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Cyber security in smart cities

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This talk was presented at Zewail city workshop on intelligent systems and application on Saturday 7 March 2015 by Dr. Amira (SRGE member)

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Cyber security in smart cities

  1. 1. Cyber Security in Smart Cities AMIRA SAYED A. AZIZ PH.D., SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH GROUP IN EGYPT (SRGE) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN UNIVERSITÉ FRANÇAISE D’EGYPTE Zewail City workshop on Intelligent Systems and application On Saturday 7 March 2015
  2. 2. Agenda  Introduction to Smart Cities.  What is?  Why needed?  Characteristics and components  Technologies Involved  Information Security  Cyber Security  Recommended Strategy
  3. 3. Introduction video
  4. 4. Introduction  The world is going through urban growth.  Roughly half of the world’s population lived in an urban area in 2010. By 2050, according to the World Health Organization, nearly 7 out of 10 people will live in an urban environment.  By 2025 there will be 37 mega-cities with a population above 10 million people, according to the United Nations Environment Programme.  The need for smart cities for the management of infrastructure resources and interactions.
  5. 5. What is a Smart City?  A Smart City is a city where people living in it can enjoy the best life qualities.  Services are efficient, effective, and sustainable while they meet the needs of the people.  They are interconnected systems for monitoring, control, and automation.  They are intended to improve the quality of life.  Accessing information anywhere - anytime.
  6. 6. What is a Smart City?  Smart cities are places with a vibrant and sustainable urban ecosystem, communities that combine technology and creativity to solve problems and overcome shared challenges.  Government work in harmony with community to create opportunities for and improve the lives of all residents in all neighborhoods.  Governor of San Diego, classified in one of the best 10 smart cities in the world.
  7. 7. Why Smart Cities are needed?  Reduced public spending (public services).  Increased efficiency and quality of services (resource management).  Decision-making support.  Promoting innovation (new business and social development).  Real-time information provided.
  8. 8. Characteristics of a Smart City  They evolve towards a strong integration of all dimensions of human intelligence, collective intelligence, and also artificial intelligence within the city.  The intelligence of cities "resides in the increasingly effective combination of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves), ubiquitously embedded intelligence (the brains), sensors and tags (the sensory organs), and software (the knowledge and cognitive competence)". W. Mitchell (2007), “Intelligent cities”
  9. 9. Components of a Smart City  IBM defined the components/citizens of smart city as IN3:  Instrumented (devices that at minimum respond to a sensor network  Interconnected (to pass information into a network for analysis and decision making)  Intelligent (capable of doing intelligent operations)
  10. 10. Top 10 Smart Cities video
  11. 11. Technologies Involved  Cloud computing services.  Internet of Things (IoT).  Network of sensors.  Smart computing devices.  Communication based on semantic web.
  12. 12. Technologies Involved  The top 10 companies expected to supply smart cities of the future are: (, December 2014) 1. IBM 2. Cisco 3. Schneider Electric 4. Siemens 5. Microsoft 6. Hitachi 7. Huawei 8. Ericsson 9. Toshiba 10.Oracle
  13. 13. Internet of Things (IoT)  According to, “The Internet of Things (IoT) is a scenario in which objects, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to automatically transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to- computer interaction”.
  14. 14. Internet of Things (IoT)  A thing, in the Internet of Things, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low – or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network.
  15. 15. Information Security in Smart Cities  The instrumented source may have particular rights or risks associated with particular types of information.  The collections of that information (such as on the device or on a cloud aggregator) similarly invokes issues of rights, duties, and risks. Information Used Information Generated
  16. 16. Information Security in Smart Cities Information Gathered Personal Life Work Life Home Life Transport Social Life
  17. 17. Smart City Design  Cyber Security  Privacy  Integrity  Compliance  Reliability  Resilience
  18. 18. Security in Smart Cities  Security is a global idea tied to safety (life, property, and rights) as an assurance that a person may go about their life without injury.  Cyber security is a subset of security that focuses on the computing systems, data exchange channels, and the information they process.  Information security interlace with cyber security with the focus of information processed.
  19. 19. Cyber Security in Smart Cities  Cyber security is a critical issue due to the increasing potential of cyber attacks and incidents against critical sectors in Smart City.  Different types of threats:  Data: personally identifiable information (PII) at risk  natural disasters  malicious activities  DDoS attacks  Systems: malicious and unintentional compromise that may cause service interruption
  20. 20. Cyber Security in Smart Cities  To protect Smart City in a proper way, a number of security problems have to be faced according to a specific design/plan.  These issues are:  Privacy  Network connectivity  Complexity  Security services  Sensitive data organization  Availability  Emergency plan  Key management
  21. 21. Cyber Security Strategy • Develop a clear structure for risk assessment and management • Use threat modeling to assess threats. • Document and review risk acceptance and exceptions. • Make risk assessment and management an ongoing process. Build a risk- based approach to cyber security • Educate city leaders to understand and support the principles and to manage priorities. • Consider resilience. • Leverage procurement processes to reflect priorities and risks. Set clear priorities
  22. 22. Cyber Security Strategy •Establish minimum security baselines. •Define clear responsibilities for supporting a security baseline. •Establish a system for continuous security monitoring. Define minimum ICT security baseline •Set expectations for sharing threat and vulnerability information. •Create a cross-city mechanism for sharing. •Run cyberdrills to test game plans. •Emphasize privacy and civil liberty protections in threat information sharing. •Apply relevant national or international standards for information sharing. Share and coordinate threat and vulnerability information
  23. 23. Cyber Security Strategy • Create a Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT). • Create clear ownership. • Engage private sector and national resources. • Enable consistent incident classification. • Test incident response capabilities and processes. Build incident response capabilities • Develop public awareness campaigns. • Cultivate employee development and workforce training programs. Boost public awareness, education, and workforce training
  24. 24. Cyber Security Strategy • Take advantage of private sector resources. • Partner with universities. • Sponsor events to connect the public and private sector. • Promote law enforcement cooperation while protecting privacy and civil liberties. • Create a culture of technology innovation. Enable public, private, and academic cooperation
  25. 25. Scientific Research Group in Egypt