132KV Gomal University Grid station
1. Abass “Noorzai”
Roll NO# 14
2. Sahar “Yousufzai”
Roll NO# 10
Engineer Ehtisham “Mustafa”
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
الرحیم الرحمن ال بسم
Assembly of apparatus to change some characteristic
of Electrical supply.
Substation transformer change voltage level and
contains equipment's to protect and control power lines.
Substation contain the following equipment's.
Incoming transmission lines
• Power Transformer
• Instrument Transformer
Circuit breakers, switch gears, Isolators
Bus bar and cables
DC battery Bank
Substation do not generate power
Incoming transmission lines
These are the lines which are coming from
Generating station in three phase Delta to Delta
connection. These lines having high voltage
Power Transformer is used in the Substation to
step up or step down the voltage.
In this grid station we use it for step down purpose.
• It is a type of instrument transformer that is used in
power system for measurement, detection and
protection of the system.
• Voltage Transformer also used for measurement purpose
in substation, it reduced the voltage level to convenient
form for meter that can handle.
It is used to ensure that electrical circuit is completely de-
energized for general maintenance and service.
It can be operated manually or automatically.
It is an electrical operated switch designed to protect an electrical
circuit from damage.
A circuit breaker function is to detect the fault condition and
Operated manually and automatically.
In an electrical system, switchgear is the combination of
electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit
breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical
equipment. It is actually de energized the equipment's and
allow work to be done in order to remove faults.
It is a device used on power system to protect Electrical
system, its conductors, insulators, transformers from
damaging effect of lightning.
Bus Bar and Cables
It is a high voltage conductors used to supply power for two or
more than two circuit.
The incoming and outgoing lines can be connected with the Bus-bar
with the help of Bus bar coupler.
Bus bar coupler consist of Circuit breaker and isolator.
It is mostly used on poles and towers to support the conductors
in a such a way that current from conductor don not flow to the
earth through the poles or Tower.
It is used to improved the power factor of System.
It is also increase terminal voltage.
It is the room which is responsible for over all controlling of
Substation and consist of different controlling and protective
• Auxiliary panel
It control the AC and DC equipment's in control room.
• Relay panel
It is used for fault detection and give command to
circuit breaker to interrupt the fault.
• Control panel
It is responsible for controlling and protection of over
Switch Gear Room
It is responsible for switching on and off Electricity to the load.
It has incoming lines from substation and outgoing lines which is
connecting with distribution transformer near to the load
DC Battery Room
It is used for protective devices.
It contain 55 batteries each have 2 volt capacity.
How Substation works?
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for
delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating
stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that
carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines
that connect individual customers.
Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take
advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from
heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of
the economies of scales. The electric power which is generated is stepped up
to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission
On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a
transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the
substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the
service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution
voltage to the required service voltage(s).
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