1. Weight control
Weight control is the process of controlling the amount of fat in the body. This
process depends on regulating the relationship between the amountof food a
person eats and the amount of movement (exercise he does). And the amount
of fat in the body decreases, the less the amount of food and the greater the
amount of movement. Weight controlhas importantmedical benefits, as
obesity causes serious health, social, and emotional problems.
Being overweightdoes not mean that people areobese, although the word
overweightis often used to describeobesity. Being overweightsimply means
that a person weighs morethan the averageweight for a given height. There
are also people whoseweight is less than the averageweight for their height,
because they havesmaller bones and muscles, while there areothers who lose
weight as a resultof their lack of fat. In another case, weight loss is a resultof
diseases, the most importantof which are cancer, diabetes and tuberculosis. In
some children, being underweight is the firstsign of failure to thrive. Therefore,
people who are underweightshould consult a doctor, and if they do not have a
disease, there is no need to worry aboutbeing underweight.
People who are overweightbut not obese do not need to lose weight, but they
should walk or take some exercise.
2. -obesity risks: https://oke.io/VFWHE
Obesepeople are more likely to develop certain diseases than others, and
treatment for these diseases is less successfulin obese people. Examples of
these diseases are appendicitis, cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes and heart
disease(especially coronary vessels), and a person with any of these diseases
has a greater chance of recovery if he is able to lose weight.
Obesepeople are also prone to accidents and falls due to their slow movement
and not being agile. Itis also difficult for them to recover from these injuries
because the surgeries they undergo are dangerous. Theincrease in weight
undoubtedly reduces the freedom of movement, especially in the elderly,
which weakens the general health. The lack of movement in people with
arthritis also hinders their treatment.
-Causes of obesity: https://oke.io/VFWHE
Overeating. You gain or loseweight as a result of eating more or less calories
than you need. Pricecan be defined as the amount of energy produced by a
given amount of food. Whenever you get more calories than you need, these
extra calories are converted into fats and stored as fats in the body. But if you
eat an amount of food that contains fewer calories than you need, the body
converts partof its fat into energy. For example, when you eat 3,500 calories
more than you need, this will turn into 0.5 kg of fat, whether that is within days
or weeks. Conversely, if you eat less than 3,500 calories than you need, the
body will lose 0.5 kg of stored fat. In somecountries that usethe metric
system, the amount of energy the body gets from food is measured in another
unit, the joule, rather than the price. One price is equivalent to 4,182 joules.
3. Babies and pregnantwomen need more calories for growth. But the excess of
food intake undoubtedly increases the fat in the body.
The amount of food plays a major role in weight gain compared to the quality
of food. Obeseor normal weight and thin people may eat an equal amount of
food, but the resulting difference in weight is due to the difference in the
relationship between the amountof food consumed and the amount of energy
used in each case.
In the brain there are centers responsiblefor appetite, hunger and satiety.
These centers give the feeling of these sensations and make you stop eating
when you find enough of it. These centers make the person eat an adequate
amount to supply the body with enough energy for its needs. Whereas the
feeding centers make the person go to food, the satiety centers work to
suppress or stop the feeding centers, making the person want to stop eating.
The mechanism of work of feeding and satiety centers is very complex. There
are severalreasons that help to confusethe work of nutrition centers, such as
psychologicalstress and genetic characteristics. An example of this would be a
person having so much disappointment that they stop all physicalactivity. In
such a case, the person eats a larger amountthan he used to, which
contributes to weight gain, while there are other people whosephysical
movement increases in disappointment, which helps in losing weight.
Some scientists believe that giving infants more food than they need
contributes to an increasein the number of fat cells in them, and these cells
have the ability to store fat easily, making these children vulnerableto obesity
4. Body inactivity. When the body is inactive, this contributes to weight gain at all
ages, and this appears especially in children and adolescents. Young obese
people eat an amount that does not exceed what normalpeople eat, they may
eat less than others, but in fact they are inactive and thereforewhen they eat
food, they eat an amount that exceeds their physicalmovement and this turns
into fat, which increases weight.
Physicalexercise consumes a large amountof calories. The more intense the
exercise, the greater the consumption of thermal energy. For example, when a
person weighing 68 kg walks at a speed of 5.6 km / h, the amount of energy
consumed is 502 calories in a time of 97 minutes. This energy is equal to the
number of calories in a glass of milkshake. The same person can use the same
energy when riding a bike for 61 minutes, or when running for 26 minutes.
The amount of calories consumed is proportionalto the person's weight, for
example, a person who weighs 34 kg, consumes half the energy consumed by a
person who weighs 68 kg when they do the sameexercise in equal time.
The appetite increases with increased movement in people who are not
inactive. But, on the other hand, the appetite does not decrease in inactive
people. The appetite is not less than a certain limit, even if I say movement.
genetics. Scientists have been able to identify a lot of the relationship between
obesity and genetics in animals, especially mice. And this relationship depends
on the genes (genes) - genes representthe cell unit that determines hereditary
characteristics. Scientists have discovered that somemice have genes that
causethe mechanismof satiety centers in the brain to be turned off, while
5. these genes causethe bodies of these mice to secrete a large amount of
chemicals called hormones. Thesehormones help mice gain weight easily,
which makes consuming thesefats difficult. There are also genes that make
some mice fatter than others when they are given an amount of food that
contains a high percentage of fat while being less mobile.
In humans, the role of genes is not as well known as it is in animals. But
researchers havefound that there is evidence that some people are
predisposed to obesity and not others because of genetics. In a study of high
schoolstudents, only 8% of obese students had thin parents. Among families
whereone parent is obese, 70% of the children are obese. Among families with
obese parents, 80% of the children were obese. This study also showed that
the child growing up in an adoptive family does not show this genetic
Italso shows therole of genetics on obesity in that it affects the shape of the
body, which in turn affects the emergence of obesity. People with broad hands
and shortfingers are morelikely to be obese than those with thin hands and
long fingers. A child of obeseparents does not have to be obese, but rather
must eat more calories than he needs to be obese.
Diseases and other causes. Obesity may occur as a result of the presenceof
certain diseases. Injury to someof the thyroid glands may causethese glands to
secrete a large amount of hormones into the blood circulation, and these
hormones, in turn, affect the satiety and nutrition centers in the brain. In
addition to the above, obesity may occur as a result of injury to the brain
centers for nutrition and satiety. Either through accidents, infection, or cancer.
-How do we control obesity? https://oke.io/VFWHE
6. When you decide to reduce weight, you should consultyour doctor and do a
full examination before you start a weight loss program, and you can benefit
fromconsulting a nutritionist.
In addition to the above, the obeseperson may need a certain consultation,
especially if the person suffers from theview that people consider him guilty
and of little benefit. The first step in psychotherapy is to remove this feeling
and treat the person as having a medical problem.
Diet. Any reduction in food includes a reduction in calories; For example, if a
person's daily need is 3,000 calories to maintain the body's vitality, then in this
case the person must take 2,000 calories per day, so that he can get rid of
about 0.9 kg within one week. And speeding up weight loss abovethis rate has
a detrimental effect on health.
The food to be used for the purposeof weight loss, mustbe well evaluated,
containing all the distinct nutrients that are essential to the body. There is no
evidence that eating a food that contains little of a particular ingredient, such
as a food poor in carbohydrates or protein, or a food that contains one
nutrient, has an advantage over eating a food that contains balanced nutrients.
See: Nutrition. In addition to the above, the food to be used to reduce weight
must be of good taste and can be bought and cooked easily.
A person wishing to lose weight should read and study the tables that show the
number of calories or the calorie content of different foods. Many people
believe that some foods, such as French fries and bread, contain more calories
than they actually contain, and they also believe that other foods, such as
meat, have fewer calories than what is real.
7. As for the distribution of calories taken between main meals and other snacks,
it is up to the person. Some people divide their main meals into 4 or 5 snacks
per day to avoid feeling hungry. Whileother people can follow a diet consisting
of only three main meals.
Exercise. People who want to lose weight, have to do certain sports. A
sudden and prolonged exercise program should be avoided in healthy and
obese people, as it has a detrimental effect on the heart. The exercise program
should begin gradually. One of the best ways is for a person to startexercising
with daily walking and gradually increase the duration of walking. When a
person is underweightand fit, they can add other exercises.
surgery. When a person is so overweightthat obesity threatens their life,
and cannot follow a weight loss diet, surgery is required to reduce the sizeof
the stomach. An example of these operations is gastrectomy or stomach
stapling, where the surgeon sews a large partof the stomach, and in this case,
the patient eats a small amountsufficient to feel full