The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that
has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th
century. Every problem might have been solved through a specific
procedure. Scientists have also adopted some specific procedures and
thereby contributed to scientific inventions. The procedure adopted by
the scientists to find out the facts and scientific truths is called 'Scientific
Method'. It is evident that if the scientific method is followed by the
teachers and students in the class room, the teaching-learning process
would be effective. This has been proved by various researches. So it is
imperative that the student-teacher should get the knowledge and
the skill of execution about scientific method.
The main aim of science teaching is to impart training in scientific
method and scientific attitude. While confronting with problems, the
attitude of analyzing and approaching on the basis of
scientific method is known as scientific attitude.
Objectives of Scientific method:
● to develop the scientific attitude
● to develop the scientific temper
● to aware the problems affiliated with science
● to know the relationship between the nature and biotic factors.
● to have the curiosity and creativity in Science and its applications.
● to acquire the skills of
○ data collection,
○ data processing and analysis,
○ deriving the conclusion,
○ validating the results and
○ application of the facts (validated methods and results)
Steps in Scientific Method:
The Scientific methods has the following steps to be done:
1, Realizing the problem
2, Defining the problem
3, Analyzing the problem
4, Collecting data / information
5, Analyzing the information
6, Framing hypothesis
7, Verifying the hypothesis
8, Finding the solution
9, applying the solutions in the life situations.
Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another,
the underlying process is frequently the same from one field to another.
The process in the scientific method involves making conjectures
(hypothetical explanations), deriving predictions from the hypotheses as
logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical
observations based on those predictions. Not all steps take place in
every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always
done in the same
Overview of the Scientific Method:
1. Realizing the problem:
This is the first step of the scientific method. Each and every happening
makes the students plunge in wonder. So that students are very curious
to know the
reasons for various happenings and matters in nature. The urge to find
out the truth for any
scientific happening, is the first step which helps to solve the problem in
scientific method. It
is essential for a teacher to introduce a concept in the form of problem
and arouse the
interest of the students to find out solutions for the same.
Such activities can develop the skills of enquiry among the learners.
2. Defining the problem :
After sensing the problem clearly, it should be defined clearly so that the
be solved. This is the next step in Scientific Method. Only after defining
the problem clearly, it
is possible to plan methods and strategies to solve the problem.
Students themselves can find
out and write clear definitions using relevant words with the help of the
definition can be selected from them.
In this step, the teacher should define the problem sensed. Learner
should acquire the
knowledge about the problem and to define the problem and its
components. (For example
The Polluted water can causes the diseases. The Teacher should
explain the definitions for
Pollution and Microbes and their activity to the students. Also teacher
give guidelines to
approach the problem and its components.
3. Analyzing the problem:
This is the third step in Scientific method
which classifies and arranges the problem and its
components. The learner should analyse the
problem in to parts to find out the details of each
part to understand the actual dimensions of the
4, Collecting data / information:
Designing the Methods using available resources and techniques to
solve the problem
and collecting data accordingly is the important step in the scientific
method. Data related to
the problem can be collected under the following ways:
1. Collection of data through observation
2. Collection of data through experiments
3. Collection of data by surveying literature
4. Discussion with experts
While collecting the data, the information should be clearly recorded
prejudice and bias. Teacher should help the students to gather the data
related to the problem.
5. Analyzing the information
Analysis of Information collected develops the scientific attitude among
learners. The collecting of information can reveal the uniqueness and the
diversity of the
problem and its dimensions. Only on the basis of analysis of information
hypothesis can be done. The irrelevant data and information can be
discarded by this method.
The teacher should support the learner for analysis of information. By
this skills of
classification and comparison can be developed among the learners.
6. Framing hypothesis:
Formulation of hypothesis or tentative solutions (Framing hypothesis) is
step in the scientific method. Tentative solutions are derived from
analyzing various data on
the basis of organizing and grouping the data according to their
similarities and dissimilarities.
In this way, many tentative solutions can be obtained to the given
problem. They are called as hypotheses. All hypotheses cannot be the
solutions to a problem. One among them will be the suitable solution to
the problem. Students can be encouraged to formulate hypothesis on
the basis of collected data by observation or by experiments.
Teacher formulates an hypothesis as an example and
students are trained to
build other hypotheses with the guidance of teacher. Hypotheses built by
the teacher or
students may be accepted or rejected after the verification and
7. Verifying the hypothesis.
Evaluation of hypothesis or verification of hypothesis is essential to find
appropriate one which is most likely to be correct. On the basis of
hypotheses, further data
collected through the repeated experiments are analyzed and the most
need be selected. The tentative solutions may be discarded when there
is lack of validity and
This step inculcates the learner to do the experiments and decision
making skills on
the basis of results of experiments and hypothesis formulation.
Various uncontrolled activities of human society is responsible for
The awareness of pollution and its effect is required for mankind.
The control of human interventions can reduce the pollution.
Testing the water in the laboratory.
Interview with the public about the awareness of pollution and its
8. Finding the solution
A hypothesis must be tested in variety of environments and from the
results of the tests
and experiments a valid hypothesis is selected. Selected and confirmed
hypothesis is tested
again and again. According to its consistency it becomes final solution to
the problem and it
can be announced as the result.
This activity makes the learner self reliant and develop his decision
problem solving skills scientifically. The teacher has to assist in this
process to derive a valid
hypothesis in his problem.
9. Applying the solutions in the life situations:
The derived results must be generalized. The generalized result can be
whenever the situations happened alike. The learner can apply the same
or similar type of
methods for problem solving.
The teacher must be a guide and give necessary guidelines to the
whenever he/ she need the help in learning or problem solving.
Merits of Scientific Method.
Learners always try to solve their problem themselves
Learning process is independent
Highly motivated learning by experience is also felt
Learning by doing enhances the motivation and self confidence in
Learner solves the problems scientifically and arrive new valid
Learner receives good skills and training from the scientific method
Learners can develop their skills in data collection and analysis.
The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out.As in
other areas of inquiry, science (through the scientific method) can build
on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding
of its topics of study over time.This model can be seen to underlie the
scientific revolution in learning process.