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Micriobiology & Microbes

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Micriobiology & Microbes

  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY & MICROBES
  2. 2. MICROBES GENERALLY INCLUDES Bacteria Fungi Algae Virus Protozoa Actinomycetes
  3. 3.  Prokaryotes  Peptidoglycan cell walls  For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis BACTERIA
  4. 4. FUNGI  Eukaryotic (have membrane-bound nucleus)  Obtain food from other organisms  Possess cell walls  Composed of  Molds – multicellular; have hyphae; reproduce by sexual and asexual spores  Yeasts – unicellular; reproduce asexually by budding; some produce sexual spores
  5. 5. APPLICATION OF MICROBES Antibiotic production Enzyme production Probiotics Quorum sensing Bio degradation
  6. 6. MICROBIOLOGY  The science of microorganisms (very small, unicellular organisms)  Has given rise to Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
  7. 7. Early Microbiology 3 Historical discoveries  Invention of the microscope  Disproving spontaneous generation  Demonstrating microorganisms cause disease
  8. 8. ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK Inventor of the first microscope (1684)
  9. 9. THE GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY Pasteur’s Experiments When the “swan-necked flasks” remained upright, no microbial growth appeared When the flask was tilted, dust from the bend in the neck seeped back into the flask and made the infusion cloudy with microbes within a day  Spontaneous generation: Life can arise from non-living materials.  Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms in the air were responsible for food spoilage Constructed a swan-necked flask
  10. 10. GERM THEORY OF DISEASE  Proof that microorganisms caused disease  Robert Koch demonstrated that anthrax was caused by Bacillus anthracis  Blood from a diseased animal caused disease in a healthy animal  Cultivated the disease causing agent outside the animal’s body, then introduced the agent into a healthy animal which subsequently developed the disease
  11. 11. METHODS IN MICROBIOLOGY Three important techniques that allowed the advanced study of microbiology:  Microscopy  Sterilisation  Pure culture
  12. 12. STERILISATION TECHNIQUES Sterilisation using heat  Dry heat: 160 ° C for 2 h  Wet heat: Autoclave, 120 °C Sterilisation using chemicals  Disinfectants Filtration  Filter membranes (Pore size approx. 0.22 µm) Radiation  Ultraviolet radiation
  13. 13. MEDIA The survival and continued growth of microorganisms requires adequate amount of nutrients. solution containing these nutrients is called culture medium. Liquid medium – without agar Semi solid medium – less than 1% agar Solid medium – 1.5% to 1.8% agar
  14. 14. TYPES OF MEDIA Basal (simple) medium Generally used for the routine culture of microorganism. e.g.: Nutrient agar Selective medium used for the selective isolation of desired microbes. e.g.: Lowenstein Jensen medium for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Differential medium used to distinguish differing properties of bacteria. e.g.: MacConkey’s agar –lactose fermenters from non lactose fermenters
  15. 15. MICROBIAL LIFE CYCLE

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