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A brief history of statistics

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Mathematics

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A brief history of statistics

  1. 1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS BY: ALEDEL CHRISTIAN ALEJANDRO
  2. 2. STATISTICS – A BRANCH OF MATHEMATICS THAT DEALS WITH THE SCIENTIFIC COLLECTION, ORGANIZATION, PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF NUMBRICAL DATA IN ORDER TO OBTAIN USEFUL AND MEANINGFUL INFORMATION.
  3. 3. 3800 B.C. – RECORDS OF POPULATION CENSUS IN BABYLONIA AND CHINA BIBLICAL POPULATION CENSUS WAS UNDERTAKEN BY MOSES IN 1491 B.C. AND DAVID IN 1017 B.C.
  4. 4. GREEKS CONDUCTED CENSUS IN TIME OF STRESS, COUNTING THE ADULT MALE CITIZENS IN WAR TIME AND THE GENERAL POPULACE EVERY TIME THE FOOD SUPPLY WAS ENDANGERED
  5. 5. THE ROMANS REGISTERED ADULT MALES AND THEIR PROPERTIES FOR MILITARY AND ADMINISTRATIVE PURPOSES.
  6. 6. SERVINUS TULLIUS, THE SIXTH KING OF ROME, WAS THE FIRST ONE TO INSTITUTE POPULATION GATHERING DATA. EACH MALE IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE HAD TO RETURN TO THE CITY OF HIS BIRTH TO BE COUNTED AND TAXED.
  7. 7. IN 13TH CENTURY, TAX LISTS OF PARIS INCLUDED REGISTRATION OF THOSE WHO WERE SUBJECTED TO TAX. WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR REQUIRED COMPILATION OF INFORMATION ON POPULACE AND RESOURCES.
  8. 8. THE DOOMSDAY BOOK IS THE FIRST LANDMARK IN BRITISH STATISTICS. LATER ON, THE NEED TO REGISTER BIRTHS, DEATHS, BAPTISM AND MARRIAGES WAS REINFORCED AS THE POPULATION GREW BIGGER.
  9. 9. GOTTFRIED ACHENWALL WAS THE FIRST TO INTRODUCE THE WORD STATISTIKS IN A CONTEXT OF STATISTICAL WORK. ZIMMERMAN AND SINCLAIR WERE THE ONES WHO INTRODUCED AND POPULARIZED THE WORD STATISTICS IN THEIR BOOK.
  10. 10. GIROLAMO CARDANO WROTE LIBER DE LUDO ALEAE IN WHICH APPEARED THE FIRST KNOWN STUDY OF APPLYING STATISTICS IN THE PRINCIPLES OF PROBABILITY.
  11. 11. MARQUIS DE LAPLACE’S THEORIE OF ANALYTIQUE DES PROBABILITIES STABILIZED AND SUPPORTED THE THEORY OF PROBABILITY WHICH WAS INITIATED BY CHEVALIER DE MERE AFTER PROPOSING TO BLAISE PASCAL, WHICH WAS LATER CALLED THE FATHER OF PROBABILITY, IN THE FAMOUS PROBLEM OF POINTS.
  12. 12. ABRAHAM THE MOIVRE DISCOVERED THE EQUATION OF THE NORMAL CURVE. KARL PEARSON MADE AN EXTENSIVE STUDY ON CORRELATION AMONG SEVERAL VARIABLES.
  13. 13. RONALD FISHER MADE DISCOVERIES ON UNIFIED THEORY FOR DRAWING RIGOROUS CONCLUSIONS FROM STATISTICAL DATA.
  14. 14. 2 MAJOR BRANCH OF STATISTICS 1. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS – A STATISTICAL METHOD CONCERNED WITH DESCRIBING THE PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A SET OF DATA.
  15. 15. 1. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS – CONCERNED WITH THE ANALYSIS OF A SAMPLE DATA LEADING TO A PREDICTION, INFERENCES OR CONCLUSION ABOUT THE ENTIRE POPULATION.
  16. 16. STATISTICAL TERMS 1. DATA – ANY QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE INFORMATION. 2. POPULATION – REFERS TO THE TOTALITY OF ALL ELEMENTS OR PERSONS FOR WHICH ONE HAS INTEREST AT A PARTICULAR TIME.
  17. 17. 3. SAMPLE – PART OF A POPULATION. 4. PARAMETER – ANY STATISTICAL INFORMATION OR ATTRIBUTE TAKEN FROM THE POPULATION. 5. STATISTIC – ANY ESTIMATE OF STATISTICAL ATTRIBUTES TAKEN FROM A SAMPLE.
  18. 18. 6. VARIABLE – A SPECIFIC FACTOR, PROPERTY OR CHARACTERISTIC OF A POPULATION OR SAMPLE WHICH DIFFERENTIATES A SAMPLE OR GROUP OF SAMPLES FROM ANOTHER GROUP.
  19. 19. TYPES OF VARIABLE 1. DISCRETE VARIABLES – CAN BE OBTAINED BY COUNTING. 1. CONTINUOUS VARIABLE – CAN BE OBTAINED BY MEASURING OBJECTS OR ATTRIBUTES.
  20. 20. KINDS OF VARIABLE 1. DEPENDENT – RESPONSE, EFFECT, OUTCOME 2. INDEPENDENT – STIMULUS OR CAUSE 3. MODERATING – VARIABLES OTHER THAN THOSE INTENDED.
  21. 21. 4. CONTROLLED – KEEP A VARIABLE CONSTANT, ELIMINATE THE EFFECT OF A MODERATING VARIABLE. 5. INTERVENING – VARIABLES MAY NOT BE ACCOUNTED FOR. 6. CONFOUNDING – POSSIBLE EFFECT WHICH CANNOT BE IDENTIFIED.
  22. 22. LEVEL OF DATA 1. NOMINAL LEVEL – CATEGORICAL DATA 2. ORDINAL LEVEL – CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ORDER OR RANKS BUT DIFFERENCES IN VALUES ARE NOT SIGNIFICANT.
  23. 23. 3. INTERVAL LEVEL – DATA ARRANGED IN SOME ORDER AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VALUES IS MEANINGFUL. DATA AT THIS LEVEL MAY LACK INHERENT ZERO STARTING POINT.
  24. 24. 4. RATIO LEVEL – DATA ARRANGED IN SOME ORDER AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VALUES IS MEANINGFUL. THIS DATA INCLUDE INHERENT ZERO STARTING POINT.

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