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IS Project_Ch5_IT_Infrastructure.pptx

  1. CHAPTER – 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies Submitted to Dr. Vivek Gupta Team 6 Arijit Sarkar (PGPSM08007) Bharat Gangwar (PGPSM08012) Prantik Chakraborty (PGPSM08024) Prithwijit Bandopadhyay(PGPSM08028) Soumyaditya Kar (PGPSM08034)
  2. IT Infrastructure Shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm's specific information system, applications. • Investment in Hardware • Investment in Software • Investment in services (Consulting, Education and Training) IT Infrastructure provides the foundation for serving customers, working vendors and managing internal firm business process.
  3. Evolution of IT Infrastructure The IT Infrastructure in organizations today in an outgrowth of more than 50 years of evolution in computing platforms. General- Purpose Mainframe and Minicomputer Era (1959 to Present) Personal Computer Era (1981 to Present) Client/Server Era (1983 to Present) Enterprise Computing Era (1992 to Present) Cloud and Mobile Computing Era (2000 to Present)
  4. Technology Drivers of Infrastructure Evolution Moore's law and Microprocessing Power - It refers that the number of transistors on a microchip doubles every two years, though the cost of computers is halved, we can expect the speed and capability of our computers to increase every couple of years, and we will pay less for them. Power of Microprocessor doubles every 18 months Computing power doubles every 18 months Price of computing falls by half every 18 months
  5. Mass Digital Storage The Law of Mass Digital Storage deals with the exponential decrease in the cost of storing data, stating that the number of kilobytes of data that can be stored on magnetic media for $1 roughly doubles every 15 months. Metcalfe's Law - The value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of nodes in the network. Computers, servers, and even users can be end nodes. For example, if a network has 10 nodes, its inherent value is 100 (10×10=100). Add one more node, and the value is 121. Add another and the value jumps to 144. Non-linear, exponential, growth.
  6. Components of IT Infrastructure IT Infrastructure Ecosystem Presently, Firm's IT infrastructure will increasingly be an amalgamation of components and services that are partially owned, partially rented or licensed, partially located on site and partially supplied by vendors or cloud services Source-
  7. Current Trends in Computer Hardware Platforms The Mobile Digital Platform iPhone and Android have taken on many functions of PCs. They have become the primary means of accessing the internet and are increasingly used for business computing as well as consumer applications. -iPhones, Android phones, iPad, kindle etc. Consumerization of IT and BYOD Bring your own device - Allowing employees to use their personal mobile devices in the workplace BYOD is one aspect of consumerization of IT, in which new information technology that first emerges in the consumer market spreads into business organizations. Consumerization of IT includes not only mobile personal devices but also services that originated in the consumer marketplace such as Google and Yahoo search, Gmail, Dropbox .. Forcing the businesses to rethink the way they obtain and manage information technology equipment and services Quantum Computing Uses the principles of quantum physics to represent and perform operations on these data Conventional computers handle bits of data as either 0 or 1 but not both, quantum computing Can process units of data as 0,1 or both simultaneously A Quantum computer would gain enormous power through this ability and be able to solve some scientific and business problems a million times faster than can be done today.
  8. Current Trends in Computer Hardware Platforms Cloud Computing Essential Characteristics of Cloud 1-Computing 2-On-demand self-service 3-Ubiquitous network access 4-Location-independent resource pooling 5-Rapid Elasticity 6-Measured Service Types of services Infrastructure as a service ( IaaS) Customers use resources from cloud service providers to run their information systems Users pay only for the amount of computing and storage capacity they actually use Software as a service (SaaS) Customers use software hosted by the vendor on the vendor's cloud infrastructure and delivered as a service over a network. Example- Google's G Suite Platform as a service ( PaaS) Customers use infrastructure and programming tools supported by the cloud service provider to develop their own applications. Example- Salesforce platform
  9. Current Trends in Computer Hardware Platforms Cloud Computing Sorce-
  10. Current Trends in Computer Hardware Platforms Edge Computing A method of optimizing cloud computing system by performing some performance on a set of linked servers at the edge of the network, near the source of the data. Reduces the amount of data flowing back and forth between local computers and other devices and central cloud data center Reduces delay in transmitting and processing data Green Computing Refers to practices and technologies for designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of IT devices to minimize the impact on the environment High Performance and Power-Saving Processors A Multicore processor is an integrated circuit to which many processor cores have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption, and multitasking. - dual-core, quad-core, 6,8,16,32-core , A9, A10, A11 processors etc. Virtualization The process of presenting a set of computing resources so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographical location Enables a single physical resource to appear to the user as multiple logical resources(SDS) VMware is the leading virtualization software vendor for Windows and Linux servers
  11. Current Computer Software Platforms and Trends Four major trends in software platform evolution: • Linux & Open-Source software • Java, HTML & HTML5 • Web Services & Service-oriented architecture • Software outsourcing & Cloud services
  12. LINUX and Open-Source software Open-Source Software • Used by a community of more than 100,000 programmers • Free and modifiable by users • Not restricted to any OS or hardware technology • Android OS and Chrome browser are based on open-source tools Linux Operating System • Most well-known open-source software • Linux apps embedded in cell phones, tablet computers, etc. • Available freely on the internet including tools from Red Hat • Leading OS for servers, mainframe computers & supercomputers • IBM, HP, Intel, Dell and Oracle being prominent users • Applications include cost reduction, reliability and resilience
  13. Software for the web Java • Platform-independent, object-oriented programming language • Serving interactive content and pay-per-view services for phones, automobiles, music players, game machines and set-top boxes • A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) interprets Java code which is written once and can be reused on any machine which has JVM • Developers create small applet programs embedded in web pages HTML & HTML5 (Hypertext Markup Language ) • Page-description language for specifying how text, graphics, video and sound are placed on a web page • Originally used for creating static documents which evolved now • Currently has multimedia elements integrated via third-party apps like Flash, Silverlight and Java • HTML5 came with the possibility to embed multimedia without any processor-intensive add-onns • HTML5 made easier accessibility of web pages across devices and supported offline storage of data for apps
  14. Web Services and Service-Oriented Architecture • Used to exchange information between two systems regardless of the OS or programming language • Founded from XML (Extensible Markup Language) considered more powerful and flexible than HTML • Apart from presentation in HTML, XML can perform communication and data storage as well • XML provides a standard format for data exchange and enabling web services • Collection of web services that communicate with each other is called Service-oriented architecture
  15. Software Outsourcing and Cloud Services Three external sources for software: 1. Software packages & Enterprise software 2. Software outsourcing 3. Cloud-based software services Cloud-based software services Software as a Service (SaaS) • Accessed with web browser over internet • Ranges from free/low-cost services for individuals to businesses & enterprise software • Uses pay on subscription or per-transaction • Example: • Service Level Agreements (SLAs): -- formal agreement with service providers Mashups o Combination of two or more online applications, such as combining Google Maps with local content Apps o Small pieces of software that run on the Internet, on your computer or cell phone (iPhone, BlackBerry, Android) o Generally delivered over the Internet
  16. Challenges of managing IT Infrastructure Dealing with Platform and Infrastructure Change  Scalability  Mobile Device Management Management and Governance Control and management of the firm’s IT Infrastructure o Centrally managed or Independent (managed at Department level) o Infrastructure costs allocation o Relationship between the Central Information Systems Management and Business Unit Systems Management Making Wise Infrastructure Investments  How much should be spent on IT Infrastructure – considering the competitors performance and delivery  Rent-vs-Buy Decision - Purchase and maintain its own IT Infrastructure or Rent them to external suppliers  Security requirements and evaluation – Cloud computing
  17. Challenges of managing IT Infrastructure Total Cost of Ownership of Technology Assets  Total cost of Ownership = Original cost of acquiring and installing hardware and software + ongoing administration costs + utility costs  TCO Model used to analyze and help fimrs determine the actual cost of specific technology implementations  The administration costs account for a significant proportion of the TCO, while hardware & software acquisition costs ~ 20%  Switching to cloud services can benefit the firms by o reducing the TCO through greater centralization and standardization of resources o Reducing the size of information systems staff o Systems administration and troubleshooting from a central location
  18. Competitive Forces Model for IT Infrastructure