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Asc combined sustainability presentation including rebecca's slides

  1. Sustainable Nutrition: Eat for the Earth and Your Health Emily C. Harrison MS, RD, LD Registered Dietitian Rebecca Portman Food Policy Coordinator HSUS
  2. Healthy, Sustainable Food Choices aren’t just a bunch of rabbit food.
  3. Sustainable Food Shopping doesn’t have to cost more in fact… often costs less…. Kale salad: $1.35 Oatcakes: < $2 Protein packed quinoa: $1.50 Veggie soup: < $2
  4. What really is the healthiest way to eat?  Paleo supporters claim that high meat, full fat, and no grains are what we are evolutionarily designed to eat.  Low carb supporters say that starches are to blame for our obesity epidemic  Mediterranean diets eat lots of plants and legumes, but also plenty of fish, oils, and cow and goat milk.  Vegan supporters claim their way lowers disease risk and one’s carbon footprint, but isn’t it nutrient deficient and restrictive?
  5. Paleo Myth Busting  More veggies, less processed food! Yes, agreed!  We are moving toward a population of 7.5 B people on Earth. If everyone ate Paleo we would need 15 planet Earths to sustain the population.  True paleolithic diets were heavily weighted in plants. Modern Paleo followers eat significantly more meat and fat by volume and portion than estimates of true paleolithic man.  Fears over “Anti-nutrients” are unfounded because cooking neutralizes lectins by 75-80% in just 15 min and lectins have anti- tumor effects. Phytates are reduced by food prep (even lemon juice) and while they can slightly decrease mineral absorption they also protect DNA damage, inhibit tumor growth, are antioxidants, and decrease risk for Alzheimer’s.  BTW Paleo approved foods like almonds, peanuts, and seeds are also sources of these so-called fearful phytates and lectins.
  6. Comparing today’s “Paleo” diet VS. a Plant Based Diet with what anthropologists know about the real paleolithic man’s diet. (as reported by dietitian and nutrition researcher Brenda Davis RD) Modern-day Paleo  Protein  Zinc  Vitamin A Plant-Based  Vitamins C and E  Fiber  Calcium  Iron  Sodium  Potassium  Riboflavin  Carbohydrates and total fat
  7. Paleo and Environmentalists can at least agree on dairy  Naturally occurring bovine female sex hormones account for 60-80 % of estrogens consumed in the US diet.  Modern dairy farming milks pregnant cows 300 days a year leading to higher hormone levels. Milk from a late stage pregnant cow contains 33x as much estrone sulfate and 10x as much progesterone as a non-pregnant cow  Milk and cheese correlated to testicular, colorectal, and breast cancer  Cow’s milk is associated with increased expression of auto- immune conditions  Can turn on and off cancer cells by controlling the amount of casien
  8. But my body craves dairy and meat so I must be calcium or iron deficient…right? Nope….you’re being manipulated by opioids and little tiny bacteria “Chemicals in cheese and other dairy are called casomorphins actually mimic the effects of the real morphine in our bodies”. -Dr. Garth Davis Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. -Bioessays 2014
  9. “It seems that bacteria within us – which greatly outnumber our own cells – may very well be affecting both our cravings and moods to get us to eat what they want, and often are driving us toward obesity.” –UCSF
  10.  Lack of fiber from too little veggies, fruits, whole grains and legumes  Dietary factors influencing earlier puberty and later/ more difficult menopause influence a lifetime exposure to estrogen. Female hormones were lowered by 20-50% by having girls 8-10 yrs old consume modestly low animal fat/ protein diet for several years.  BC survivors consumed less dairy, animal protein, total protein, and calcium but more legumes and carbohydrates than controls  Environmental contaminants such as PCBs (from industrial pollution but builds up in fats) other dioxins from paper bleaching, trash burning etc, and BPA from plastics.  Decrease alcohol intake Plant based diets even “plant slant” diets have been associated with lower hormone levels in women -The China Study 2006 “Adherence to a plant-based diet that limits red meat intake may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women.” -Am J Clin Nutr 2015
  11. Results from reviews of dietary pattern analyses and risk of breast cancer suggest that patterns characterized by high consumption of fruit and vegetables, fish and soy, and a Mediterranean dietary pattern, legumes, unrefined cereals, fruit and vegetables, moderate consumption of fish, dairy products, and low consumption of meat may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer.
  12. Are Vegetarian and Vegan diets deficient? Position paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics stated that they are not nutrient deficient and…… “The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with:  lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease  lower bad cholesterol (LDL)  lower blood pressure and lower rates of hypertension  lower type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians  lower body mass index  lower overall cancer rates.”
  13. Turns out the science shows that what is good for our bodies is also good for our environment” -Dr. Garth Davis Zone, Atkins, Paleo- most of my patients had been all of these. Sure they lost weight, but within a year they were all back at my door, all the weight regained, plus a few pounds extra.” -Dr. Garth Davis Leading doctor in obesity and bariatric surgery.
  14. The macronutrient that has the most clear effect on allergies, inflammation, obesity, cancer, and climate change is protein. WHO Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer: 22 scientists from 10 countries. 800 published studies. Classified “the consumption of processed meat as carcinogenic”. “Red meat classified as probably carcinogenic”. Only 3 ways to get calories in the diet: carbs, fats, and protein. These are “macronutrients”
  15. Carb Fat Protein Calories from Food: ACSM guidelines
  16. Excess protein…what’s the problem? • Excess protein (over the body’s needs) is excess calories, and any calories not needed can be stored as body fat. Excess protein doesn’t magically create muscle. • The body prefers not to use protein as fuel or energy. The body wants to spare valuable protein for muscle building, making hormones, enzymes, controlling fluid balance, etc. • Excess protein means excess nitrogen that must be removed then eliminated. This can be hard on the kidneys. More importantly water gets excreted in this process and can increase risk for dehydration. • High protein diets can lead to more calcium being lost from the bones, a big problem for athletes who are at higher than average risk for stress fractures. Protein overload = weaker bones. • Eating animal protein has been shown to increase risk for heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers.
  17. Harvard School of Public Health “The basic choice of foods has a huge impact on the environment. Replacing red meat with almost anything will improve diet and the environment.” -Dr. Walter Willett Chair of the Nutrition dept of HSPH Harvard Gazette 2013 Research conducted at Harvard School of Public Health has found that eating even small amounts of red meat, especially processed red meat, on a regular basis is linked to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, and the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease or any other cause. Conversely, replacing red and processed red meat with healthy protein sources such as poultry, fish, or beans seems to reduce these risks.
  18. How has meat changed? “I have witnessed changes in animal agriculture over the past several decades. The industrial farm is highly efficient, but has resulted in serious unintended consequences and questions about it’s long term sustainability. “ -John Carlin, Chairman of the Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production.
  19. Average Needs: 1800-2300 cal 50 g fat 2000 mg sodium 230-265 g carbs 45-65g protein
  20. “The type of carbohydrate in the diet is more important than the amount of carbohydrate in the diet, because some sources of carbohydrate—like vegetables fruits, whole grains, and beans are healthier than others.” -Harvard School of Public Health
  21. Recommends that 55-60% of all daily calories come from carbohydrate “Carbohydrates are the primary fuel utilized during high-intensity exercise. On a per-calorie basis, carbohydrate needs for athletes are similar to those for anyone else (at least 55 percent of total daily intake of calories).” “They’re unique in that they eat a lot of potatoes. Their bean and vegetable consumption is also high.”
  22. Meatless Monday
  23. Traditional high carb/ low protein diet’s are associated with longer and healthier lifespan Compared to Americans: 1/5 rate of cardiovascular disease 1/5 rates of breast and prostate cancer Less than half rate of dementia Lower inflammation Traditional diet is 80% carbohydrate High vegetable intake (7 servings/ day) 2 servings of grains per day 2 servings of tofu/ soy/ miso Eat meat very occasionally usually fish (pork is eaten occasionally but stewed for a long time and very low fat)
  24. “Of all the ergogenic aids studied, it is very clear that carbohydrates hold the greatest promise for improving both endurance and power performance". Source: Advanced Sports Nutrition by Dr. Dan Benardot. Dietitian for the US Olympic team. "Carbs are good! They fill you up and give you energy. This equals less sugar cravings for me!” -Freya Thomas Bavarian State Ballet, Graduate of the Royal Ballet School
  25. The Mediterranean Diet has been shown to reduce heart disease compared to a typical Western Diet but watch fish intake From the CDC: “PCB levels have generally decreased since PCB production stopped in 1977. People are exposed to PCBs primarily from contaminated food and breathing contaminated air. The major dietary sources of PCBs are fish (especially sportfish that were caught in contaminated lakes or rivers), meat, and dairy products.” “People may be exposed to mercury when they eat fish or shellfish contaminated with methylmercury. Methylmercury can pass through the placenta, exposing the developing fetus. Mercury exposure could potentially cause developmental delay and cerebral palsy.”
  26. The Adventist Heath Study-2 97,000 Participants 22,434 men and 38,469 women Vegans and vegetarians generally have a BMI 5 units lower than meat eaters and lower body weight through the lifespan. “Vegan and vegetarian diets reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation” Vegans and vegetarians have “substantially lower rates of Type 2 diabetes in spite of adjusting for various nondietary factors”
  27. A study of more than 5000 people found that greater dietary fat and cholesterol intake tended to increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease specifically and all dementia in general” -T. Colin Campbell The China Study “A high cholesterol diet will promote the production of the beta- amyloid common in Alzheimer’s.” -Dr. Neal Barnard Power Foods for the Brain Cholesterol is only found in animal products
  28. What to eat to stay mentally sharp Good for brain health Bad for brain health Nuts/ seeds (flax, chia, walnuts) Red meats Green leafy veggies Hot dogs (nitrates) Berries Cheese/ full fat dairy Beans Pastries and sweets/ sugar Fish (in moderation if at all) Fried food Olive oil Butter/ saturated animal fats Fluids! Alcohol (duh, you already knew that)
  29. “Some people think that a plant-based, whole foods diet is extreme. Half a million people a year will have their chests opened up and a vein taken from their leg and sewn onto their coronary artery. Some people would call that extreme” -Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn MD There is a mountain of research over years of time on tens of thousands of participants, a whole foods, plant based diet lowers risk for disease and improves longevity.
  30. Is Organic really worth the $$??  Organic:  Crops: Free of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, sewer sludge, radiation or genetic engineering  Meats: Free of growth hormones and antibiotics and must be raised on 100% organic feed (containing no animal byproducts)  Farming Practices: Enhance biodiversity, encourage soil health, and minimize pollution  May have higher levels of nutrients (UC Davis)
  31. Don’t be mislead by tricky marketing  Natural  The word “natural” is only legally defined when it comes to meat, chicken, or eggs.  Natural meats: Cannot contain any artificial ingredients or food coloring, and they must be minimally processed • Fresh  “Fresh” is also only defined with chicken and basically means it wasn’t frozen.  Free Range  This is somewhat of a vague term. To use this term legally, the chickens must have access to the outdoors at some point  How much access are they ACTUALLY getting? It varies tremendously from farm to farm
  32. “Replace meat with another source of protein…”
  33. Shifting less than one day per week’s worth of calories…to a vegetable-based diet achieves more GHG reduction than buying all locally sourced food.
  34. Eat Less Meat To Save Planet, Researchers Warn
  35. Eat Less Meat To Save Planet, Researchers Warn "Scientists warn that Westerners need to cut half of the meat out of their diet to prevent global warming."
  36. The reality is that it takes massive amounts of land, water, fertilizer, oil and other resources to produce meat, significantly more than it takes to grow other nutritious and delicious kinds of food.
  37. “We’d each do more good for the planet if we ate meat-free just one day a week than we would if we ate exclusively local foods.”
  38. By 2030, the world will need millions of tonnes more meat than it does today. But meeting that demand with animal products isn’t sustainable. Meat is ripe for reinvention. THE GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MEAT, 2000 - 2030
  39. …… “ “
  40. Health and environmental analysis of dietary change for the year 2050. Marco Springmann et al. PNAS doi:10.1073/pnas.1523119113 ©2016 by National Academy of Sciences
  41. Swapping out meat for any number of lower-impact forms of protein just one day per week is one of the most impactful things concerned individuals can do to reduce their environmental “foodprints.”
  42. If more people had vegetarian or vegan diets, especially in the developed world, the environmental impact would be significant. —Mark Tercek, CEO
  43. @rportman6

Notas del editor

  1. Mention wholesome wave Less packaging = less cost! Bulk foods cost less Eat in season Cook at home (preferably with your kids, put them to work) make them do the salad spinner Do food prep whenever you can (plan ahead) Garden with your kids (I have a tiny lot with little sun and I grew carrots, and onions and herbs this winter) Never shop on an empty stomach
  2. Pull from the 3 page paper on Paleo myths. Legumes and grains in large population studies are predictors of longevity, anti-inflammation and anti-aging
  3. Brenda Davis Registered Dietitian
  4. Auto-immune conditions have a genetic componet :genetics loads the gun environment pulls the trigger”
  5. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Joe Alcock1, Carlo C. Maley2,3,4,* andC. Athena Aktipis2,3,4,5 Last quote is from UCSF
  6. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: a study in 2 cohorts1,2,3 Chelsea Catsburg⇑, Ryung S Kim, Victoria A Kirsh, Colin L Soskolne, Nancy Kreiger, and Thomas E Rohan
  7. Use this to put calories in perspective and talk about GMO wheat, feed, corn, antibiotics, high fructose corn syrup grown with glyphosate, and packaging
  8. Carbs are fuel for working muscles and brains.
  10. Tonstad S,et al. Type of Vegetarian Diet, Body Weight, and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care; Vol 32 no 5. 2009
  11. Increased demand and consumption of animal-based foods is causing an impact not only on our health, but the health of our planet.
  12. Drought in CA
  13. Things we are usually told to be ‘green’ and sustainable
  14. Environmental crises connected to health crises, such as obesity
  15. CA Governor speaking out against animal agriculture in response to the drought
  16. Environmental organization, the Sierra Club, said that if we reduced our meat consumption not by ½ or even 1/3 but just 20% the environmental benefits would be as if we all switched from driving a regular car to a prius. Now 20 percent is close to a day a week, which would be the equivalent to a…
  17. And international relief organization Oxfam, which wants to ensure food security as the global population explodes recently encouraged its members to reduce their meat consumption saying,
  18. That’s why it takes about 1,600 to 2,500 gallons of water to produce one pound of beef, and only 257 gallons for the same amount of soybeans, 146 for corn, 290 for oats and 34 for broccoli.
  19. global research university that stands among the world's most renowned educational institutions
  20. Bill Gates has weighed in on the topic too…
  21. He recently devoted his whole Facebook page to this issue….
  22. Bill Gates is not only promoting this concept, but putting in his own funds. He said that [ ], and he’s dedicated millions of his own dollars toward moving the food industry in a more plant-based, sustainable direction.
  23. The vast majority of meat, eggs, and dairy products produced in the U.S. come from animals raised in intensive-confinement systems that deny them the ability to engage in important natural behaviors—in some cases, even being able to move around freely. The result is that living creatures are often treated as meat-, egg-, and dairy-producing machines.
  24. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research - Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (comprised of 15 centers). Annual emissions of 3,000 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Reducing land clearing to about 2 million square kilometres would reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1,000 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year (Tilman et al. 2011).
  25. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: The diet scenarios include a reference scenario based on FAO projections (REF), a scenario based on global guidelines on healthy eating and energy intake (HGD), and scenarios based on vegetarian (VGT) and vegan (VGN) dietary patterns. Changes in food-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the dietary scenarios relative to the reference scenario in 2050 by food group and region. **A vegan or vegetarian diet could cut those emissions by 70% and 63%, respectively.
  26. The options are endless. For example, there are familiar favorites like black bean burritos
  27. To avocado tostadas
  28. Beer battered tempeh
  29. More unique fare like Tuscan White Bean Pizzas
  30. hearty protein-packed bean chili
  31. To a variety of indian inspired dishes
  32. And of course there are easy substitutions for virtually any meat product. For example, if you’re using a chicken nugget
  33. Or gardein products, try serving a crispy fishless taco salad. The gardein fish won the award for the best new product of 2015 by Better Homes & Gardens (best new product overall)
  34. We all want to do something meaningful. We have a tremendous opportunity to do that by choosing to eat more plant based options, which is good for our health and the health of our planet.