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international monetary fund

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  1. 1. Agenda History Bretton Woods Agreement IMF Organization IMF aims Membership Gold Standard Special Drawing Rights
  2. 2. IMF History Great Depression of the 1930s Breakdown in International Monetary Cooperation
  3. 3. The Bretton Woods Agreement (BWA) IMF was formed through the BWA: BWA was conceived in July 1944 International Monetary Fund (IMF) formal existence was in December 1945 Par value system
  4. 4. The End of the BWA End of Bretton Woods system (1972–81) : The system dissolved between 1968-1973. Since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, IMF members have been free to choose any form of exchange arrangement they wish
  5. 5. IMF Becoming an Universal Institution The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 Expansion to fulfill responsibilities Soviet Block Transition Debt relief for poor countries
  6. 6. IMF Organization MF is an organization of 185 countries Their primary purpose is to preserve the stability of the international monetary system Helps the governments of these countries manage economic difficulties and benefit from opportunities of globalization
  7. 7. What Does IMF Do? Surveillance Lending Technical assistance
  8. 8. IMF How Do They Do? Keeps track of the economic health of its member countries through its economic surveillance Alerts them to risk on the horizon and provide policy advise Lends to countries in difficulty Provides technical assistance and training to help improve economic management
  9. 9. IMF Membership IMF has 188 member countries Its members are represented through a quota system broadly based on their relative size in the global economy Charter It is a specialized agency of UN having its own Finance Governing structure
  10. 10. The IMF works with other international org. to promote growth and poverty reduction It also interacts with think tanks, civil society and the media on a daily basis IMF Collaboration
  11. 11. When a country can borrow from IMF? A member country may request from IMF financial assistance if it has a balance of payments need when it can not find sufficient financing on affordable terms to meet its net international payments. An IMF loan eases the adjustment policies and reforms that a country must make to correct its balance of payments problem and restore conditions for strong economic growth.
  12. 12. The gold standard The gold standard essentially involved a commitment by the participating countries to fix the price of their currencies in terms of a specific amount of gold • The price was maintained by buying/ selling gold at that price The value of gold relative to other goods does not change much over long period of time, that helps in maintaining monetary discipline & ensures long run price stability • Concept of fat money – gold standard
  13. 13. The gold standard from 1925 -1944 The gold standard broke down during World War I, and was briefly re-instated between 1925-31 as gold exchange standard Under this system, only US & Britain were allowed to hold gold reserves while other could hold both gold, dollars &/ or pound reserves 1931 – Britain departed from Gold standard due to high influx of gold & capital, this led to devaluation of many currencies which in turn led to trade wars, some economists even blame the protectionist regimes of triggering the great depression
  14. 14. Special Drawing Right (SDR) The IMF supplemented its foreign exchange by creating a new reserve asset, (named SDR).  It serves as the IMF’s unit of account  It is a weighted average of the currencies of five nations (US, Germany, France, Japan & Great Britain)  The weights, which are based on the relative importance of each country in international trade are updated periodically

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