i. CALEB WANYONYI 21-2220
ii. AKAL MORRIS 21-2668
iii. TONY BARAKA 21-2114
iv. ASNATH MAKORI 21-2853
v. SOFIA MURIUNGI 21-2755
vi. TRACY MURANDE 22-0173
vii. NEDDY CHELANGAT 21-2315
viii. VINCENT KIBUNGEI 21-2435
ix. MACHUKA DAVID 21-22325
x. HADEN NYAMIAKA 21-2340
VIRGINIA HENDERSON –
• “Nightingale of Modern Nursing”
• Diploma in Nursing from the Army School of Nursing at Walter Reed
Hospital, Washington, D.C. in 1921
• In 1923, started teaching nursing at the Norfolk Protestant Hospital in
• In 1929, entered Teachers College at Columbia University for
Bachelor’s Degree in 1932, Master’s Degree in 1934
• Joined Columbia as a member of the faculty, until 1948
• Since 1953, a research associate at Yale University School of Nursing
She received honorary doctoral
degrees from the Catholic University of
America, Pace University, University of
Rochester, University of Western
Ontario, Yale University
Recipient of numerous recognition.
Died: March 19, 1996
MOTIVATION FOR THEORY DEVELOPMENT
• Identified 14 basic needs
• Nurse functions to assist clients in performing activities contributing
to health, recovery, or peaceful death
• Henderson recognized the unique functions of the nurse were
To assist the individual, the sick, the well
Assist patients to be able to perform activities contributing to
health or its recovery
Help the patient perform functions they could not do
• Virginia Henderson's defined nursing as follows:
"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick
or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health
or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided
if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in
such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible"
• Henderson's philosophy emphasizes the functions of the nurse
along with a list of basic patient needs that are to be the focus of
• • Henderson's main focus was on patient care and increasing
• • Henderson theory was developed on 14 basic needs for her
• • Her concepts were based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs(
Physiological, safety, Love, Esteem and self actualization)
HENDERSON'S PHILOSOPHY CONT’D
• While a nurse's job is to care for patients, it also helps patients to able to care for
themselves when they leave the health care facility“
• Maslow relative to Henderson: 14 Components of her need theory mirrors
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs by her humanism approach.
• Henderson also felt patient's once independent, a patient could accomplish these
needs. Conversely, the nurse was there to facilitate this process when the patient
was unable to accomplish this in a compromised state.
• Henderson Goal: Henderson wasn't concerned with a personal nursing theory
per se, rather define a unique nursing practice in the care of patients
CHARACTERISTICS OF HENDERSON’S THEORY
• Her definition and components are logical in nature
• Her work can be applied to the health of individuals of all ages.
• Her ideas of nursing practice are well accepted throughout the
world as a basis for nursing ( globally accepted)
UNDERSTANDING HENDERSON’S THEORY
• Virgina Henderson's background was developed during the era of
nursing and medicine where patient's needs were of primary
concern. As such, her theory is often called a "Needs Theory".
• Henderson views the nursing process as "really the application of
the logical approach to the solution of a problem. The steps are
those of the scientific method."
• "Nursing process stresses the science of nursing rather than the
mixture of the science and art on which it seems effective health
care services of any kind is based."
HENDERSON'S 14 BASIC NEEDS OF THE PATIENT
1. Breathe normally
2. Eat and drink adequately
3. Eliminate body wastes
4. Move and maintain desirable postures
5. Sleep and rest
6. Select suitable clothes-dress and undress
7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing
and modifying the environment
8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument
HENDERSON'S 14 BASIC NEEDS OF THE PATIENT
9. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others
10. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or
11. Worship according to one’s faith
12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment
13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation
14. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal
development and health and use the available health facilities
ASSUMPTIONS OF NEED THEORY
1.The patient is the center of the nursing process and the focus of care.
2.The patient has inherent needs that must be met in order to promote
health and well-being.
3.The nurse's role is to assess the patient's needs, assist in meeting those
needs, and evaluate the effectiveness of the care provided.
4.The patient is a whole person, with physical, emotional, social, and
spiritual needs that must be considered in care planning.
5.The patient's autonomy and self-care abilities should be promoted and
6. Care should be provided in a holistic and individualized manner, taking into account
the patient's unique circumstances and preferences.
7. The nurse should use a problem-solving approach to care, identifying and addressing
issues as they arise.
8. The nurse should work in collaboration with other healthcare professionals to
provide comprehensive care for the patient.
9. The nurse should strive to educate and empower the patient to take an active role in
their own care.
10. The nurse should strive to continually improve the care provided by staying current
with new knowledge and research in nursing practice.
STRENGTH OF NEED THEORY
1.Clear and concise: The theory is easy to understand and apply in practice, making it
accessible to a wide range of healthcare professionals.
2.Focuses on patient-centered care: The theory emphasizes the importance of meeting
the patient's needs and promoting their independence, rather than simply treating
3.Holistic approach: The theory takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and
spiritual needs of the patient, rather than just focusing on their medical condition.
4.Evidence-based: The theory is based on a thorough review of literature and research,
ensuring that it is grounded in scientific evidence.
5. Adaptable: The theory can be applied to different settings and
populations, making it a versatile tool for healthcare professionals.
6. Emphasizes the importance of effective communication: The theory
stresses the importance of clear and effective communication
between healthcare professionals and patients, in order to meet the
7. Promotes patient autonomy: The theory encourages patients to take
an active role in their care and decision-making, promoting their
autonomy and independence.
WEAKNESSES OF NEED THEORY
1.Limited scope: The Henderson Need Theory focuses primarily on the needs of
patients in hospitals and healthcare settings, and may not be as applicable to
other types of healthcare settings such as primary care or community
2.Lack of attention to emotional and psychological needs: The theory primarily
focuses on physical needs, and may not take into account the emotional and
psychological needs of patients, which are also important for overall well-
3.Lack of attention to cultural and social factors: The theory does not address
how cultural and social factors may impact a patient's healthcare needs and
4. Limited involvement of patients and families: The theory primarily focuses on the
role of healthcare professionals in meeting patient needs, and may not take into
account the importance of involving patients and families in the healthcare
5. Simplistic approach: The theory's focus on 14 basic needs may be too simplistic and
may not take into account the complex needs and experiences of patients.
6. Lack of attention to the patient's spiritual needs: Henderson's theory does not take
into account the spiritual needs of patients which is an important aspect of overall
HOW NEED THEORY CAN BE APPLIED IN NURSING
• Virginia Henderson's need theory can be applied in nursing by focusing on the
14 basic needs of the patient. These needs include the need for food and water,
elimination, sleep and rest, communication, worship or spiritual expression,
work and play, comfort, safety, and health education.
1.The need for food and water: Nurses can ensure that patients have access to
adequate nutrition and hydration to support their healing and recovery.
2.Elimination: Nurses can assist patients with toileting, catheterization, or other
elimination needs to promote comfort and prevent infections.
3.Sleep and rest: Nurses can help create a comfortable and quiet environment for
patients to rest and sleep, which is essential for healing and recovery.
4.Communication: Nurses can provide patients with the necessary tools and
support for communication, such as language translation or sign language
5.Worship or spiritual expression: Nurses can support patients in their religious
or spiritual practices and provide access to chaplains or other spiritual
6. Work and play: Nurses can provide patients with activities that promote engagement and
stimulation, such as hobbies or games.
7.Comfort: Nurses can provide comfort measures such as pain management, skin care, and
8.Safety: Nurses can ensure the safety of the patient by implementing safety protocols and
monitoring the patient's condition.
9.Health education: Nurses can provide patients with information about their health condition,
treatment options, and self-care strategies.
• By focusing on these basic needs, nurses can help promote healing and recovery for patients.
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FOR PRACTICE, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATION. NEW YORK: NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR NURSING
2. ALLIGOOD, M. R. (2010). NURSING THEORISTS AND THEIR WORK. ST. LOUIS, MO: ELSEVIER
3. MELEIS, A. I. (2012). THEORETICAL NURSING: DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESS. PHILADELPHIA:
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS.
4. CHINN, P. L., & KRAMER, M. K. (2018). INTEGRATED THEORY AND KNOWLEDGE
DEVELOPMENT IN NURSING (8TH ED.). ST. LOUIS, MO: ELSEVIER.