2. What are learning disabilities ?
Learning disabilities are problems that affect the
brain’s ability to receive ,process , analyze or store
These problems can make it difﬁcult for a student to
learn as quickly as someone who isn’t affected by
National joint committee on learning
NJCLD: A heterogeneous group of
disorders manifested by significant
disabilities in the acquisition and use of
listening, speaking, reading, reasoning,
Or mathematical problems.
These disorders are intrinsic to the individual
and presumed to be due to central nervous
5. CONCEPT OF LEARNING
DISABILITY (2000) :-
Strong converging evidence supports the validity of the concept of
speciﬁc learning disabilities (SLD). This evideence is particularly
impressive because it converges across different indicators and
methodologies . The central concept of SLD involves disorders of
learning and cognition that are intrinsic to the individual . SLD are
speciﬁc in the sense that these disorders each signiﬁcantly affect a
relatively narrow range of academic and performance outcomes . SLD
may occur in combination with other disabling conditions, but they
are not due primarily to other conditions such as intellecutal
disability , behavioral disturbance , lack of opportunities to learn , or
primary sensory deﬁcits .
● Learning disability often run in the family.
Children with learning disabilities are likely
to have parents or other relatives with
8. Problems during birth
● Learning disabilities can result from
anomalies in the developing brain,
illness or injury, fetal exposure to
alcohol or drugs, low birth weight,
oxygen deprivation, or premature or
9. Accidents after birth
● Learning disabilities can also be
caused by head injuries, malnutrition,
or by toxic posure ( such as heavy
metal or pesticides).
10. EARLY IDENTIFICATION :-
● Late talking , compared to other children
● Pronunciation problems
● Slow vocabulary growth , often unable to ﬁnd the right
● Difﬁculty rhyming words
● Trouble learning numbers , the alphabet , days of the
● Extremely restless and easily distracted
● Trouble interacting with peers
● Poor ability to follow directions or routines
11. KINDERGARTEN THROUGH FOURTH GRADE -
● Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds
● Confuses basic words (run, eat, want)
● Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter reversals
( b/d ) , inversions ( m/w ) , transpositions ( felt/left ) , and
● Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs
● Slow recall of facts
● Slow to learn new skills , relies heavily on memorization
● Impulsiveness , lack of planning
● Unstable pencil grip
● Trouble learning about time
● Poor coordination , unaware of physical surroundings , prone to
13. ● Slow reading rate
● Problems remembering mathematics fact
● Problems with reasoning and abstract concepts
● Difﬁculty ﬁnding important points or main ideas
● Problems understanding what is read
● Difﬁculty recalling arithmetic operations
14. ● Confusion of similar words
● Frequent spelling errors
● Letter reversals
● Slow writing rate
● Difﬁculty with sentence structure and poor grammar
● Poor memory of recalling material
15. ● Inability to complete assignments in allowed time
● Difﬁculty following directions
● Poor organization and management of time
● Difﬁculties beginning and sticking with study
● Confusion or reversal of numbers or math symbols
17. Dyslexia :- People with dyslexia usually have trouble
making the connections between letter and sounds and with
spelling and recognizing words .
People with dyslexia often experience other symptoms . These
may include :
● Failure to understanding what others are saying
● Difﬁculty organizing written and spoken language
● Delayed ability to speak
● Poor self - expression
● Difﬁculty learning new vocabulary , either through reading or
● Slowness in learning songs and rhymes
● Slow reading as well as giving up on longer reading tasks
● Difﬁculty understanding questions and following directions
● Poor spelling
● Difﬁculty recalling numbers in sequence
18. Dysgraphia :-Dysgraphia is characterized by
problems with writing. This disorder may cause a child to be
tense and awkward when holding a pen or pencil, even to the
extent of contorting his or her body . A child with very poor
handwriting that he or she does not outgrow may have
Other signs of this condition may include :
● A strong dislike of writing or drawing
● Problems with grammar
● Trouble writing down ideas
● A quick loss of energy and interest while writing
● Trouble writing down thoughts in a logical sequence
● Saying words out loud while writing
● Leaving words unﬁnished or omitting them when writing
19. Dyscalculia :- Signs of this disability include
problems understanding basic arithmetic concepts, such as
fractions , number lines , and positive and negative numbers .
Other symptoms may include :
● Difﬁculty with math - related word problems
● Trouble with understanding the time sequence of events
● Difﬁculty with verbally describing math processes
● Messines in putting math problems on paper
20. Dyspraxia :- A person with dyspraxia has problems
with motor tasks , such as hand - eye coordination , that can
interfere with learning .
Some other symptoms of this condition include :-
● Problems organizing oneself and one’s thing
● Breaking things
● Trouble with tasks that require hand - eye coordination ,
such as coloring within the lines , assembling puzzles and
● Poor balance
● Sensitivity to loud or repetitive noise , such as the ticking of
● Sensitivity to touch , including irritation over
21. Prevention of learning
● PRIMARY PREVENTION
( keeping the disability from occurring in the ﬁrst place )
● SECONDARY PREVENTION
( correcting the disability after it occurs , or at least keeping it from getting worse )
● TERTIARY PREVENTION
(keeping the effects of problem or disability from spreading to other areas of
22. PRIMARY PREVENTION :-
● Primary prevention in learning disabilities might involve reducing the
chances of brain injury , improving teachers’ skills in instruction and
behavior management , or teaching parents child - rearing skills.
● For primary prevention to work , the startegy must be aimed at
reducing or eliminating the cause of learning disabilities or protecting
against causal factors .
● Primary prevention may reduce the number of children who have
learning disabilities or lessen the severity of the disabilities , but it will
not eliminate learning disabilities .
● Thus, primary prevention is important in keeping the prevalence of
learning disabilities as low as possible . However , it is a mistake to
assume that it will reduce the prevalence to zero.
23. SECONDARY PREVENTION :-
● Most of the interventions for learning disabilities involve secondary
prevention , because the child’s learning problems have been noticed
and the aim is to correct the problems or prevent them from getting
● If a special education teacher works not only with students already
identiﬁed as having learning disabilities but also with others who are
struggling academically but have not yet been identiﬁed , the teacher
may be practicing secondary prevention , both with labeled students
and those not labeled as having learning disabilities .
● It is impossible to practice secondary prevention without a word (label)
designation the need for special attention or instruction.
24. TERTIARY PREVENTION :-
● When remedial interventions are initiated long after a learning
disability has developed , the primary goal may be tertiary prevention.
● For example, if a student had learning disability in reading that have
existed since the day grades and these have not been corrected , tertiary
prevention at the high school level may involve teaching the student
skills that will prevent failure in ﬁnding and holding a job .
● It is possible to practice secondary and tertiary prevention at the same
time and in essentially the same way.
● Secondary prevention addresses existing problems . Tertiary prevention
addresses complications or the development of additional problems.
26. ● The student perceptual problems may require a different
presentation on learning material . For example , a visual
learner will have difﬁculty learning from lecture , which
require auditory skills . A note taker or individual tutoring
, which both may be supplied by DSS , may be required .
On the other hand , a student who has difﬁculty with
written symbols may need to use a reader or
tape-recorder . A student whose ability to concentrate is
hampered by auditory or visual distractions in the
classroom may require a sceluded space to take tests or
to do written work.
27. ● The student whose written work appears careless may not be
able communicate effectively in writing. Examples abound of
scientist , mathematicians , and others who have poor reading
and writing skills due to learning disabilities . Oral
examinations and reports would proviode more valid
evaluationsof what these students have learned or the might
use a typewriter or word processor.
28. Althuogh a learniny disability cannot be “cured” it’s imapct can be lessened
through instructional intervention and compensatory strategies . possible
modiﬁcations for students with learning disabilites may be neccesary .
Some of these , as listed on the SMC student “RECOMMENDED
ACCOMDATIONS” form , might include :
● Alternative assignments [ i.e. project , paper , demonstration ,
presentation etc. ]
● Books on tape
● Testing accomdation
● Extended time for tests
● Test to be read to the students
● Test to dictated into tape recorder for transcription
● Use of a word processor, language master and spell-check
29. ACCOMDATIONS :-
● Typically , a higher eduation institution requires that a student with disability regidter with the
ofﬁce that provides support services for students with disabilities , in order to receive
accomdations . it is the student’s responsibilty to request services in a timely manner . These
ofﬁces conﬁrm the student’s disabilty and eligibility for services and accomdations . A course
instructor typically receives a letter from this ofﬁce detailing recommend accomdations for a
student . The student with disability is responsible for meeting all course requirements using
only approved accomdations .
● The goal is to give the student with disability equal access to the learning environment.
Individualized accomdations are not designed to give the student an advantage over the other
students , to alter a fundamental aspect of the course , nor to weaken academic rigor.
● A speciﬁc learning disability is unique to the individual and can be manifested in a variety of
ways . Therefore, accomdation for a speciﬁc student must be tailored to the individual . The
following are examples of classroom , assignment and examination accomdations that may be
recommend for a student with learning disability .
30. CLASSROOM AND ASSIGNMENT ACCOMDATIONS :-
● You may asked to
● Assist the student in ﬁnding effective peer note-takers from the class .
Alternatively , you could provide the student with a copy of your lecture notes or
● Allow the students to tape record lectures
● Allow the student to additional time to complete in class assignments , particulary
writing assignment .
● Provide feedback and assist the students in planning the workﬂow of assignments
. This is especially important with large writing assignments . It may be helpful to
break the large assignment into smaller components with opportunities for draft
● Provide assitant with proof reading work
31. EXAMINATION ACCOMDATION :-
● You may be asked to allow the student with learning
● Extended exam time , typically time and one half to double
● To take exams in a room with reduced distractions .
● The assistance of a reader , scribe , or word processor for
● The option of an oral exam
● To use spelling and grammar assistive devices for easy
● To use calculator for exams
● To use scratch paper during exam .
32. CONCLUSION :-
Learning how to learn is what life is all about . Teaching students how to
learn means teaching them to develop improved working memory
programmes for learning tasks at hand . If learning is to be deep and
lasting , information must be widely interconnected with ideas that the
learner already has.
We need to treat individuals with learning difﬁculties with sensitivity and
understanding. It is important to combine realism with encouragement as
progress if often slow. Personal counselling should be aimed at supporting
the whole person , should ideally be part of every study skills programmes
at every level of education. To eliminate the stress , these individuals need
to be taught the use of effective strategies that enable coping.
33. Learning difﬁculties are life-long problems and they will require on going
multi-modal management and support . Individual with Learning Difﬁculties
represent a heterogenous , complex group who are not always easy to assess and
for whom appropriate interventions are time consuming but cost-effective in the
Professional needs to ensure the students in general are not over-tested and
under-taught and the student with learning difﬁculties in particular are not
over-assessd and under-remediated . Our task is therefore to create more
windows of opportunity where they have the chance to shine , to relax and
redeem their self respect . Our role is for therefore to identify and to remediate
their nedds (as early as possible )discover and murture their talents , advocate
on their behalf , give them strategies to cope with stress and above all preserve
their dignity in the process .