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Sustainable Greening of Abu Dhabi City - 2010

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Sustainable Greening of Abu Dhabi City - 2010

  1. 1. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 Sustainable Greening of Abu Dhabi City AS.S. Al-Mashhadani, Expert, PRFD, ADM, UAE.a.mashhadani@adm.abudhabi.ae A. B. Al Muraikhi, Director, PRFD, ADM, UAE. a.almuraikhi@adm.abudhabi.ae ABSTRACT This study reviews the local experience of dealing with the harsh environmental conditions. Accordingly the sever climatic conditions make it difficult to maintain the vegetation and means that there is a need for permanent irrigation and to balance between the establishment of new vegetated areas and the long- term management of existing areas. it shows how these challenges are faced by adopting measures that minimize the negative effects of the conditions, such as; developing standards to use the appropriate quality of the treated sewage water as irrigation , adoption of a SCADA computer system and provide reticulation networks to monitor and control the irrigation and drainage systems, use of new materials and techniques to overcome problems, issued PRFD- Landscape Design Guidelines that reflect the direct and indirect means for reducing the cost and water consumption. PRFD is looking to gain the international award schemes for Blue Flag and Green Flag. It shows several completed prestigious projects in urban landscape development in Abu Dhabi City which are equipped with state of the art landscape materials, irrigation and control systems and provide horticultural diversity reflecting modern practices. The study suggested many recommendations that could be adopted to rehabilitate the existing vegetative cover. 1. INTRODUCTION The United Arab Emirates lies in Southwest Asia. It is located between an altitude of 51 and 56 degree Eastern and latitude of 20.5 to 26 degree Northern along the south – at the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The UAE extends for about 420 km from north to south. The seven emirates of the UAE enclose a total area of about 83,600 km 2 . Most of the country is desert, with a flat coastal plain consisting mostly of tidal salt flats. The land slopes down from the mountains in the country's north-eastern extremity to an elevated desert plateau. The issue of desertification is a priority in UAE due to the fact that there are vast areas of desert land. An early interest in the desertification issue was reflected at all levels through forestation and reclamation of large areas of desert land especially for agricultural purposes. Abu Dhabi is the largest of the seven Emirates. Abu Dhabi is also a city of the same name within the Emirate and is the Capital of the country. The Abu Dhabi Island lies on a T-shaped area jutting into the Arab Gulf from the central western coast. 1.1 Vegetation Cover: Since the early 1970s and 1980s Abu Dhabi Emirate, like other Emirates of the UAE, has been witnessing large scale greenery that started with the provision of an appropriate environment within the cities and urban facilities by planting forest shelterbelts and windbreaks covering an area of over 270,000 hectares in Abu Dhabi Emirate alone. These activities were reducing the impact of winds and sand storms, assist in sand-dune fixation as well as prevention of sand creeps. The number of recorded species within UAE flora is now 582 relating to 343 kinds and belonging to 75 plant families. The pioneering types of plantations whether arboreal or shrubby types are either indigenous or introduced which can effectively stand the entire prevailing environmental conditions. The types of trees include: Ghaf (Prosopis spicigera), Ghuwaif (Prosopis juliflora) , Arak (Salvadora persica), Sidr (Zizyphus spina-christi) , Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera),Samar(Acacia tortilis), Qaradh (Acacia Arabica), Kenya (Eucalyptus spp.), Damas(Conocarpus spp.), Salam (Acacia raddiana), Fittna (Acacia
  2. 2. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 farnesiana), Talah (Acacia syal) and Tarhfa (Tamarix articulate), etc. of the indigenous and enduring ones which have coped and proved resistant to local environmental conditions . 1.2 Limitations for Greenery Development There are many limiting factors that stopped against the greenery development, the main are: Scarcity of water sources that can be used for agriculture, Poor soil fertility and severe climate . 1.3 Importance of Greenery Planting trees can alter entire environmental conditions by changing and enhancing the impacts of the overall climate (sun, radioactive energy, winds and their speed and direction, rains, temperatures, etc.) on the environment, reducing air pollution and creating a climate that is influenced by the existence of planted trees. The assessment of economic value arising from greenery is associated with its type, size, condition and functionality. 1.4 Planning and Management of the Urban Green Resource Previous generations of UAE have contributed to the „seeding‟ of environmental developments such as the greening in several oases in the desert and the utilization of „Falaj‟ systems. Now, the people have lived a unique and pioneering experience in greening the desert and sand-fixation since sands present a real danger to the safety of urban areas. All the green‟s efforts may have never succeeded without a special attention and unconditional support of the Late President Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahayan. He was a role model as a human and ruler, keen to preserve and sustain the environment and natural resources. His view is very well reflected in his sayings: “Our interests in environmental protection, plant and animal conservation are not delivered at this hour. It is our deep rooted interest that we called and applied before any such international interest had begun.” The Abu Dhabi‟s experience in forestry and greening of rural and urban areas has been well received and appreciated by its local and expatriate populations and by regional and international organizations. This is primarily because of the success of plant growth despite harsh environmental factors. Besides the greening of Abu Dhabi city there has also been a massive afforestation programme in the desert areas of the city (Main Land) and it is here that most trees have been planted. The majority of achievements in the field of afforestation and greening are results of works and plans of many divisions of the Abu Dhabi Municipality.: 1.5 On-Going Activities for Greenery Development They included: Construction of water reservoirs ,Adopt modern irrigation system & water consumption methods, Establishment of sewage treatment plants, Recharging / Feeding of underground water storage, Sustainable water development and management; reuse of drainage water, Establishing Fertilizer Manufacturing Factories, Adopt the results of research centres studies for related issues, Sand levelling & Earthworks and many other architectural and planning works in urban landscape. 2. THE MUNICIPAL SECTOR IN ABU DHABI EMIRATE The municipal sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi seeks to excel in public service delivery level to society providing the highest global standards in order to attain the Government vision to become one of the best five Governments globally and for Abu Dhabi to become one of the most important destinations in the world. 2.1 Plans of Municipality of Abu Dhabi City One of the major priorities of the strategic plans (2010 – 2014) of the Municipality of Abu Dhabi City (ADM) relevant to the issue of environment is represented by the following:
  3. 3. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 “Strengthening the branding of the city and its identity as clean and attractive environment that contributes to enhancing community health and makes the city one of the most developed and distinguished global destinations” ADM was and still is among the pioneer departments that embraced the polices of sustainable development as part of its comprehensive policies and strategic plans based on a close and integrated approach applied in all the projects undertaken , initiatives made and services delivered . These polices and plans are being aligned with the environmental, social and economic dimensions with a view to achieving an optimal utilization of resources to make Abu Dhabi city among the cosmopolitan cities featured by a safe, attractive ,and sustained environment to cope with all environmental issues and the remarkable growth seen by the city. ADM has furthermore co-operated with its brother Arab and Gulf countries such as Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait and Egypt in greenery and landscape developments. The Government has also taken part in many International and Regional Exhibitions (Japan, U.K, France, GCC, Morocco, Syria, Egypt…etc) and won many covetous prizes. One of the most recent achievements was winning the overall first prize in greenery amongst the Arabian Cities Organization. 2.1.1 Strategic Plan Priorities • Enhance quality of life through excellence in delivering community services. • Ensure sustainable urban development • Enhance infrastructure sustainability • Achieve excellence in delivering municipal customer services • Leverage strategic partnerships • Enhance employee capabilities and work environment- • Improve business processes and operational capabilities 2.1.2 Alignment with Abu Dhabi Government ADM Strategic Plan maps to Government vision, objectives & strategy: Policy Agenda, Urban Plan Abu Dhabi 2030, Social and Human Resources Policy, Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030, Whole of Government initiatives, Abu Dhabi Government Performance management framework, and Partnership & coordination between agencies 3. MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE & ASSETS SECTOR The sector oversees the process for planning, executing, and maintaining internal roads, infrastructure, parks and recreation facilities, including: roads and bridges, parking needs and facilities, pedestrian facilities, traffic management, landscaping. 3.1 Parks & Recreation Facilities Division (PRFD) With the growing of the vital importance of urban landscape and greening, the Abu Dhabi government has set up a specialized Division, Parks & Recreation Facilities Division (PRFD), to govern all activities related to landscape works in Abu Dhabi city. PRFD is placed within ADM as an affiliate of the Municipal Infrastructure and Assets Sector.PRFD oversees green cover space in the city of Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi Island and mainland) extending to 11,000 sq. km, including millions of assets that require maintenance. The division struggles energetically to facilitate the management of all operation and maintenance processes relating to these vital and fixed assets and their digitization in the near future by adopting customized systems for this purpose.PRFD is concerned with meeting the requirements of growth and progressive development of the city of Abu Dhabi and realizing sustained urban development through the following:  Expanding greenery and construction of parks and recreational facilities.  Managing assets with high efficiency  Reducing costs of redundant works (such as operation and maintenance contracts).
  4. 4. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010  Coping with the requirements of the progressive growth of Abu Dhabi Emirate in the fields of landscaping engineering, irrigation, water drainage and ground water.  Reducing water consumption by adopting more efficient and advanced irrigation concepts: subsurface drip or porous irrigation. 3.1.1 SECTIONS  Projects Design Section  Projects Implementation Section  Operations & Maintenance Section 3.1.2 PRFD’s SCOPE OF WORKS Encompasses multidisciplinary various fields listed below but not limited to:  Irrigation & Landscape (Soft & Hard)  Storm water  Electro-Mechanical PRFD has initiatives progress involving agricultural landscaping projects, including beautification of many locations and construction of a number of pocket parks in residential areas as well as proposals for major projects in its 5-year plan such as: Zayed Universal Park, Traffic Awareness Park, and Renewable Energy Park. 3.1.3 Five-year Plan The 5-Year Plan (2010 – 2014) includes 72 projects that would cost more than AED 5.4 billion. Table 1. PRFD‟S PROJECTS (2010-2014) Projects Number Cost ( Million AED) Master plans 3 21 Landscape 37 2735 Irrigation 14 771 Stormwater 14 619.557 Distinguished & thematic parks 4 1288.475 Total 72 5435.032 3.1.4 Water Resources One of the objectives to ensure the sustainability of urban development is to develop a plan to upgrade the irrigation network to meet Urban Structure Framework 2030. Present Infrastructure  Island: 180 km of irrigation lines and 57 reservoirs and pump stations.  Mainland: 182 km of irrigation lines and 89 reservoirs and pump stations.  Abu Dhabi Island & Mainland: 362 KM Irrigation networks and stations, 320 KM Irrigation systems of major water well, 68 KM Reducing the groundwater level and 2800 KM Storm water drainage projects. TSE irrigation infrastructure can receive 250,000 m3/day; balance is provided by desalinated and groundwater
  5. 5. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 Required Works  Enhance capacity to receive TSE and minimize desalinated water  Locate and repair leaks and rehabilitate old sections  Survey and document the entire network  Reduce demand 3.1.5 Vegetative Cover in Abu Dhabi City Table 2. Vegetative Cover Area in Abu Dhabi City (2009) Particular Mainland (ha) Abu Dhabi Island (ha) Total Area (ha) Plantation& Date Palms Lawn, Flowers & Groundcover Plantation & Date Palms Lawn, Flowers & Groundcover Area (hectare) 29197.16 384.14 783.73 577.44 30942.47 29581.3 1361.17 The vegetated area in Abu Dhabi city (table 2) includes forest cover amounting to an area of more than 27,330 hectares”, 37 numbers public parks and recreational facilities (table 3) in addition to the green landscaping of streets and various facilities. The number of fenced parks visitors exceeds 1,200,000 annually but those visiting the unfenced parks are several folds of this number. All parks comprise parking for people with special needs and entrances to facilitate their movement within the parks and enable them to enjoy the beauty of the parks and play games. All this is explained in the Division‟s Landscaping Engineering Manual. Table 3. Abu Dhabi City Gardens “ha” NO. NAME AREA NO. NAME AREA 1 Khalidyia Garden 7.1 20 New Peach garden 14 2 Khalidyia Ladies & Children Garden 5.5 21 Mushrif Garden 14.5 3 Capital Garden 5.6 22 Baniyas Garden 17.34 4 Hazza Mosque Garden 1.5 23 Baniyas Gardens 15 5 Post Office Garden 0.6 24 New Airport Garden 9.5 6 Tradition park 0.6 25 Bain Al Jasrain 2.5 7 Family Garden 2.5 26 Al Shahama Garden - 1 1.5 8 Al Buhaira Garden 1.5 27 Al Shahama Garden - 2 1.5 9 Official Garden 5.75 28 Al Bahya Garden 3.6 10 Picnic 1 10.330 29 Al Rahba Garden 3.6 11 Picnic 2 10.431 30 Al Wathba Park 23 12 City Garden 1.5 31 Al Khatam Park 4 13 Old Air Port Garden 14.2 32 Al Sharia Ladies Garden 42 14 Zafarana Garden 10.3 33 Al Rawhda 0.31
  6. 6. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 15 Khalifa Park 55 34 Flower Garden 0.59 16 Officer club park 13 35 Mleeh Garden 0.46 17 Picnic No. 4 9.57 36 New Zafrana G. 1.11 18 Picnic No. 5 19.27 37 Al Grum Garden 0.4 19 Traditional Garden 1.5 Total 333 ADM is keen in organizing events and celebrations at parks and recreation facilities as part of its communal services. These facilities attract huge number of the residents and visitors to the capital city.The Municipality targets events with social dimension that receive publicity and generate a good response from the public in Abu Dhabi.A tree week as annual event and a recent hosted events such as :Japanese Sakura Festival( 22/4-22/5/2010 ) comprises several shows of Japanese Martial Samurai arts ,music spots , typical traditional Japanese marriage…and other activities. 3.1.6 Some considerations & technical measures taken by PRFD 3.1.6.1 STANDS FOR SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SCADA monitoring system is considered one of the best projects undertaken by ADM to minimize water consumption. The elements that were considered in designing the new SCADA system to achieve the required efficiency are:  Best usage of water & wastage reduction  Accurate & fair water distribution  Efficiency improvement through Instrumentation and control  Remote control of all pump stations  Faults, malfunctions and leakage detection  Improved communication methods  Open & easy to Interface system Vision towards the Future  Landscape Irrigation automation (main roads).  Real Intelligent leak detection system.  Fibre optics communication  Camera Control (CCTV) and monitoring system for gardens and stations.  Weather stations and water quality measuring system.  Town birds living condition improvement system. 3.1.6.2 LANDSCAPE DESIGN GUIDELINES The Executive Council of the Abu Dhabi Emirate is seeking to have Abu Dhabi as one of the top cities in the world. To assist in achieving this vision the ADM, through the Parks and Recreational Facilities Division (PRFD), has prepared guidelines for development of the landscape in the region. The guidelines serve as a manual which is particularly useful for developers and landscape consultants in their design of landscape works. It sets out aspects that need to be considered in the design. As well as developing a desirable place to live these guidelines fulfils the sustainability criteria, which is needed to provide for tomorrow‟s world. PRFD- Landscape Design Guidelines reflect the direct and indirect means for reducing water consumption by respecting many considerations , such as: local environmental factors, design, sustainability, soft and hard materials… etc.
  7. 7. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 3.1.6.3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS O & M of the Parks Assets are involving Landscaping, Stormwater and Irrigation Networks. Till 2006, the operation and maintenance of the parks, Irrigation Networks and Storm water network were undertaken by the Municipality. The work was outsourced and this first round of contracts is due for renewal. The present contracts are task based whereas the new contracts will be performance based but with some tasks specified to ensure pumps and electrical equipment are properly maintained.21 contracts will be tendered over the next year. It includes 17 landscape contracts, 2 irrigation network contracts and 2 storm water contracts. A base document has been prepared for each of these groups and the details of each area will be added to finalize the tender documents for each specific contract. The performance of each contract will be monitored through Key Performance Indicators (KPI‟s) which will be set to ensure the required standards are achieved. Financial penalties will be applied when the desired standard is not achieved. 3.1.6.4 BLUE FLAG IS COMING TO THE ABU DHABI The Blue Flag is a prestigious international award scheme which provides a guarantee to tourists and residents that a beach or marina they are visiting is one of the best in the world. It is awarded to coastal destinations which have achieved the desired quality in water, facilities, safety, environmental education and management. The National Committee for Blue Flag in the UAE has selected the Corniche on Abu Dhabi Island to be the pilot project for the Blue Flag accreditation. A committee comprising: World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Parks and Recreational Facilities Division (PRFD),Community Services Division (CSD), John Buck International (JBI), Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) 3.1.6.5 GREEN FLAG Abu Dhabi Municipality has a vision to achieve “Green Flag” status for its major parks. Its objective of is to encourage the provision of good quality public parks and green spaces that are managed in environmentally sustainable ways. Management plan is required to achieve the green flag accreditation. It documents the contribution the green space is to enhance the community wellbeing and how and when this will be achieved. 3.1.7 Landscape projects ADM has completed several prestigious projects in urban landscape development. Most recently completed projects are the expanded Corniche development and the Yas Island project. These projects are equipped with state of the art landscape materials, irrigation and control systems and some additional horticultural diversity reflecting modern practices. Furthermore, a number of projects are currently in the pipeline. MAIN PROJECTS OF PRFD 2010 Below some examples, in addition to many vital projects undertaken with aim of expanding greenery, and beautifying the appearance of the city to become one of the best cosmopolitan cities worldwide: 3.1.7.1 CONSTRUCTION OF 12 POCKET PARKS INSIDE ABU DHABI Currently, Municipality is working on the construction of 12 district parks (total area 121660 m 2 ) in form of two separate projects that will be opened in phases during this year. The first project (Five parks) has already been completed on April of this year.They are constructed in accordance with comprehensive strategy for the beautification of residential districts. 3.1.7.2 INSTALLATION OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT Several suitable sites are to be provided with playground equipments have been selected in the City of Abu Dhabi in accordance with the specific criteria: Population distribution & children concentration
  8. 8. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 between 1 – 14 Years, Provide security and safety standards, Lack of existing playground standard, Walking distance to playground & accessibility (within 350m to 400m away from residential areas), Connectivity to surrounding sites, especially residential areas. 3.1.7.3 AL SALAM STREET DEVELOPMENT AS THE GATEWAY TO ABU DHABI The street ties Abu Dhabi Island with the mainland via Sheik Zayed Bridge, which is presently being constructed, and Saadiyat Island (cultural district) via Khalifa Bridge. It also provides a connection to Al Reem Island which is being developed as the new commercial centre. Al Salam Street Project is a result of the coordination between the ADM, Urban planning Council, Department of Transport and General command of Abu Dhabi Police. The project falls under the initiative of the Municipality to contribute to the development of the city and establish Abu Dhabi‟s position as a truly modern metropolis on par with best in the world. The mega infrastructure of this project is part of the Municipality‟s strategic aim to meet the requirements of a development city, as well as respond to the needs of the growing population. Furthermore, the Municipality‟s efforts are directed towards securing an advanced network of infrastructure and transportation facilities to achieve the highest level of road system efficiency in Abu Dhabi. 4. REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL POSITION OF ABU DHABI CITY Regionally, Abu Dhabi ranked third in terms of city infrastructures. It also ranked third among best five cities in the Middle East in terms of evaluation of the overall quality of life indicators (2009).Globally, Abu Dhabi is ranked 84 in terms of evaluation of the overall quality of life indicators (2009) and is making steady progress as it ranked 92, 88 and 87 in 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. Abu Dhabi Emirate has enhanced its position on the global tourist map. The Emirate was selected in 2008 as one of the best travel destinations in the world. 5. AWARDS It is worth mentioning that the Municipality of Abu Dhabi City has recently scooped several awards. The related ones including:  The Municipality of Abu Dhabi City has won the first prize of city Greenery of the 10th Arab Towns Organization Award held in Doha, Qatar (2010).This prestigious Award comes in recognition of the efforts put by the Municipality towards expanding the scope of greenery all over the city. It demonstrates the huge attention assigned by the Municipality to projects landscaping in terms of adopting rehabilitation and upgrading works inspired by heritage, tradition and suitability to the local habitat, in a way that meets the standards set for landscaping engineering in the city of Abu Dhabi.  Recently ( May,2010),The Municipality of Abu Dhabi City has won the Best Pioneer Scheme for Technology Applications and Asset Management Award through its SCADA System and Asset Management Control Project in the contest run by ITP Group (the specialized Asset Management & Assessment Agency at the GCC and Middle East region). Recommendations for the future development 1. Creating standard methods in dealing with the sandy soil to attain an ideal planting medium depending upon the agricultural processes. 2. Adopt the most common improvement measures for poorly drained areas. 3. Create an ideal species composition for design and construct suitable forest shelter belts in different locations according to the species appraisal, their functions and their specificity of micro- environmental conditions. 4. Establishing future integrated projects to utilize the secondary products of the forest shelterbelts. 5. Study the tolerance and adaptability of all plant species to local severe conditions (drought and salinity) and eventually establish programs for breeding and propagation methods.
  9. 9. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 6. Establishing a large reserve in a suitable environment which could include all the native and adapted exotic plant species besides different wild life animals. The flora and fauna in this reserve should support the gene bank in the region. 7. Undertake scientific experiments that deal with the use of nitrogen fixing forest species to improve the fertility of sandy soil. 8. Restrict the usage of plant protection chemicals toward the adoption of biotical integrated plant protection programs against the pests according to environmental guidelines “Organic Gardening”. 9. Enhance the public awareness of the importance and value of greenery. 10. Encourage the social role of the educational institutions to include the importance of environmental issues in the study syllabus. AKNOWLEGMENTS Special thanks to our design section colleagues REFERENCES Al-Jarrah R. B. 2010. Achieving Balanced Water Utilization in Greater Abu Dhabi Area (report presentation), Municipality of Abu Dhabi city, UAE. Al-Kurbi, Hassan 2009. Water Resources in Abu Dhabi City. Technical Report, Municipality of Abu Dhabi city, UAE. Al-Mashhadani, A.S., 2000.”Establishing Forest Shelterbelts enrich the Environment". Environmental page, Al- khaleej J., No.7646, UAE. Al-Mashhadani, A.S., 2001"Soil salinity & Desertification". Al-Asimma Mg., No.60, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. Al-Mashhadani, A.S., 2001"The environmental amelioration of land productivity". Al-Asimma Magazine, No.66, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. Al-Mashhadani, A. S., & Mohamed R., 2006. "ABUDHABI GREENING"- A City Case Study Regional Outlook Study, Urban and Peri-Urban Forestry and Greening in West and Central Asia. FAO Workshop UF in WECA, Rome, 5-7 April 2006. Al-Mashhadani, A. S., 2010.Green scenes in Abu Dhabi city. Town greening award 2010, Arab Towns Organization Award, Doha, Qatar. Committee for study for artificial water injection to ground water reservoirs in Abu Dhabi, 2005. Al Khaleej newspaper, No. 9452, UAE. Emirates Experience in Desert Greening, 1999. Al-Asimma Mg., No.46, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. Fawzi, M.Karim, 2000.The concise flora of the UAE. Dubai International conference on desertification 12-16 February 2000, UAE. Maraqa, Munjed, 2001, Water resources and Consumption in the UAE. Mg. Environmental Issues, No.15, Environment Friends Society.
  10. 10. 3rd International Conference on Geosynthetics Middle East Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 09/10 November 2010 Rainer Cordes & Fred Scholz, 1980.Bedouins, Wealth and Change, Study of Rural Development in the UAE.UN University (printed in Japan). Statistical book for 1995-1999. Statistics & Studies Section, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. Statistical data for Agriculture, Forestry& Agricultural Extension Depts.2000. Statistics & Studies, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. The environment in Arab Nation (Zayed Centre study), 2001. Al-Asimma Mg., No.64, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. “United Arab Emirates Year Book 2005” Ministry of Information & Culture, UAE. “West Region Forests Overcome the Desert “, 1999. Al-Asimma Mg. No.49, Abu Dhabi Municipality, UAE. DATABASE -http://www.alhewar.com/habeeb_salloum_uae_flowering_agriculture.htm -http://www.ameinfo.com/67468.html - http://www.arab.net/uae/ue_agriculture.htm -http://www.datadubai.com/agri.htm -http://www.gulfnews.com/Articles/news.asp?ArticleID=104493 -http://www.hridir.org/hri/upd?action=vc&c=united_arab_emirates - http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/arn/cg/2002/art00005 -http://www.khaleejtimes.com/.../business/2005/September - http://www.mercer.com/qualityofliving -http://www.uaeinteract.com/news/default.asp?ID=49

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