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THE RACE TOWARDS DIGITAL WELLBEING: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES
ALBERTO MONGE ROFFARELLO, LUIG...
ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR
[BILLIEUX ET AL. 2015, DING ET AL. 2016]
SOCIAL INTERACTION
[TURKLE 2011, LEE ET AL. 2014, KO ET AL. 20...
PEOPLE OFTEN PERCEIVE
THEIR EXCESSIVE
SMARTPHONE USE AS
PROBLEMATIC, AND THEY
ARE WILLING TO ADOPT
DIFFERENT STRATEGIES TO...
MANY DIFFERENT
MOBILE APPS
ARE DESIGNED AS
TOOLS FOR
CHANGING
USERS’
BEHAVIOR WITH
SMARTPHONES
WE’RE COMMITTED TO
GIVING EVERYONE THE
TOOLS THEY NEED TO
DEVELOP THEIR OWN SENSE
OF DIGITAL WELLBEING. SO
THAT LIFE, NOT ...
1. Which functionality do contemporary
digital weelbeing apps have?
2. Are they effective and appreciated?
3. Do they have...
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
An overall perspective
of contemporary mobile
apps for changing
smartphone behavior
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. RE...
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
INTERVENTIONS
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
TRACKING
AND VISUALIZING
DATA
INTERVENTIONS
Charts 60%
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
INTERVENTIONS
Time spent
(phone) 52%
Time spent
(app) 48%
Charts 60%
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
INTERVENTIONS
Phone Unlocks 27%
Time spent
(phone) 52%
App
Checking 15%
Time spent
(app) 48%
Charts 60%
1. FUNCTIONALITY R...
INTERVENTIONS
Time spent
(phone) 52%
Recap 38%
Time spent
(app) 48%
Charts 60%
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
Phone Unlocks 27%
A...
INTERVENTIONS
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
TRACKING
AND VISUALIZING
DATA
TRACKING
App & Phone
Timers 26%-31%
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
TRACKING
App & Phone
Timers 26%-31%
App & Phone
Blockers 15%-26%
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
TRACKING
App & Phone
Timers 26%-31%
App & Phone
Blockers 15%-26%
Social Comparison 14%
Motivational Quotes 12%
Rewards 10%...
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS
Why Users Like Digital Wellbeing Apps?
useful for different
use cases
helpful for controlling
unhealt...
GREAT TOOL TO FOCUS AND GET DOWN TO
YOUR WORK. MADE ME MORE AWARE OF HOW
I AM REALLY WORKING AND HOW MUCH I
“THINK” I WAS ...
I USE THIS EVERY DAY TO TRACK MY SLEEP,
ODDLY ENOUGH (SLEEP APPS DON’T
ACCOMPLISH WHAT I NEED). THIS
CONSISTENTLY SHOWS EX...
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS
Why Users Like Digital Wellbeing Apps?
useful for different
use cases
helpful for controlling
unhealt...
I LIKED THE POSSIBILITY TO SEE HOW MUCH
TIME I WASTE ON THE SMARPHONE, BUT AT
THE SAME TIME THIS SHOCKED ME. I COULD
NOT I...
A VERY SIMPLE YET USEFUL APPLICATION. IT
HELPS ME TO TRACK MY TIME USING
SMARTPHONE AND THIS APP ACTUALLY HELPED
ME TO REC...
HAVE FOUND VALUE IN THIS APP SINCE
INSTALLING IT. I AM HOPING THAT AFTER A FEW
MONTHS OF USE, I WILL NO LONGER NEED THE
AP...
bypassable
solutions
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS
Why Users Dislike Digital Wellbeing Apps?
missing
functionality
THE APP IS GOOD BUT IT IS NOT ABLE TO STOP
ME TO OPEN THE APPS I AM ADDICTED TO...I
CAN JUST SIMPLY UNINSTALL THIS APP IF ...
THE PASSWORD TO THIS APP IS WITH MY WIFE,
EVERY THIRD DAY I’M ASKING HER TO LOCK.
THIS IS LIKE AN ANNOYING EXPERIENCE.
Byp...
I LOVE THIS APP. MAKES BREAKING MY
ADDICTION TO CELL PHONE MUCH EASIER.
ALTHOUGH I STILL NEED STRONG WILL OF MY
OWN.
Bypas...
bypassable
solutions
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS
Why Users Dislike Digital Wellbeing Apps?
missing
functionality
NICE APP BUT I’D LIKE TO SEE SOME
ADDITIONAL FEATURES, FOR EXAMPLE IF LIKE
THE APP TO AUTOMATICALLY DETECT WHEN IN
A MOVIN...
CAN YOU SHOW AVG STATS OF ALL THE
PEOPLE? TO SEE IF YOU ARE WAY ABOVE THE
NORMAL PEOPLE IN PHONE USAGE.
missing functional...
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
TRACKING
AND VISUALIZING DATA
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
TRACKING
AND VISUALIZING DATA
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
INTERVENTIONS
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
INTERVENTIONS
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
39 PARTICIPANTS
22.5 mean age, 14 female
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
39 PARTICIPANTS
22.5 mean age, 14 female
time
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
39 PARTICIPANTS
22.5 mean age, 14 female
time
Week 1
COLLECTION
PHASE (CP)
silently logging data
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
39 PARTICIPANTS
22.5 mean age, 14 female
time
Week 1 Week 2 and 3
COLLECTION
PHASE (CP)
silently logg...
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
233,59 MIN 196,50 MIN
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
121 UNLOCKS 117 UNLOCKS
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
• LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS
37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
• SAME TIME SPENT ON MESSAGING APPS
26 min (CP) vs. 25 min (IP)
• LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS
...
3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
• SAME NUMBER OF «COMPULSIVE» SESSIONS
49 (CP) vs 52 (IP)
• SAME TIME SPENT ON MESSAGING APPS
26 min ...
FINDINGS
FINDINGS
USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
FINDINGS
USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING
FINDINGS
USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING
DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
FINDINGS
USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING
PERCEIVED AS BYPASSABLE
DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EX...
FINDINGS
USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING
NOT GROUNDED IN HABIT FORMATION NOR SOCIAL SUPPO...
e–Lite
https://elite.polito.it
THE RACE TOWARDS DIGITAL WELLBEING: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES
ALBERTO MONGE ROFFARELLO, LUIG...
Digital Diet
App Usage Tracker
Phone Usage Tracker
Smartphone Addiction
Avoid Distraction
Screen Time
KEYWORD-BASED
SEARCH...
2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS
THEMATIC
ANALYSIS
N = 1128
user reviews
50 reviews for each
of the 42 digital
wellbeing apps
REVIEWS
...
The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities
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The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities

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Presentation of the paper "The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities" at the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, held in Glasgow, UK.

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The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities

  1. 1. e-Lite https://elite.polito.it THE RACE TOWARDS DIGITAL WELLBEING: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES ALBERTO MONGE ROFFARELLO, LUIGI DE RUSSIS
  2. 2. ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR [BILLIEUX ET AL. 2015, DING ET AL. 2016] SOCIAL INTERACTION [TURKLE 2011, LEE ET AL. 2014, KO ET AL. 2016] DISTRACTION [DABBISH ET AL. 2011, OULASVIRTA 2010]
  3. 3. PEOPLE OFTEN PERCEIVE THEIR EXCESSIVE SMARTPHONE USE AS PROBLEMATIC, AND THEY ARE WILLING TO ADOPT DIFFERENT STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE SUCH A BEHAVIOR
  4. 4. MANY DIFFERENT MOBILE APPS ARE DESIGNED AS TOOLS FOR CHANGING USERS’ BEHAVIOR WITH SMARTPHONES
  5. 5. WE’RE COMMITTED TO GIVING EVERYONE THE TOOLS THEY NEED TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN SENSE OF DIGITAL WELLBEING. SO THAT LIFE, NOT THE TECHNOLOGY IN IT, STAYS FRONT AND CENTER GOOGLE- DIGITAL WELLBEING INITIATIVE
  6. 6. 1. Which functionality do contemporary digital weelbeing apps have? 2. Are they effective and appreciated? 3. Do they have a relevant impact on users’ behavior?
  7. 7. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
  8. 8. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
  9. 9. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  10. 10. An overall perspective of contemporary mobile apps for changing smartphone behavior 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  11. 11. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  12. 12. INTERVENTIONS 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  13. 13. INTERVENTIONS Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  14. 14. INTERVENTIONS Time spent (phone) 52% Time spent (app) 48% Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  15. 15. INTERVENTIONS Phone Unlocks 27% Time spent (phone) 52% App Checking 15% Time spent (app) 48% Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  16. 16. INTERVENTIONS Time spent (phone) 52% Recap 38% Time spent (app) 48% Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW Phone Unlocks 27% App Checking 15%
  17. 17. INTERVENTIONS 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  18. 18. TRACKING App & Phone Timers 26%-31% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  19. 19. TRACKING App & Phone Timers 26%-31% App & Phone Blockers 15%-26% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  20. 20. TRACKING App & Phone Timers 26%-31% App & Phone Blockers 15%-26% Social Comparison 14% Motivational Quotes 12% Rewards 10% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  21. 21. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  22. 22. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  23. 23. 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Like Digital Wellbeing Apps? useful for different use cases helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  24. 24. GREAT TOOL TO FOCUS AND GET DOWN TO YOUR WORK. MADE ME MORE AWARE OF HOW I AM REALLY WORKING AND HOW MUCH I “THINK” I WAS WORKING. useful for different use cases
  25. 25. I USE THIS EVERY DAY TO TRACK MY SLEEP, ODDLY ENOUGH (SLEEP APPS DON’T ACCOMPLISH WHAT I NEED). THIS CONSISTENTLY SHOWS EXACTLY WHAT I NEED TO BE SURE I WAS ASLEEP. useful for different use cases
  26. 26. 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Like Digital Wellbeing Apps? useful for different use cases helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  27. 27. I LIKED THE POSSIBILITY TO SEE HOW MUCH TIME I WASTE ON THE SMARPHONE, BUT AT THE SAME TIME THIS SHOCKED ME. I COULD NOT IMAGINE SUCH A THING. helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  28. 28. A VERY SIMPLE YET USEFUL APPLICATION. IT HELPS ME TO TRACK MY TIME USING SMARTPHONE AND THIS APP ACTUALLY HELPED ME TO RECONSIDER MY TIME AND SPEND IT ON OTHER PRODUCTIVITY TASK. helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  29. 29. HAVE FOUND VALUE IN THIS APP SINCE INSTALLING IT. I AM HOPING THAT AFTER A FEW MONTHS OF USE, I WILL NO LONGER NEED THE APP TO REMIND ME TO BE MORE DELIBERATE IN THE USE OF MY PHONE. helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  30. 30. bypassable solutions 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Dislike Digital Wellbeing Apps? missing functionality
  31. 31. THE APP IS GOOD BUT IT IS NOT ABLE TO STOP ME TO OPEN THE APPS I AM ADDICTED TO...I CAN JUST SIMPLY UNINSTALL THIS APP IF I WANT TO USE THE RESTRICTED APPS. Bypassable solutions
  32. 32. THE PASSWORD TO THIS APP IS WITH MY WIFE, EVERY THIRD DAY I’M ASKING HER TO LOCK. THIS IS LIKE AN ANNOYING EXPERIENCE. Bypassable solutions
  33. 33. I LOVE THIS APP. MAKES BREAKING MY ADDICTION TO CELL PHONE MUCH EASIER. ALTHOUGH I STILL NEED STRONG WILL OF MY OWN. Bypassable solutions
  34. 34. bypassable solutions 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Dislike Digital Wellbeing Apps? missing functionality
  35. 35. NICE APP BUT I’D LIKE TO SEE SOME ADDITIONAL FEATURES, FOR EXAMPLE IF LIKE THE APP TO AUTOMATICALLY DETECT WHEN IN A MOVING VEHICLE AND ACTIVATE. missing functionality
  36. 36. CAN YOU SHOW AVG STATS OF ALL THE PEOPLE? TO SEE IF YOU ARE WAY ABOVE THE NORMAL PEOPLE IN PHONE USAGE. missing functionality
  37. 37. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  38. 38. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  39. 39. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  40. 40. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  41. 41. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  42. 42. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY INTERVENTIONS
  43. 43. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY INTERVENTIONS
  44. 44. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female
  45. 45. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female time
  46. 46. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female time Week 1 COLLECTION PHASE (CP) silently logging data
  47. 47. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female time Week 1 Week 2 and 3 COLLECTION PHASE (CP) silently logging data INTERVENTION PHASE (IP) visualizing data and using interventions
  48. 48. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  49. 49. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  50. 50. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 233,59 MIN 196,50 MIN
  51. 51. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  52. 52. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 121 UNLOCKS 117 UNLOCKS
  53. 53. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY • LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS 37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
  54. 54. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY • SAME TIME SPENT ON MESSAGING APPS 26 min (CP) vs. 25 min (IP) • LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS 37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
  55. 55. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY • SAME NUMBER OF «COMPULSIVE» SESSIONS 49 (CP) vs 52 (IP) • SAME TIME SPENT ON MESSAGING APPS 26 min (CP) vs. 25 min (IP) • LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS 37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
  56. 56. FINDINGS
  57. 57. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
  58. 58. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING
  59. 59. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
  60. 60. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING PERCEIVED AS BYPASSABLE DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
  61. 61. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING NOT GROUNDED IN HABIT FORMATION NOR SOCIAL SUPPORT PERCEIVED AS BYPASSABLE DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
  62. 62. e–Lite https://elite.polito.it THE RACE TOWARDS DIGITAL WELLBEING: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES ALBERTO MONGE ROFFARELLO, LUIGI DE RUSSIS
  63. 63. Digital Diet App Usage Tracker Phone Usage Tracker Smartphone Addiction Avoid Distraction Screen Time KEYWORD-BASED SEARCH APP FILTERING >1000 downloads >50 reviews N = 42 digital wellbeing apps ANALYZE FUNCTIONALITY 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  64. 64. 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS THEMATIC ANALYSIS N = 1128 user reviews 50 reviews for each of the 42 digital wellbeing apps REVIEWS SCRAPING REVIEWS FILTERING >3 words >2015 English language

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