THE CLOUD BUZZ
The Internet Industry Is on a Cloud – Whatever That May Mean
•Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2009, A1
The U.S. Federal Government cloud computing market enters into
double-digit growth phase – at about 16% CAGR over the period
2013-2018, with annual federal cloud computing market to hit $10
billion landmark by 2018.
“Cloud Computing 'Something We Absolutely Have to Do‘”
• John Garing, CIO, DISA
Worldwide Cloud Computing market is continuing to grow at a rapid
rate and it is expected to cross US$ 25 Billion by the end of 2013
• It provides computation, software, data access, and storage
services as a utility over a network (typically the Internet)
– Do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and
configuration of the system that delivers the services
• Parallel to the electricity grid
– The end-users consume power without needing to understand the
component devices or infrastructure required to provide the
• Computing as a utility is a dream that dates from the
beginning of the computing industry itself.
– A way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without
investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing
– Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-
peruse service that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT's
What is Cloud Computing?
• A style of computing where massively scalable
(and elastic) IT-related capabilities are provided
“as a service” to external customers using
What’s new? (Gartner’s Insight)
Based on purchasing
Business Model: Based
on pay for use
Access Model: Over
the Internet to ANY
• Cloud computing providers deliver applications
via the internet, which are accessed from a web
browser, while the business software and data
are stored on servers at a remote location.
• The legacy applications
– Delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the
computing resources are consolidated at a remote
data center location
– Or the entire business application is coded using
webbased technologies such as AJAX.
• The real paradigm shift is in the way in which systems are
– The long-held dream of utility computing become possible
with a pay-as-you-go, infinitely scalable, universally available
– You can start very small and become big very fast.
• Cloud computing is revolutionary, even if the technology
it is built on is evolutionary.
• Not all applications benefit from deployment in the
– Issues with latency, transaction control, and in particular
security and regulatory compliance are of particular concern.
CLOUD COMPUTING: A PARADIGM SHIFT
MASTERING THE HYPE CYCLE: How to Choose the Right Innovation at the Right
Time, Jackie Fenn and Mark Raskino
• Cloud computing has "moved noticeably along the Hype
Cycle since 2011”.
– Hybrid Cloud Computing has just entered the Peak of Inflated
– Private Cloud Computing has just left the Peak of Inflated
– Cloud Computing has just entered the Trough of
• Cloud computing, together with big data and in-memory
database management systems, are the tipping point
technologies that will make this scenario accessible to
enterprises, governments and consumers.
Cloud in the Cycle: From 2011 to 2012
Evolution of Internet Computing
Ref: Wipro Chennai 2011
Amazon Story: A risky bet
At 2 a.m. on Aug. 24, a new venture
called Elastic Compute Cloud quietly
launched in test mode. Its service:
cheap, raw computing power that
could be tapped on demand over the
Internet just like electricity. In less than
five hours, hundreds of programmers,
hoping to use the service
One desperate latecomer
instant-messaged a $10,000 offer for a
slot to a lucky winner, who declined to
give it up. "It's really cool," enthuses
entrepreneur Luke Matkins, who will
run his soon-to-launch music site on
• Went from centralized mainframes to distributed desktops and now is
going back to another centralized model: Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing: A circle
”Cloud computing is a model for enabling
ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network
access to a shared pool of configurable computing
resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
applications, and services) that can be rapidly
provisioned and released with minimal
management effort or service provider
• On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities,
such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring
human interaction with each service provider.
• Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed
through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client
platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations).
• Resource pooling. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple
consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources
dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense
of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge
over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at
a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources
include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth.
• Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases
automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To
the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited
and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time.
• Measured service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by
leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of
service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource
usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the
provider and consumer of the utilized service.
(Provided by NIST)
Five Cloud Characteristics
• The four dimensions are:
– Physical location of the data:
Internal / External
– Ownership: Proprietary/Open
– Security boundary: Perimeterised /
– Sourcing: Insourced or Outsourced
THE CLOUD CUBE MODEL
The Cloud Cube Model is meant to show that the traditional notion of a
network boundary being the network's firewall no longer applies in cloud
• On-demand self-service:.
• Broad network access
• Resource pooling:
• Quality of Service: The Quality of Service (QoS) is something that you
can obtain under contract from your vendor.
• Reliability: The scale of cloud computing networks and their ability to
provide load balancing and failover makes them highly reliable, of ten
much more reliable than what you can achieve in a single organization.
• Rapid elasticity
• Measured service
• Lower costs: Because cloud networks operate at higher efficiencies and
with greater utilization, Significant cost reductions are often
• Ease of utilization: Depending upon the type of service being offered,
you may find that you do not require hardware or software licenses to
implement your service.
BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
• Not customizable
• Less features: ERP Applications deployed on-premises still have many more
features than their cloud counterparts
• Latency: All cloud computing applications suffer from the inherent latency
that is intrinsic in their WAN connectivity.
• Data Transfer Issues: While cloud computing applications excel at large-scale
processing tasks, if your applications needs large amounts of data transfer,
cloud computing may not be the best model for you.
• Additionally, cloud computing is a stateless system, as is the Internet in
– That lack of state allows messages to travel over different routes and for
data to arrive out of sequence, and many other characteristics allow the
communication to succeed even when the medium is faulty.
– Therefore, to impose transactional coherency upon the system, additional
overhead in the form of service brokers, transaction managers, and other
middleware must be added to the system. This can introduce a very large
performance hit into some applications.
Demerits: Cloud Computing
• Concerns of privacy and security. When your data travels over and
rests on systems that are no longer under your control, you have
increased risk due to the interception and malfeasance of others. You
can't count on a cloud provider maintaining your privacy in the face of
– In the United States, an example is the National Security Agency's
program that ran millions of phone calls from AT&T and Verizon through a
data analyzer to extract the phone calls that matched its security criteria.
VoIP is one of the services that is heavily deployed on cloud computing
– Another example is the case of Google's service in China, which had been
subject to a filter that removed content to which the Chinese government
objected. After five years of operation, and after Google detected that
Chinese hackers were accessing Gmail accounts of Chinese citizens,
Google moved their servers for Google.ch to Hong Kong.
• Regulatory compliance Issues
Demerits: Cloud Computing (Contd.)
• Messaging and team collaboration applications
• Cross enterprise integration projects
• Infrastructure consolidation, server, and desktop virtualization
• Web 2.0 and social strategy companies
• Web content delivery services
• Data analytics and computation
• Mobility applications for the enterprise
• CRM applications
• Experimental deployments, test bed labs, and development
• Backup and archival storage
• By: Jitendra Pal Thethi, a Principle Architect for Infosys'
Microsoft Technology Group
Top 10 Business Types for Cloud
– A layer mapping its visible interface and resources onto the interface and resources
of the underlying layer or system on which it is implemented
• Abstraction – to simplify the use of the underlying resource (e.g., by
removing details of the resource’s structure)
• Replication – to create multiple instances of the resource (e.g., to
simplify management or allocation)
• Isolation – to separate the uses which clients make of the underlying
resources (e.g., to improve security)
• Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)
– A virtualization system that partitions a single physical “machine” into multiple
• Host – the machine and/or software on which the VMM is implemented
• Guest – the OS which executes under the control of the VMM
• Server consolidation
– Run a web server and a mail server on the same physical server
• Easier development
– Develop critical operating system components (file system, disk
driver) without affecting computer stability
– Testing a network product (e.g., a firewall) may require tens of
– Try testing thoroughly a product at each pre-release milestone…
and have a straight face when your boss shows you the electricity
• Cloud computing
– The modern buzz-word
– Amazon sells computing power
– You pay for e.g., 2 CPU cores for 3 hours plus 10GB of network
Uses of Virtualization (by IBM)
• Two distinct sets of models:
– Deployment models (location and management of the
– Service models that you can access on a cloud
Cloud Computing: Service & Deployment models
• A cloud is defined as the combination of the infrastructure of
a datacenter with the ability to provision hardware and
• A service that concentrates on hardware follows the
Infrastructure as a Ser vice ( IaaS) mode
– Amazon EC2, Eucalyptus, GoGrid, FlexiScale, Linode, RackSpace,
• When the service requires the client to use a complete
hardware/software/application stack, it is using the most
refined and restrictive service model , called the Plat form as a
Service (PaaS) model.
– Force.com, GoGrid Cloud Center, Google AppEngine, Windows
• When you add a software stack, such as an operating system
and applications to the service, the model shifts to the
Software as a Service (SaaS) model .
– GoogleApps, Oracle On Demand, SalesForce.com, SQLAzure
Cloud: Service Models
• Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use
the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications
are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface,
such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email), or a program interface. The
consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure
including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual
application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific
application configuration settings.
• Platform as a Service (PaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to
deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications
created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported
by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud
infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has
control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for
the application-hosting environment.
• Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to
provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing
resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software,
which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not
manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over
operating systems, storage, and deployed applications; and possibly limited
control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
Service Models by NIST
• Private cloud. The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a
single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It
may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or
some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
• Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by
a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared
concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance
considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of
the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of
them, and it may exist on or off premises.
• Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the
general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business,
academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists
on the premises of the cloud provider.
• Hybrid cloud. The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more
distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain
unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary
technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting
for load balancing between clouds).
NIST DEPLOYMENT MODELS
CIO of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA),
Shows the kind of pressue which different firms face + competitors marketing with Cloud
Ask the participatnts about Web 2.0
State Example here- Village Draught
Legacy Applications: Which have not been coded based on cloud parameters. Basically Line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing
Hype cycle - A hype cycle is a graphic representation of the maturity, adoption and social application of specific technologies. The term was coined by Gartner, Inc.[
"Technology Trigger" — The first phase of a hype cycle is the "technology trigger" or breakthrough, product launch or other event that generates significant press and interest.
"Peak of Inflated Expectations" — In the next phase, a frenzy of publicity typically generates over-enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations. There may be some successful applications of a technology, but there are typically more failures.
"Trough of Disillusionment" — Technologies enter the "trough of disillusionment" because they fail to meet expectations and quickly become unfashionable. Consequently, the press usually abandons the topic and the technology.
"Slope of Enlightenment" — Although the press may have stopped covering the technology, some businesses continue through the "slope of enlightenment" and experiment to understand the benefits and practical application of the technology.
"Plateau of Productivity" — A technology reaches the "plateau of productivity" as the benefits of it become widely demonstrated and accepted. The technology becomes increasingly stable and evolves in second and third generations. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or benefits only a niche market.
Ask the participants about BIG DATA Analytics SAP HANA
A disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Refer Session 2 P1 (Cube Model)
Latency is a measure of time delay experienced in a system
Regulatory compliance issues of various kinds. In the United States, companies must comply with the accounting requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act; health care providers comply with the data privacy rules of HIPAA, and so on. In Europe, the European Common Market has a raft of its own legislation for companies to deal with. Rules apply to data at rest, and different rules may apply to data in transit.
If you stage your cloud computing deployment across states and countries, the bad news is that you may end up having to comply with multiple jurisdictions. Don't expect much support from the cloud system provider or from the
governments involved. The laws of most regulatory agencies place the entire burden on the client. So when it comes to compliance, cloud computing is still the "Wild West" of computing.
Apr 21st 2011: Amazon’s cloud hosting service experienced technical errors that caused several major websites to go down. The Amazon Elastic Cloud Computing service is one of the leading providers in cloud computing, hosting several of the major social websites including Foursquare, Quora, and Reddit.