1. MGM’s COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
A Seminar On
“ DESIGN & FABRICATION OF CNC
MILLING MACHINE ”
Group members :
Mr. Dinesh V. Awari
Mr. Manoj S. Bhamare
Mr. Akshay S.Ghanwat
Mr. Ketan M. Jadhav
Prof. Jagdish M. Chahande
1. Our CNC Machine is a “personal” version of a CNC machine. It is controlled
by your computer and is designed for the hobbyist to create objects within a
relatively compact space and at modest expense.
2. With the help of CNC technology, machine tools today are not limited to
human capabilities and are able to make ultra-precision products down to
nano scales in a much faster manner.
3. The traditional design philosophy of machine tools is multifunctionality and
highest precision possible.
4. Literature Review
Sr. No. Name Of
Author Year Thesis
Prof. R. N. Panchal,
Prof. J.R. Panchal
2016 Trying to propose
low cost design
that of CNC can be
2. Design of low Cost
Gautam Jodh ,
2014 Machine is
designed with a
view to keep the
cost of the
5. 3. Development of a
2015 Brings CNC
technology to a
size and price that
will fit in our
home or office
4. Prototype CNC
Rogério D. S.
2012 Development of a
researches on the
the parts involved
on the CNC
6. 5. Effect Of
After Face Milling
Abdullah Sütcü 2011 Focused on
which are related
roughness of the
MDF routed by a
6. Design And
Of 3-axis Linear
FPGA For Cnc
Dr. Usha S.
2014 The simulation
results of the
linear motion in
7. 7. An Investigation
Prof. V. N. Patni
2014 Study on CNC,
tool speed (rpm
), tool feed
depth of cut
8. Construction And
Ivo Pahole, Luka
Rataj, Mirko Fick
2013 In the
checking of static
8. Problem Definition
Yet most mills are costly and difficult to use, keeping them out of reach
for individuals and small businesses. High initial cost and requirement of
skilled labour for operating the CNC machine not suitable for use in small
or medium scale industries.
In many Indian engineering educational institutions the CAD/CAM and
Manufacturing Technology Laboratories are equipped mainly with large
commercial CNC machines which are prohibitively expensive and
moreover are overdesigned considering the pedagogical needs of
undergraduate students. They come with costly annual maintenance
contracts and are time-consuming and expensive to repair in the case of
To full fill the demand of CNC machine from small scale to large scale industries
with optimized low cost.
Using Arduino-based control system is a major new development in computer
technology is the availability of low-cost open source hardware.
Clear, easy to follow design
Comprehensive construction and operation manual .
For the development of low-cost educational models of CNC machines, such tools
may be quite adequate from the viewpoint of machine control.
MECHANICAL COMPONENT :
1. BALL/ LEAD SCREWS
2. BALL BEARINGS
3. LINEAR RODS
4. LINEAR BALL BEARINGS
5. SHAFT END SUPPORTS
ELECTRICAL COMPONENT :
1. MICROCONTROLLER BOARD
2. STEPPER MOTOR
3. STEPPER MOTOR DRIVER BOARD
4. LIMIT SWITCHES
5. Computer software
15. Ball / Lead Screws
1. A ball screw is a mechanical linear actuator that translates rotational motion to linear
motion with little friction.
2. A threaded shaft provides a helical raceway for ball bearings which act as a precision
3. As well as being able to apply or withstand high thrust loads, they can do so with
minimum internal friction.
16. Ball Bearings
1. A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain
the separation between the bearing races.
2. The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support
radial and axial loads.
17. Linear Rods
1. Linear rods are rigid strong Mild Steel shafts which are used to carry the load
with out affecting the motion and supports linear movement.
2. Linear rods with linear bearing assembly are used to carry the loads and
supports the structures in linear motions the total load of the structure is taken
away by the linear rod bearing assembly and therefore the load on ball screw is
reduced and causes precise smooth linear motion.
18. Linear Bearings
1. A linear bearing is to provide free motion in linear direction. The load is carried
away by the linear bearing and reduces friction slides over linear rods.
2. A linear-motion bearing or linear slide is a bearing designed to provide free
motion in one direction.
3. It features smooth motion, low friction, high rigidity and long life. They are
economical, and easy to maintain and replace.
19. Shaft End Support
1. Shaft supports are used to support linear rods /shafts rigidly without slip.
2. Shaft support blocks are used for end or intermittent support where loads are
light and slight shaft deflection is not a concern.
20. Stepper Motor
1. A stepper motor is a brushless, synchronous electric
motor that converts digital pulses into mechanical
shaft rotation in a number of equal steps.
2. The motor's position can then be commanded to
move and hold at one of these steps without any
feedback sensor (an open-loop controller).
3. A NEMA 23 stepper motor is a stepper motor with a
2.3 x 2.3 inch size is chosen to drive the motion of
4. NEMA 23 stepper motors are high torque about
19KG-Cm holding torque .NEMA 23 stepper motors
have 1.8 degree step angle with 2.5A rated current.
21. Stepper Motor Driver Board
1. Driving a stepper motor is a bit more complicated than driving a regular brushed DC
motor. Stepper motors require a stepper controller to energize the phases in a timely
sequence to make the motor turn.
2. RMCS-1102 is micro-stepping drive designed for smooth and quiet operation is chosen
to drive the NEMA 23 stepper motorRMCS-1102 achieves micro-stepping using a
synchronous PWM output drive. Mismatched motors and drivers can result in
disappointing performance. Or worse: damage to the motor and/or controller.
22. Microcontroller Board
1. Atmega 328 p Arduino Development board is used
as the motion control board.
2. Atmega 328 p is a 16 bit 24 pin ARM Architecture
microcontroller. The microcontroller is flashed
with the GCODE interpreter firmware written in
optimized “C” language .
3. Motion control is carried away through output
pins connected to the stepper motor drives
according to the firmware code in microcontroller.
Inputs like RESET, FEED HOLD, CYCLE
START/RESUME and axis Limits are given to the
Inputs of microcontroller
23. Limit Switches
1. A Limit Switch is the simplest type of end stop a simple mechanical switch
positioned to trigger when a axis reaches the end of its motion.
2. Limit switches are used to protect the stepper motor and circuit by shutting
the motors by triggering the switch when the axis reaches its end .
3. The signal pin from limit switches are connected to the microcontroller board
to sense the axes ends.
This CNC machine creates objects from wood. CNC stands for computer
numerical control. The CNC works on the Cartesian coordinate system
(X, Y, Z) for 3D motion control. Parts of a project can be designed in the
computer with a CAD/CAM program, and then cut automatically using
cutters to produce a finished part. This CNC machine is ideal for
hobbies, engineering prototyping, product development, art, and
Base = 3’ x 2.5”
Column = 1’-8” x 1’-5”
Workpice table = 1’-3” x 3’
Z-axis assembly = 1’-1” x 9”
32. Mach 3 Software
Mach3 turns a typical computer into a CNC machine controller. It is very rich in
features, works on most Windows PC's, and is customizable for many applications.
Mach3 is the most intuitive CNC control software available.
Main features include:
I. Allows direct import of DXF, BMP, JPG, and HPGL files through Lazy-Cam
II. Visual G-code display
III. Generates G-code via Lazy-Cam or Wizards
IV. Fully customizable interface
V. Customizable M-Codes
1. This CNC machine can be used in the production of many different items, such as
door carvings, interior and exterior decorations, wood panels, sign boards,
wooden frames, moldings , musical instruments, furniture, and so on.
2. It is perfect way to create prototypes using aluminum, foam, wood and plastics.
Using the right software and efficiently create prototypes and reproduction parts.
3. There are one of the most versatile tools for any woodworking operation. Cut to
size, rout, chamfer, rabbet, v-groove, dado, pocket, carve and more.
4. With the development of powerful, easy-to-use software and a CNC machine,
just about anyone can carve beautiful parts, even if he is not a world-class hand
35. Market Survey of some parts
Microcontroller (UNO) 500-1000/-
Stepper Motor 1000-2000/-
(ULN 2003 Board)
Flexible connector 300-500/-
36. Future Work
1. It is planned to scale up the CNC machine in terms of size, use
more powerful motors, strengthen the frame and worktable
with materials like aluminum or cast iron, and augment the
CNC control software with software for simulation ahead of
2. Time requirement
3. Fabrication of parts
5. Performance testing
1. With the increasing demand for small scale high precision parts in various
industries, the market for small scale machine tools has grown substantially.
2. Using small machine tools to fabricate small scale parts can provide both
flexibility and efficiency in manufacturing approaches and reduce capital cost,
which is beneficial for small business owners.
3. In this thesis, a small scale three axis CNC milling machine is designed and
analyzed under very limited budget.
3. Yung C. Shin, Henry Chin, Michael J. Brink, ―Characterization of CNC machining
centers, Journal ofManufacturing Systems,1991
4. Heisel, M Gringel, ―Machine Tool Design Requirements for High Speed Machining‖,1999
5. M Kumar, V Puttige, ―low cost automation for CNC machining center‖, IJMET, Vol. 3.
6. I. Pahole, L. Rataj, M. Ficko, S. Klancnik, S.Brezovnik, M. Brezocnik, and J.
Balic,"Construction and evaluation of low-cost tableCNC milling machine",2009
7. V.K. Pabolu and K.N.H. Srinivas, "Design and implementation of a three dimensional
8. T. Andrei and I. Nae, "Practical applications performed by a stepper motor CNC
9. P.A. Sherring da Rocha Jr., R.D.S. Souza, and M.Emilia de Lima Tostes, "Prototype CNC
10. Xu, Y. Li, J. Sun, and S. Wang, "Research and development of open CNC system based on
PC and motion controller",2012.