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Shaping the Future: Product Strategy in the Age of Uncertainty

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Shaping the Future: Product Strategy in the Age of Uncertainty

  1. 1. 1 Shaping the Future: Product Strategy in the Age of Uncertainty W/ WILLIAM HAAS EVANS - PRINCIPAL CONSULTANT , PRODUCT STRATEGY PRACTICE LEAD, KUROSHIO CONSULTING OCTOBER 4, 2022 AT 12:30 PM PDT, 3:30 PM EDT, 8:30 PM BST Product Management Today The Path to Product-Led Growth Rayvonne Carter Webinar Coordinator Product Management Today
  2. 2. 2 03 As the leading Customer Success platform provider, Gainsight empowers hundreds of customer-focused businesses to deliver outcomes and exceptional experiences everyday. We (literally) wrote the book on Customer Success, but we refuse to let it stop there. We never stop looking for the “next best thing” and work with industry thought leaders to bring the latest best practices to our customers and community. Learn more about Gainsight at Gainsight.com
  3. 3. 3 TO USE YOUR TELEPHONE: You must select "Use Telephone" after joining and call in using the numbers below. United States: +1 (562) 247-8422 Access Code:349-800-785 Audio PIN: Shown after joining the webinar TO USE YOUR COMPUTER'S AUDIO: When the webinar begins, you will be connected to audio using your computer's microphone and speakers (VoIP). A headset is recommended. Click on the Questions panel to interact with the presenters
  4. 4. 4 Shaping the Future: Product Strategy in the Age of Uncertainty W/ WILLIAM HAAS EVANS - PRINCIPAL CONSULTANT , PRODUCT STRATEGY PRACTICE LEAD, KUROSHIO CONSULTING Product Management Today The Path to Product-Led Growth
  5. 5. 5 Shaping the Future: Product Strategy in the Age of Uncertainty WILLIAM HAAS EVANS
  6. 6. 6 “However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results.” - WINSTON CHURCHILL
  7. 7. 7 COMMON CHALLENGES Ø Poor Collaboration / Silos § Multiple smaller companies within BU with no overarching identity § Constant battles over priorities and resources § Focused on own area’s agenda and success § Failure to share best practices and knowledge / difficult to get sufficient information § Leadership does not function effectively as a team § Serious Trust Gulf between Business and IT Ø Shifting Priorities § Creates a reactive environment § Difficult to scale or shift development investment § Projects are unplanned with critical priority § Easily distracted, scattered, lack of idea filtering Ø T echnical Debt § Multiple technology platforms / environments not consistent; Very complex environment to support § Not dynamic enough to embrace change 7
  8. 8. 8 4 Pillars of a Value-Driven Organization A VDO Systematically Searches for New Value as the Source of Growth through Loosely Coupled Value Networks
  9. 9. 9 “The Secrets to Successful Strategy Execution,” Harvard Business Review (June 2008) “Employees at three out of every five companies rated their organization weak at execution—that is, when asked if they agreed with the statement “Important strategic and operational decisions are quickly translated into action,” the majority answered no.” What is the greatest challenge to strategy execution?
  10. 10. 10 How we Connect Strategy to Execution Ø A Value-Driven Organization (VDO) systematically searches for new value as the primary source of growth through loosely coupled value networks Ø A value-driven organization optimizes team structures, funding cycles, processes, and metrics to drive discovery, traction, and growth across multiple product adoption curves Ø In a VDO, how we connect strategy to execution through four pillars: § The Product Roadmap (Orient to Value) § A Cascade of Requirements (V ertical/T emporal Alignment to Strategy) § A Cadence of Ceremonies (Horizontal/Lateral Coordination) § A System of Metrics (Inspect and Adapt Progress & Performance)
  11. 11. 11 “The strategic stimulus to economic development (growth) is innovation, defined as the commercial or industrial application of a new product, process or method of production, a new market or source of supply, a new form of commercial, business or financial organization.” — JOSEPH A. SCHUMPETER
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14 FLOCKING EXPERIMENT A TION COMMUNICA TION "It is not necessary to learn. Y our survival is not mandatory."
  15. 15. 15 Dispositioning organizations towards innovation and learning to drive growth requires designing the right environment for… § Joint Activity (Cooperation/Collaboration) which depends on inter-predictability (a foundational element of trust*) of the team(s). Such inter-predictability is based on common ground – pertinent knowledge, beliefs, and assumptions that are shared among the involved parties. § Requisite Diversity is crucial to variety and variance in our teams. T o match external variety and expand adapative and innovative capacity of the organization (that is reach more adjacent possible(s)), team diversity is key to generating requisite response variety.* LEADERSHIP CAPABILITIES: § Creating the environment and conditions where teams can generate requisite variety while maintaining coherence is a leadership competency. § Creating/Designing the Shared Understanding of the context, purpose, and strategy is table stakes to build collaboration and cooperation into ethos. § IS-OUGHT: We lead — to enable things to be more that way we intend them to be to shift from future possible to future probable to future preferable.
  16. 16. 16 A PRODUCT ROADMAP 4 Pillars of a Value-Driven Organization
  17. 17. 17 William Evans Utrecht, Nederlands, 2012
  18. 18. 18 42% of companies cited “No Market Need” as their main reason for failure. Think about that. Adapted from Scott Sehlhorst’s Decision Framing
  19. 19. 19 06 01 02 03 04 05 Orient to Customer/Business Value Build Deep Empathy Map the Customer Experience Prototype & Experiment Measure & Improve Capabilities Adapt & Scale Disciplined Value Discovery Six Steps of a Product-Driven Culture Orient to Value Design Research Ethnography Contextual Inquiry Customer Experience Mapping Prototype/Experiment and Execute Measure & Improve Capabilities Adapt & Scale
  20. 20. 20 Product Adoption Curve MARKET SHARE % Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards Early Innovators 50 25 75 100 100 M A R K E T S C U S T O M E R S P R O B L E M S T A R G E T S D E S I G N E X E C U T I O N P0 First people to adopt a new technology and willing to take risks. Early majority require that the technology is usable, reliable, simple.
  21. 21. 21 Diffusion Theory (Ideas/Products/Societies) Everett Rogers (1962) Synthesized research on adoption of innovation from several fields: agriculture, anthropology, early sociology, rural sociology, education, industrial sociology, medical sociology He found that for most members of a social system, the adoption-decision depends heavily on the adoption-decisions of the other members of the system (those closest to you). The more people who adopt an innovation, the lower the perceived risk. We see this with the adoption of masks right now. The S-curve is a measure of the speed of adoption of an innovation (or idea) across a social group.
  22. 22. 22 Diffusion of Innovation MARKET SHARE % 100 50 25 75 100 The most common symbol of product innovation is the S-curve. Each curve represents a new venture, tracing the path from its start through its growth and maturation to eventual decline. Every idea, product, and organization face this curve. Even this curve, faces this curve. While adoption curves are a simple concept, the ability to create, shape, accelerate, and dominate an adoption curve is the holy grail of product strategy. Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards Early Innovators
  23. 23. 23 Diffusion of Innovation MARKET SHARE % 100 50 25 75 100 Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards Early Innovators
  24. 24. 24 T echnological Revolutions Follow the Same Path MARKET SHARE % Big Bang A Gestation A Degree of diffusion of the technological potential Collapse/Recovery 1. Creative Destruction 2. New Paradigm versus Old Paradigm 3. Financial Capital Leads 4. Bubble Creation 1. Creative Construction 2. Widespread Application of New Paradigm 3. Production Capital Leads INST ALLA TION DEPLOYMENT 20-30 YEARS 20-30 YEARS Big Bang B Gestation B 1. Irruption 2. Frenzy (Pets.com) 3. Synergy Inflection Point 1. Irruption 2. Frenzy (Pets.com) 4. Maturity & Decline
  25. 25. 25 The Innovation S-Curve MATURE TIME You arrive and enter a steady state, but then value begins to diminish You need a new dream and reinvention to thrive in the future DECLINE DEAD OPPORTUNITY GROWTH 3G LTE PORTFOLIO STRATEGY INNOVATION Once an innovation reaches maturity, the business enters a steady state where it can exploit its position to maximize profit. Equilibrium may feel like a relief, but that’s where stagnation sets in. To avoid decline, or even death, a new S-curve ventures must be launched. 3G 4G “Plan for the future because that’s where you are going to spend the rest of your life.” – Mark Twain
  26. 26. 26 § What do consumers need? § What drives better customer experiences? § What are the functional, emotional, and social jobs-to-be-done? § What problems must be solved? § What capabilities are technically and organizationally feasible? § Do we build or partner to deliver those capabilities? § How do we close the performance gap in those strategic capabilities? § What interventions drive better business outcomes? § What business models will support delivery of this solution to market? § How price sensitive is the market to this offering? We ask these questions to drive innovations in technology, consumer experience, and business model…. HIGH VELOCITY, FAST CYCLES RAPID EXPERIMENTATION SLOW VELOCITY, LONG CYCLES TIGHTLY COUPLE SYSTEMS RESILIENCE QUALITY INNOVATION FLOW AGILE TEAMS Agility means focusing on how we remove impediments, run experiments, and continuous learning towards value delivery to customers, stakeholders, and employees. Value-Driven Innovation Starts with the Consumer…
  27. 27. 27 Outcome Hypothesis Syntax § We believe that doing/building: [ ACTION / EXPERIMENT] § In order to solve [ THE PROBLEM ] § For [ THESE PEOPLE/THIS PROCESS ] § We will achieve [ THIS MEASURABLE OUTCOME ] by [ TIMEFRAME ] § When it fails, we will [WHAT IS THE NEXT PROBLEM/EXPERIMENT] § If it succeeds, we will [PLAN FOR SCALING]
  28. 28. 28 “Themes are a promise to solve problems, not build features.” Quarter 1 (Theme Name) Quarter 2 (Theme Name) Quarter 3 (Theme Name) Quarter 4 (Theme Name) Q1 Q2 Jobs to be done Jobs to be done Jobs to be done Jobs to be done EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC 1 2 3 Identify / clarify JTBD Draft Epic Brief Prioritize and Score EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC 4 EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC Draft Roadmap tied to Themes (Aligned to Strategic OKRs) EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC EPIC Building the Product Roadmap Take an iterative approach to building a Product Roadmap based on Uncertainty and Risk P R O D U C T ( E P I C ) R O A D M A P 1 2 - 1 8 M O N T H S H O R I Z O N 2 EPIC
  29. 29. 29 A CASCADE OF REQUIREMENTS 4 Pillars of a Value-Driven Organization
  30. 30. 30 Strategic Planning T actical Product Planning THEME INITIATIVE EPIC FEATURE STORY ~3-6 QUARTERS BIG STRATEGIC THEME ~1-3 MONTHS STRATEGIC THEME BROKEN DOWN INTO MULTIPLE INTIATIVES TAKING 1-3 MONTHS TO REALIZE ~1-3 SPRINTS AN INTIATIVE IS BROKEN DOWN INTO DISCREATE EPICS WITH DEFINED OUTCOMES TAKING 1-3 SPRINTS TO COMPLETE ~1-3 WEEKS ~1-3 DAYS
  31. 31. 31 Discovery Knowledge Funnel MYSTERY HEURISTIC ALGORYTHM
  32. 32. 32 CASCADE REQUIREMENTS THROUGH VALUE NETWORKS EPIC EPIC EPIC FEATURE FEATURE FEATURE PRODUCT ROADMAP FEATURE RELEASE PLAN USER STORY USER STORY USER STORY SPRINT BACKLOG PRODUCT STRATEGY PORTFOLIO PRODUCT DELIVERY ARCHITECT DESIGN PRODUCT ENGINEERS INITIATIVE BRIEF AOP THEME Inspired by Scott Sehlhorst’s Requirements Cascade
  33. 33. 33 Product Discovery and Requirements § Building the Right Thing 1) It has to be valuable or there’s no benefit to the business and we shouldn’t do it. 2) It has to also be desirable to the customer or we will not have a business. 3) It has to be feasible for our organization to execute or we will not succeed. § Where we answer these questions: 1) Epics – Why? Why is this problem valuable? 2) Features – What will we build? Is it feasible? 3) User Stories – Goal? How is this desirable by the customer/user? 33 BUSINESS VALUABLE TECHNOLOGY FEASIBILITY CUSTOMER DESIRABILITY E P I C F E A T U R E D E L I V E R Y Problem Statement (JTBD) Succes Criteria Outcome Hypothesis Effort (Duration) Risks (Dependencies) Description Acceptance Criteria Solution Hypothesis Effort (Duration) Supporting Artifacts Acceptance Criteria Effort (Points) Supporting Artifacts Description Inspired by Scott Sehlhorst’s Requirements Cascade
  34. 34. 34 FEATURE EPIC INITIATIVE STRATEGY VISION Which moves us towards realizing our…vision Which creates business value aligned to our… Enabling us to exploit an opportunity defined in the… We are building this DECADE 3-5 YEARS 6-18 MONTHS 1-3 MONTHS 1-3 WEEKS WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? Which solves a valuable problem defined in our… What are you doing? STRATEGIC COHERENCE
  35. 35. 35 A SYSTEM OF METRICS 4 Pillars of a Value-Driven Organization
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37 What Y ou Measure Depends on Where Y ou Are… Optimize for Validated Learning, then Optimize for Traction by reducing frictions, then Optimize for Margin Growth. Focus: Validated Learning Experiments: Pivots Metrics: Qualitative Focus: Growth Experiments: Optimization Metrics: Quantitative
  38. 38. 38 Types of Metrics Qualitative Warm and Fuzzy. Quantitative Cold and Hard. Unstructured, anecdotal, revealing, hard to aggregate, richer insight Numbers and stats; hard facts for validation, less insight, more verifiable Discover Qualitatively. Prove Quantitatively.
  39. 39. 39 Types of Metrics Lagging Start here. Leading Try to get here. Historical metric that shows you how you’re doing: reports the news. Metrics today that hint/forecast a metric tomorrow: makes the news. Shift from what happened, to influencing what should happen.
  40. 40. 40 Types of Metrics Correlated Causal Two variables that move in similar ways over time, perhaps because they are linked to something else. An independent factor that directly impacts a dependent factor.
  41. 41. 41 Understanding Causality is a Superpower: it lets you Shape the Future. Correlated Causal Understanding CORRELATION lets you predict the future. Understanding CAUSALITY let’s you shape and change the future. “I will have 420 engaged users and 75 paying customers next month.” “If I can make more first-time visitors stay engaged for 17 minutes, will increase sales in 90 days.” Find ‘Notional’ Correlation Formulated Testable Hypothesis Test Causality Optimize the Causal Factor
  42. 42. 42 Example System of Metrics Strategic Intent 3 OKRs Customer Value Propositions 3 OKRS Lagging Indicator Economic Profit (NOP – CoC) % Market Share Δ Gross Revenue Lagging Indicators Δ CLV / CAC / CSR / NPS Epic Lead time Epic Completion Ratio Leading Indicators Ready Backlog Epic Throughput / OpEx Cycle Time (C/T) Product North Star Product KPIs Capability Performance Feature Throughput Lagging Indicator Product North Star Metric AOV / CHURN Leading Indicator Feature Ready Backlog Feature Throughput Lagging Indicator Value Demand/Failure Demand Ratio Leading Indicator Velocity Variance Release Burndown Escaped Defects Operational / Sprint KPIs Release KPIs Example Metrics Value Stream OKRs Portfolio Teams Product Teams Delivery Teams
  43. 43. 43 A CADENCE OF CEREMONIES 4 Pillars of a Value-Driven Organization
  44. 44. 44 Evolution through raising standards and solving next class of problems to drive continuous improvement. YOU ARE HERE ORIGINAL STANDARD Raise the standard IDENTIFY NEXT GAP TIME CREATE NEXT TARGET FUTURE VISION PREVENT BACKSLIDING Macro View: How Do We Vision Future State? NEXT STABLE STATE
  45. 45. 45 TARGET CONDITION BARRIER CONSTRAINT IMPEDIMENT remove overcome eliminate You are here We will get you here. CURRENT CONDITION At each stage, we identify the next class of problems to solve. Micro View: How Do We Improve @ Scale? CURRENT CONDITION GAP Zooming In What we need to do next to get to target condition is leverage Lean Thinking Continuous Improvement: Plan-Do-Study- Act to remove waste and increase capacity of system to innovate. P D S A
  46. 46. 46 Execution, Delivery, Monitoring Report progress towards objectives, measurable outcomes via EAP System and Monthly ProdOps Review faciliated by PMO § Product Canvas § Customer Personas § Customer Journey Map § Initiative Brief Continuous Portfolio Investment Planning Circle 1. Regular Backlog Replenishment & Refinement : Prioritize backlog of “next up / below the line” projects, review current project budget commitments aligned to investment themes. Establish OKRs, KPIs, and CPIs for new Intiaitive aligned to strategic themes. 2. Monthly Portfolio Investment Planning: Check for readiness and approve funding for a given initiative / roadmap with defined value measures; align markets, product, and engineering to outcomes, forecast demand and value realization. 3. Quarterly Portfolio Review: Review value delivered and realized across portfolio, budget status, and demand for prioritized “next up” projects Project/Initiative Demand Intake (Continuous) ● Business Case One-Pager (Product Canvas / Intiative Brief) ● Defined Benefit (ROI/IRR) of Investment ● Cost/Benefit Detailed with Forecasted Value, Urgency, Risk, and Effort Product Investment Approval Required for specific Capital Investment Thresholds; Properly allocate CapEx/OpEx Mix 4. Annual Planning (July - August) § Retrospectives § Revisit and Update OKRs § Deploy Strategy § Investment Demand Intake § Initial Above and Below the Line Define Initiative/Project Value / Success Criteria / Outcome / Budget: D E M A N D I N T A K E A N D P O R T F O L I O P R I O R I T I Z A T I O N
  47. 47. 47 Cadence of Ceremonies D E M A N D I N T A K E A N D P O R T F O L I O P R I O R I T I Z A T I O N B E N E F I T ( V A L U E ) R E A L I Z A T I O N P R O G R E S S R E V I E W P O R T F O L I O O P S R E V I E W (Quarterly) Develop a shared understanding of priorities, tradeoffs, options for Epic Intake, solution approach, and Release Targeting Timeframe (Monthly) ”Walk the Portfolio Kanban” to understand the progress of Epics and Features against product roadmap (Monthly) Review performance data and analysis, improve assumptions, modify/update Epics and roadmap (Quarterly) Review how the delivery system is working and plan improvements P R O D U C T P L A N N I N G P R O D U C T B A C K L O G R E F I N E M E N T A N D P R O G R E S S I O N D E M O , E V A L U A T I V E R E E S E A R C H , U A T M E T R I C S A N D R E T R O S P E C T I V E S (Bi-Weekly) ”Walk the Kanban” to understand the progress of Features, dependencies and risks (Weekly) Review features ready to move to Kanban to ensure policies are met (Bi-Monthly) Completed work is demod to stakeholders and sponsors, verified and validated with actual users or customers. (Bi-Monthly) Review how the delivery system is working and plan improvements PORTFOLIO TEAM PRODUCT TEAM
  48. 48. 48 5 Principles of Innovation-Driven Product Growth 1) Innovation starts when people convert problems (limitations) into value hypotheses 2) Passion for the problem (not the solution) is the Fuel, shared understanding (Common Ground) in the Launch Pad, the Roadmap is your guidance/navigation system 3) Innovation requires the right environment and measurement systems with the right enabling constraints 4) Cross-function Collaboration increases horizon and opportunity landscape scanning, insight synthesis, knowledge exchange, and response diversity 5) The right Enabling Constraints accelerates innovation; the wrong governing constraints suffocates it 6) Establishing the four pillars is a leadership capability.
  49. 49. 49 Value-Driven Companies that effectively shape the future and release trapped value have six characteristics: Product/Market Centric Knowing how to be and how to stay relevant to customers by sensing and addressing their changing jobs-to-be-done / needs (e.g., affordability, social connection, experience, quality) and creating products which change behavior leading to new outcomes. 1 2 Agile Leadership Creating new, modern forms of workforces (T-shaped, cross- functional, cell-based flexible teams with rolling backlogs and quick release cycles) required to find or create competitive advantage in existing or new markets. 3 Technology & Data Powered Mastering leading-edge technologies and data science combined with qualitative research to enable business innovation, smart automation, and continuous discovery of insights to reduce uncertainty and place better bets. Asset (Capability) Smart Optimizing enterprise capability positions to enable a faster shift to new business models, by making bold and strategic bets to exploit emergent opportunities across shifting markets leveraging micro-services architecture to enable speed to market. 4 5 Exploit Network Economics Harnessing the power of a carefully managed ecosystem of partners to bring the best innovations and capabilities to customers. 6 Hyper Lean Adopting principles of Lean and DevOps to optimize systems thinking for throughput, feedback loops, intelligent automation, and just-in-time, supply chains and underlying processes aligned to value streams
  50. 50. 50 “Individuals and teams closest to the problems, armed with unprecedented levels of insights from across the network, offer the best ability to decide and act decisively.” — GEN. STANLEY MCCHRYSTAL THANKS
  51. 51. 51 LEADERSHIP
  52. 52. 52 Principal Consultant, Product Strategy Practice Lead, Kuroshio Consulting William Haas Evans /in/semanticwill/ /in/rayvonnecarter/ Q&A Rayvonne Carter Webinar Coordinator Product Management Update productmanagement today.com semanticfoundry.com
  53. 53. 53 Conceptual Architecture: Strategy to Execution HYPOTHESES STORIES MARKET RESEARCH MARKET / OPPORTUNITIES / TRENDS / DEMOGRAPHICS ETHOGRAPHY / CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY JTBD M A R K E T S C U S T O M E R S P R O B L E M S T A R G E T S D E S I G N E X E C U T I O N STORY ACCEPTANCE DELIVERED FEATURE PRIORITZED CUSTOMER NEEDS RELEASED CAPABILITY WORKING PRODUCT PRODUCT VISION STORY ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MAP CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE JOURNEY Customer-Centric Known-Unknowns PDO FLOW OF VALUE FROM IDEAS TO PRODUCT OPPORTUNITIES INVESTMENT TEAM PORTFOLIO TEAM(S) PRODUCT TEAMS DELIVERY TEAMS THINK MAKE CHECK INNOVATION TEAM R&D / Emergent Innovation FEEDBACK FEEDBACK FEATURES RELEASE PLAN PRODUCT ROADMAP IMPACT MAPPING MAKE CHECK THINK FEATURE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA NFR VISUAL INSPECTION Unknown-Unknowns CI/CD PIPELINE
  54. 54. 54 SYSTEMS THINKING THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  55. 55. 55 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  56. 56. 56 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION MAPPING AND VISIONING THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  57. 57. 57 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION MAPPING AND VISIONING RESEARCH / ETHNOGRAPHY THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  58. 58. 58 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION MAPPING AND VISIONING RESEARCH / ETHNOGRAPHY ACTIVE SEEING / ACTIVE LISTENING THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  59. 59. 59 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION MAPPING AND VISIONING RESEARCH / ETHNOGRAPHY ACTIVE SEEING / ACTIVE LISTENING INTEGRATION / SYNTHESIS THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  60. 60. 60 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION MAPPING AND VISIONING RESEARCH / ETHNOGRAPHY ACTIVE SEEING / ACTIVE LISTENING INTEGRATION / SYNTHESIS PROTOTYPING/EXPERIMENTING THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION
  61. 61. 61 SYSTEMS THINKING CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION MAPPING AND VISIONING RESEARCH / ETHNOGRAPHY ACTIVE SEEING / ACTIVE LISTENING INTEGRATION / SYNTHESIS PROTOTYPING/EXPERIMENTING STORYTELLING THE BEHAVIORS WHICH REINFORNCE A VALUE ORIENT A TION

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