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Substation

  1. 1. 1 132KV Gomal University Grid station Presented By:- 1. Abass “Noorzai” Roll NO# 14 2. Sahar “Yousufzai” Roll NO# 10 Presented To:- Engineer Ehtisham “Mustafa” Faculty of Engineering and Technology ‫الرحیم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بسم‬
  2. 2. 2 Substation Assembly of apparatus to change some characteristic of Electrical supply. Substation transformer change voltage level and contains equipment's to protect and control power lines.
  3. 3. 3 Substation contain the following equipment's.  Incoming transmission lines  Transformers • Power Transformer • Instrument Transformer  Circuit breakers, switch gears, Isolators  Lighting arresters  Capacitor bank  Bus bar and cables  Insulator  DC battery Bank Substation do not generate power
  4. 4. 4 Incoming transmission lines These are the lines which are coming from Generating station in three phase Delta to Delta connection. These lines having high voltage (132KV).
  5. 5. 5 Transformer Power Transformer  Power Transformer is used in the Substation to step up or step down the voltage.  In this grid station we use it for step down purpose.
  6. 6. 6 Instrument Transformer  Current Transformer • It is a type of instrument transformer that is used in power system for measurement, detection and protection of the system.
  7. 7. 7  Voltage Transformer • Voltage Transformer also used for measurement purpose in substation, it reduced the voltage level to convenient form for meter that can handle.
  8. 8. 8 Isolator switch  It is used to ensure that electrical circuit is completely de- energized for general maintenance and service.  It can be operated manually or automatically.
  9. 9. 9 Circuit Breaker It is an electrical operated switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage. A circuit breaker function is to detect the fault condition and interrupt it. Operated manually and automatically.
  10. 10. 10 Switch Gear  In an electrical system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. It is actually de energized the equipment's and allow work to be done in order to remove faults.
  11. 11. 11 Lighting Arrester It is a device used on power system to protect Electrical system, its conductors, insulators, transformers from damaging effect of lightning.
  12. 12. 12 Bus Bar and Cables It is a high voltage conductors used to supply power for two or more than two circuit. The incoming and outgoing lines can be connected with the Bus-bar with the help of Bus bar coupler. Bus bar coupler consist of Circuit breaker and isolator.
  13. 13. 13 Insulator It is mostly used on poles and towers to support the conductors in a such a way that current from conductor don not flow to the earth through the poles or Tower.
  14. 14. 14 Capacitor Bank It is used to improved the power factor of System. It is also increase terminal voltage.
  15. 15. 15 Control Room It is the room which is responsible for over all controlling of Substation and consist of different controlling and protective equipment's. • Auxiliary panel It control the AC and DC equipment's in control room. • Relay panel It is used for fault detection and give command to circuit breaker to interrupt the fault. • Control panel It is responsible for controlling and protection of over all substation.
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  17. 17. 17 Switch Gear Room It is responsible for switching on and off Electricity to the load.  It has incoming lines from substation and outgoing lines which is connecting with distribution transformer near to the load center.
  18. 18. 18 DC Battery Room It is used for protective devices. It contain 55 batteries each have 2 volt capacity.
  19. 19. 19 How Substation works? An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers. Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of the economies of scales. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission network. On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).
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