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Types of Solar Cell

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Different types of solar cell and Efficiency

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Types of Solar Cell

  1. 1. TYPES OF SOLAR CELL Submitted by- Abhishek Ranjan Batch 11,S5 ISP,CUSAT.
  2. 2. A QUICK RECAP  What Is Solar Cell?  How Does It Work?  Where Are Its Applications?  What Are Its Advantages?  What Are Its Disadvantages?
  3. 3. TYPES OF SOLAR CELL  Organic Solar Cell  Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell  Quantum Dot Solar Cell  Dye Synthesized Solar Cell  Plasmonics Solar Cell
  4. 4. ORGANIC SOLAR CELL  A Kind Of Polymer Solar Cell,which Makes Use Of Organic Electronics,for Light Absorption And Charge Transport To Produce Electrical Energy From Sunlight Via Photovoltaic Effect.
  5. 5. SALIENT FEATURES OF OSC  The Optical Absorbtion Coefficient Of Organic Materials Is High.  Low-cost Of Organic Materials, so Can Be Produced In High Volumes.  We Can Change The Band Gap By Changing The Length And The Functional Group of Organic Molecules.  It Has Less Efficiency, low Stability, low Strength Against Temperatures.
  6. 6. WORKING  When these materials absorb a photon, an excited state is created and confined to a molecule or a region of a polymer chain.  The excited state can be regarded as an electron-hole pair bound together by electrostatic interactions, i.e. excitons.  In photovoltaic cells, excitons are broken up into free electron-hole pairs by effective fields. The effective fields are set up by creating a heterojunction between two dissimilar materials
  7. 7. TYPES OF ORGANIC MATERIALS USED
  8. 8. SINGLE –LAYER OSC
  9. 9. BI-LAYER OSC
  10. 10. CADMIUM TELLURIDE SOLAR CELLS  Based On The Use Of Cadmium Telluride As A Thin Film Semiconductor For Producing Electricity.  Cdte Pv Is The Ecologically Leading Technology As It Provides A Key Solution To Ecological Issues Like Climate Change,energy Security Etc.  Cdte Pv Has The Smallest Carbon Fotprint,and Fastest Energy Payback Time Of All Solar Technologies.
  11. 11. SCHEMATIC VIEW OF CDTE SC
  12. 12. A CDTE ARRAY
  13. 13. Advantages Of CdTe SC  Cadmium Is Abundant-this Makes It Lesss Costly,than Traditional Silcon Sc.  Matching With Sunlight-can Absorb Light Of Lower Wavelengths Too.  Ease Of Manufacturing-the Electric Field Which Makes The Solar Energy Into Electricity Stems From The Properties Of Cadmium Telluride And Cadmium Sulphide, This Makes Manufacturing Easier.
  14. 14. CHALLENGES OF CDTE PV  Tellurium Supply-it Is One Of The Rare Materials.  Lower Efficiency-this Cell Has A Efficiency Of 10.6% Which Is Lower Than Monocrystalline And Polycrystalline Silicon Cells.  Toxicity Of Solar Cells-cadmium Is One Of The 6 Most Deadliest Element,and Can Cause Various Heart Or Kidney Disorders.
  15. 15. QUANTUM DOT SOLAR CELL  Quantum Dot Solar Cell Is Based On The Use Of Quantum Dots For Absorbing Light.  It Attempts To Replace Bulk Materials Like Silicon Cadmium Telluride,gallium Arsenide Etc.  Quantum Dots Have Tuneable Band Gaps Across A Wide Range Of Energy Level By Changing The Dots Size.
  16. 16. QUANTUM DOTS  Quantum Dots Are Nanocrystals Made Of Semiconductors Which Are Small Enough To Give Mechanical Properties.  Its Excitons Are Confined In All Three Dimensions.  Electronic Characteristics Of Quantum Dots Are Closely Related To Its Shape And Size.
  17. 17. COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS
  18. 18. A QUANTUM DOT SOLAR CELL
  19. 19. IMAGES OF QUANTUM DOT BY TEM ANALYSIS
  20. 20. FEATURES OF QUANTUM DOT SOLAR CELL  Generated By Various Advanced Epitaxial Techniques In Nanocrystals, produced By Chemical Methods Or Ion Implantation.  Deposited By Spin Coating.  Quantum Confinement Takes Place In Semiconductors This Is Because Different Sized Quantum Dots Show Different Properties.
  21. 21. DYE-SYNTHESIZED SOLAR CELL  Dye-synthesized Pv Is A Thin Film, low Cost Solar Cell Based On A Semiconductor formed Between Photo-sensitized Anode And An Electrolyte.  The Modern Version Of Dye-synthesized Cell Is Called Gratzel Solar Cell.
  22. 22. FEATURES OF DSSC  Semi-transparent And Semi-flexible Which Offers A Variety Of Uses Not Possible With Glass –Based Systems.  Simple To Manufacture Using Roll-to-roll Printing.  Materials Used Are Of Low Cost.  Efficient Even At Higher Temperatures.  Work Even Under Low-light Condition.  Most Efficient Third-generation Solar Cells
  23. 23. DSSC TECHNOLOGY  It Arose From The Concept Of Artificial Photosynthesis, attempting The Ability To Plants To Turn Sunlight Into Energy.  In DSSCs, chlorophyll is replaced by a light absorbing dye, the molecules of which are excited into a higher energetic state by incoming light.  This energy is collected by a structure of electrolytes and catalysts, much like the surrounding structure of a leaf in photosynthesis.
  24. 24. PLASMONICS SOLAR CELL  They Form A Class Of Solar Cells Which Convert Light Into Electricity Using Plasmons.  They Are A Type Of Thin Film Pvs Basically 1-5 Um Thick.  They Use Substrates Which Are Cheaper Than Glass ,Silicon ,Plasticor Steel.
  25. 25. METAL NANOPARTICE PLASMONIC CELL  Nanoparticles Are Deposited At The Surface Of Thin Film Sc.  When Light Hits The Surface At Spr,light Is Scattered In Many Directions.  This Allows Light To Travel Along Sc And Bounce Between Substrate And Nanoparticle Which Allows More Light To Be Captured.
  26. 26. PSC USING METAL NANOPARTICLE
  27. 27. METAL FILM PSC  A Thin Film Of Silicon Is Taken And A Thin Film Is Deposited On The Lower Surface  The Light Will Travel To Silicon And Create Surface Plasmons At The Interface Of Metal And Silicon  This Generates Electric Field and Thus Creates Electricity.
  28. 28. SCHEMATIC VIEW OF METAL FILM PSC
  29. 29. SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE  It Is Collective Oscillation Of Electrons In Solids Or Liquids.  Resonance Condition Is Established When Frequency Of Incident Photon Matches With The Natural Frequency Of Electrons Vibrating Under The Restoring Force Of Positive Nuclei..
  30. 30. EFFICIENCY OF SC  Efficiency Is Defined As Amount Of Power Of A Solar Cell Turned Into Electricity From The Amount Of Power Received From The Sun.It Depends On Various External Factors.
  31. 31. THEMODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY LIMIT  It Means That Photons With An Energy Above Or Below The Band-gap Energy Is Not Converted To Electricity.  The Above Energy Causes Excess Of Kinetic Energy Lost As Heat, while Below Band-gap Photons Cannot Create Electron-hole Pair.
  32. 32. QUANTUM EFFICIENCY  QUANTUM EFFICIENCY REFERS TO THE PERCENTAGE OF PHOTONS THAT ARE CONVERTED INTO ELECTRIC CURRENTWHEN THE CELL IS WORKED UNDER SHORT – CIRCUIT CONDITION.  MOSTLY EXPRESSED AS A SPECTRAL MEASUREMENT.
  33. 33. MAXIMUM POWER POINT  A Solar Cell May Operate Over A Wide Range Of Voltages And Currents  ,By Increasing The Resistive Load From A Zero To A Very High Voltage,we Can Determine The Maximum Power Point .  It Varies with Incident Lumination Also.
  34. 34. FILL FACTOR  IT IS DEFINED AS AVAILABLE POWER POINT Pm DIVIDED BYTHE OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE Voc AND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT Isc.
  35. 35. FUTURE PLANS  IN ORDER TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY SUCH MATERIALS HAVE TO BE CHOSEN ,WHICH ABSORBS MORE LIGHT AND IS OF LOW-COST.  WE CAN ALSO USE EFFICIENT ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS WHICH CAN INCREASE THE TRANSMISSION AND REDUCE THE REFLECTION.  WE CAN USE CONCENTRATORS TO FOCUS LIGHT.  A VERY ACTIVE RESEARCH IS GOING ON IN THIS FIELD.
  36. 36. REFERENCES  www.wikipedia.com  www.howstuffswork.com  www.solarfactsandadvices.com  www.science.org.com  www.solarsparks.co.uk  www.solarlove.org.in

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