visitors to an alternate location to avoid site outages
Does a region Fail? Full region: no Individual services can fail region-wide Most of the time, configuration issue Leading to cascading failures.
Eventual consistency, also called optimistic replication, is widely deployed in distributed systems, and has origins in early mobile computing projects. A system that has achieved eventual consistency is often said to have converged, or achieved replica convergence. Eventual consistency is a weak guarantee – most stronger models, like linearizability are trivially eventually consistent, but a system that is merely eventually consistent does not usually fulfill these stronger constraints.
The stronger the relashionship between the metric and the business outcome you care about, the stronger the signal you have for making actionable decisions.
Keynote - Chaos Engineering: Why breaking things should be practiced