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Bab 14 JASA Kotler Keller Edisi 15

  1. Designing & Managing Services Marketing Management, 15th ed Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller 14
  2. What is a Service?
  3. Service Industries Are Everywhere Government Private nonprofit Manufacturing Business Retail
  4. Categories of Service Mix Pure tangible good (soap)Pure tangible good (soap) Good w/ accompanying services (a car, computer with a warranty) Good w/ accompanying services (a car, computer with a warranty) Hybrid (restaurant)Hybrid (restaurant) Service w/ accompanying goods (airplane, a main product is a service) Service w/ accompanying goods (airplane, a main product is a service) Pure service (massage, babysitting)Pure service (massage, babysitting)
  5. • Equipment-based (automated car washes) or people- based (accounting services) • Service processes (service companies can choose among different processes to deliver their service) • Client’s presence required (hair salon) or not (a car repair) • Personal needs (personal services) or business needs (business services) • Objectives (profit-nonprofit), ownership (private-public) Service Distinctions Perbedaan pelayanan/jasa
  6. Figure 14.1 Continuum of Evaluation for Different Types of Products
  7. Distinctive Characteristics of Services karakteristik/ciri-ciri khusus layanan Intangibility (Cannot be seen, tasted, heard, or smeel) Service quality – physical evidence & presentation Inseparability (services are typically produced and consumed simultaneously) Variability (services are highly variable depends on who provides them, when, where and to whom) Perishability (services cannot be stored, and it can be a problem when demand fluctuates)
  8. Physical Evidence and Presentation (kualitas pelayanan jasa melalui bukti fisik dan penyajian) Place (the layout should be plan carefully) People (checkout staff, there should be a sufficient number to manage the workload) Equipment Communication material (brochures, text, photo should efficiency and speed) Symbols (name and symbol could symbolize the service) Price
  9. How to Increase Quality Control Invest in good hiring and training procedures Investasi pada proses pemilihan dan pelatihan staff Monitor customer satisfaction Pantau kepuasan pelanggan Standardize the service-performance process Standarisasi proses layanan-kinerja
  10. Matching Demand and Supply (mengatasi permasalahan perishability) Demand side • Differential pricing • Nonpeak demand • Complementary services • Reservation systems Supply side • Part-time employees • Peak-time efficiency routine • Increased consumer participation • Shared services • Facilities for future expansion
  11. Customer Empowerment Internet (technology) has empowered customers by letting them send their comments around the world. A Shifting Customer Relationship Customer Coproduction Customers often feel they derive more value and feel stronger connection to the service provider, if they are actively engaged in the service process.
  12. Untuk mencegah kesalahan layanan jasa akibat kesalahan pelanggan atau kesalahan pemahaman Redesign process and redefine customer roles to simplify service encounters Incorporate the right technology to aid employees and customers Create high-performance customers by enhancing their role clarity, motivation, and ability Encourage “customer citizenship” where customers help customers
  13. SATISFYING EMPLOYEES AS WELL AS CUSTOMERS Positive employee attitudes will strengthen customer loyalty. 1). Pamper customer 2). Accurately read their needs 3). Develop a personal relationship with them 4). Deliver high-quality service to solve customers’s problem Korelasi antara Customer satisfaction-employee satisfaction-store profitability
  14. Achieving Excellence In Services Marketing mencapai mutu tinggi di dalam Marketing Services Marketing Excellence Technology and Service Delivery Best Practices of Top Service Companies Differentiating Services
  15. Figure 14.3 Three Types of Marketing in Service Industries Preparing, pricing, distributing and promoting the service to customers Training and motivating employees to serve customers well The employees’ skill in serving the client/customer
  16. Best Practices of Top Service Companies • Strategic concept (customer obsessed) • Top management commitment (commitment to service quality) • High standard (pelayanan tepat, cepat dan akurat) • Profit tiers (coddle big spenders to retain their patronage as long as possible) • Monitoring systems (judge the service on custumer importance and company performance) • Satisfying customer complaints
  17. Figure 14.4 Importance-Performance Analysis (monitoring systems)
  18. Differentiating Services membedakan pelayanan Primary and Secondary Service Options Innovation with Services
  19. Figure 14.5 Service-Quality Model
  20. Gaps That Cause Unsuccessful Service Delivery • Gap between consumer expectation and management perception • Gap between management perception and service-quality specifications • Gap between service-quality specifications and service delivery • Gap between service delivery and external communications • Gap between perceived service and expected service
  21. Improving Service Quality • Listening • Reliability • Basic service • Service design • Recovery • Surprising customers • Fair play • Teamwork • Employee research • Servant leadership
  22. Determinants of Service Quality Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles