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David Green
Enterprise Solutions Architect, Amaz...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Complete set of data building blocks
Data moveme...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
AWS block storage offerings
EC2
instance
store
s...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
What is Amazon EC2 instance store?
• Local to in...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
What is Amazon EBS?
• Block storage as a service...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
What is Amazon EBS?
• Block storage as a service...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
What is Amazon EBS?
EC2
instance
EBS
volume
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
What is Amazon EBS?
• Volumes persist independen...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
What is Amazon EBS?
• Volumes attach to one inst...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Amazon EBS Volume Types
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Amazon EBS volume types
Hard disk drives (HDD)So...
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Amazon EBS volume types
HDDSSD
Provisioned IOPS
...
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Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
or
What is mo...
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Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
i3
gp2
Latenc...
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Amazon EBS volume types: General Purpose
SSD
gp2...
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Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
i3
gp2 io1
La...
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Amazon EBS volume types: Provisioned IOPS
io1
Ba...
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Scaling Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1)
IOPS
0 2 16
1...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
i3
gp2 io1
La...
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Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
Throughput
is...
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Amazon EBS volume types: Throughput
Provisioned
...
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Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
Throughput
is...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Amazon EBS volume types: Throughput
Provisioned
...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
Throughput
is...
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Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type
Don’t know
yo...
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EBS volume types: General Purpose SSD
gp2
Throug...
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Hybrid volume use cases
Case study:
Running Cass...
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I/O Provisioned Volumes Throughput Provisioned V...
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Amazon EBS Elastic Volumes
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Elastic Volumes: Features
Increase volume size
I...
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Elastic Volumes: Overview
Production
database in...
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How to modify
1. Snapshot volume
2. Modify volum...
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Step 1: Snapshot volume
aws ec2 create-snapshot
...
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Step 1: Modify volume
aws ec2 modify-volume
--vo...
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Step 2: Monitor volume
aws ec2 describe-volumes-...
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Step 2: Monitor volume (EC2 console)
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Step 2: Monitor volume (EC2 console)
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Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Linux)
• Deter...
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Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Windows)
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Windows)
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Windows)
Resiz...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Volume modification tips
• Modification must fit...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Elastic Volumes: Automation ideas
Amazon CloudWa...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Elastic Volumes: Automation ideas
• Publish a “f...
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Amazon EBS Deep Dive
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How do volumes attach?
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Amazon EBS volume attachment
API
AttachVolume
CL...
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Amazon EBS volume attachment: Xen
[ec2-user@ip-1...
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A day in the life of an I/O: Xen
Responses
Reque...
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EBS volume attachment: Nitro Hypervisor
[ec2-use...
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EBS volume attachment: Nitro Hypervisor
[ec2-use...
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A day in the life of an I/O: Nitro Hypervisor
In...
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Amazon EBS best practices
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Amazon EBS best practices
Security
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Amazon EBS encryption:
Data volumes
Best practic...
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Create a new AWS KMS master key for Amazon EBS
•...
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Amazon EBS encryption:
Data volumes
Best practic...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Amazon EBS best practices
Security
Reliability
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
99.999% service availability
0.1% to 0.2% annual...
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Snapshots
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
EBS
volume
Availability Zone
AWS Region
Amazon
S...
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• Point-in-time backup of modified volume
blocks...
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Quiesce I/O
1. Database: FLUSH and LOCK tables
2...
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Best practice: Taking snapshots from Windows
1. ...
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New EBS volume? New EBS volume from snapshot?
• ...
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$ sudo yum install –y fio
$ sudo fio --filename=...
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• Use Policy Generator to create IAM
policy for ...
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New: VSS support via EC2 SSM
• Call the Run Comm...
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New: VSS support via EC2 SSM
SSM VSS included in...
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New: Amazon EBS snapshot tagging upon
creationSp...
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New: Amazon EBS snapshot tagging upon
creation
a...
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New: Resource-level permissions
CreateSnapshot
D...
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Tracking snapshots and costs (tagging)
• Custom ...
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Tracking snapshots and costs (Cost Explorer)
Fir...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
EBS
volume
Availability Zone
AWS Region
Amazon
S...
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EBS
volume
Availability Zone
AWS Region
Amazon
S...
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Key ingredients:
AWS Lambda Amazon EC2
Run Comma...
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https://aws.amazon.com/answers/infrastructure-ma...
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Hybrid volume use cases
https://aws.amazon.com/s...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
AWS Region
EBS
volume
EC2
instance
Availability ...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
AWS Region
EBS
volume
New
EC2
instance
Availabil...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
RECOVER instance
Instance ID
Instance metadata
P...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
DeleteOnTermination = False
What about EC2 insta...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
DeleteOnTermination = True
AWS Region
EBS
volume...
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Security
Reliability
Performance
Amazon EBS best...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
How do we count I/O?
When possible, we logically...
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Example 1: Random I/Os
• 4 random I/Os (i.e., no...
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How do we count I/O?
Example 2: Sequential I/O
•...
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Example 2: Sequential I/O
• 4 sequential I/Os
• ...
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Example 3: Large I/O
• 1 I/O
• 1024 KiB
Up to 25...
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EC2
instance
Example 4: Mixed I/O
• 2 * 512 KB s...
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Max I/O credit per bucket is 5.4M
Burst performa...
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Burst and baseline: gp2
Baseline IOPS
(Baseline ...
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0
150
300
450
600
750
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 ...
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VolumeWriteOpsBurstBalance
One hour
How do I mon...
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How do I monitor my burst balance?
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Max I/O bucket credit is 1 TiB of
credit per TiB...
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0
125
250
375
500
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Throughp...
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0
75
150
225
300
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Throughpu...
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4 TiB st1 Volume
5,400 GiB
87 GiB
0
1500
3000
45...
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2046 sectors x 512 bytes/sector = ~1024 KiB
$ io...
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Verify ST1 & SC1 workloads
128 KiB
Amazon
CloudW...
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Verify ST1 & SC1 workloads
Under 64
KiB?
Small o...
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Verify ST1 & SC1 workloads
Stuck
around 44
KiB?
...
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Increase read-ahead buffer:
• Recommended for hi...
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More details:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2...
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c4.large
Dedicated to EBS
500 Mbps ~ 62.5 MiB/s
...
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Performance: EBS-optimized burst
c5.large
Dedica...
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When to RAID?
• Storage requirement >16 TiB
• Th...
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Avoid RAID for redundancy
• EBS data is already ...
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Use Metric Math to derive new monitoring
insight...
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Supported Math Functions
Add (+)
Multiply (*)
Ex...
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Use encryption if you
need it
Take snapshots,
ta...
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Thank you!
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 SRV321 Deep Dive on Amazon EBS
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SRV321 Deep Dive on Amazon EBS

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In this popular session, discover how Amazon EBS can take your application deployments on Amazon EC2 to the next level. Learn about Amazon EBS features and benefits, how to identify applications that are appropriate for use with Amazon EBS, best practices, and details about its performance and volume types. The target audience is storage administrators, application developers, applications owners, and anyone who wants to understand how to optimize performance for Amazon EC2 using the power of Amazon EBS.

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SRV321 Deep Dive on Amazon EBS

  1. 1. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. David Green Enterprise Solutions Architect, Amazon Web Services @davidmgre SRV321 Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Block Storage (Amazon EBS)
  2. 2. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Complete set of data building blocks Data movement OnlineOffline Data security and management Amazon EFS Amazon EBS AWS Snow family AWS Storage Gateway Family AWS Direct Connect Amazon EFS File Sync Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration Storage Partners Amazon Kinesis Data Streams Amazon Kinesis Video Streams Amazon S3 Amazon Glacier AWS KMS AWS IAM Amazon CloudWatch AWS CloudTrail AWS CloudFormation AWS Lambda Amazon Macie Amazon QuickSight
  4. 4. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS block storage offerings EC2 instance store sc1st1 io1gp2 EBS SSD-backed volumes EBS HDD-backed volumes HDDSSD
  5. 5. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What is Amazon EC2 instance store? • Local to instance • Non-persistent data store • Data not replicated (by default) • No snapshot support • SSD or HDD EC2 instances Physical Host Instance Store or
  6. 6. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What is Amazon EBS? • Block storage as a service • Create, attach volumes through an API • Service accessed over the network EC2 instance EBS volume
  7. 7. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What is Amazon EBS? • Block storage as a service • Create, attach volumes through an API • Service accessed over the network EC2 instance != EBS volume
  8. 8. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What is Amazon EBS? EC2 instance EBS volume
  9. 9. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What is Amazon EBS? • Volumes persist independent of EC2 • Select storage and compute based on your workload • Detach and attach between instances within the same Availability Zone EC2 instance EC2 instance Availability Zone AWS Region EBS volume
  10. 10. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What is Amazon EBS? • Volumes attach to one instance • Many volumes can attach to an instance • Separate boot and data volumes EC2 instance EBS volume (boot) EBS volume (data) EBS volume (data) Availability Zone AWS Region
  11. 11. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS Volume Types
  12. 12. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume types Hard disk drives (HDD)Solid-state drives (SSD)
  13. 13. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume types HDDSSD Provisioned IOPS SSD io1 General Purpose SSD gp2 Throughput Optimized HDD st1 sc1 Cold HDD
  14. 14. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type or What is more important to your workload? IOPS Throughput?
  15. 15. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type i3 gp2 Latency? < 1 ms Single-digit ms Which is more important? Cost Performance IOPS ≤ 80,000> 80,000 is more important
  16. 16. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume types: General Purpose SSD gp2 Throughput: Up to 160 MiB/s Latency: Single-digit ms Capacity: 1 GiB to 16 TiB Baseline: 100 to 10,000 IOPS; 3 IOPS per GiB Burst: 3,000 IOPS (for volumes up to 1,000 GiB) Great for boot volumes, low-latency applications, and bursty databases General Purpose SSD
  17. 17. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type i3 gp2 io1 Latency? < 1 ms Single-digit ms Which is more important? Cost Performance IOPS ≤ 80,000> 80,000 is more important
  18. 18. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume types: Provisioned IOPS io1 Baseline: 100–32,000 IOPS Throughput: Up to 500 MiB/s Latency: Single-digit ms Capacity: 4 GiB to 16 TiB Ideal for critical applications and databases with sustained IOPS Provisioned IOPS
  19. 19. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Scaling Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) IOPS 0 2 16 1,000 5,000 10,000 15,000 32,000 6 90.64 Volume Size (TiB) Max Provisioned IOPS (Maximum IOPS:GB ratio of 50:1) Available Provisioned IOPS 640 GiB
  20. 20. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type i3 gp2 io1 Latency? < 1 ms Single-digit ms Which is more important? Cost Performance IOPS ≤ 80,000> 80,000 is more important Throughput?
  21. 21. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type Throughput is more important Small, random I/O Large, sequential I/O i3 gp2 io1 st1 d2 Latency? < 1 ms Single-digit ms ≤ 1,750 MiB/s Aggregate throughput? > 1,750 MiB/s Which is more important? Cost Performance IOPS ≤ 80,000> 80,000 is more important Which is more important? Cost Performance
  22. 22. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume types: Throughput Provisioned st1 Baseline: 40 MiB/s per TiB up to 500 MiB/s Capacity: 500 GiB to 16 TiB Burst: 250 MiB/s per TiB up to 500 MiB/s Ideal for large-block, high-throughput sequential workloads
  23. 23. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type Throughput is more important Small, random I/O Large, sequential I/O i3 gp2 io1 sc1 st1 d2 Latency? < 1 ms Single-digit ms ≤ 1,750 MiB/s Aggregate throughput? > 1,750 MiB/s Which is more important? Cost Performance IOPS ≤ 80,000> 80,000 is more important Which is more important? Cost Performance
  24. 24. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume types: Throughput Provisioned sc1 Cold HDD Baseline: 12 MiB/s per TB up to 192 MiB/s Capacity: 500 GiB to 16 TiB Burst: 80 MiB/s per TB up to 250 MiB/s Ideal for sequential throughput workloads, such as logging and backup
  25. 25. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type Throughput is more important Small, random I/O Large, sequential I/O i3 gp2 io1 sc1 st1 d2 Latency? < 1 ms Single-digit ms ≤ 1,750 MiB/s Aggregate throughput? > 1,750 MiB/s Which is more important? Cost Performance IOPS ≤ 80,000> 80,000 is more important Which is more important? Cost Performance
  26. 26. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Choosing an Amazon EBS volume type Don’t know your workload yet?
  27. 27. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EBS volume types: General Purpose SSD gp2 Throughput: Up to 160 MiB/s Latency: Single-digit ms Capacity: 1 GiB to 16 TiB Baseline: 100 to 10,000 IOPS; 3 IOPS per GiB Burst: 3,000 IOPS (for volumes up to 1,000 GiB) Great for boot volumes, low-latency applications, and bursty databases General Purpose SSD
  28. 28. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hybrid volume use cases Case study: Running Cassandra on Amazon EBS c4 gp2 st1 Data files Commit log i2
  29. 29. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. I/O Provisioned Volumes Throughput Provisioned Volumes sc1st1io1gp2 $0.10 per GiB $0.125 per GiB $0.065 per PIOPS * All prices are per month, prorated to the second, and from the us-west-2 Region as of April 2018 $0.045 per GiB $0.025 per GiB Snapshot storage for all volume types is $0.05 per GiB per month
  30. 30. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS Elastic Volumes
  31. 31. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Elastic Volumes: Features Increase volume size Increase/decrease provisioned IOPS Change volume type st1 gp2
  32. 32. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Elastic Volumes: Overview Production database instance Network link IO IO IO IO IO IO IO IOIO EBS volume
  33. 33. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How to modify 1. Snapshot volume 2. Modify volume 3. Monitor modification 4. Extend filesystem (if necessary)
  34. 34. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 1: Snapshot volume aws ec2 create-snapshot --volume-id vol-00077cd243d4af642 --description ”data before resize”
  35. 35. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 1: Modify volume aws ec2 modify-volume --volume-id vol-00077cd243d4af642 --size 5000 --volume-type io1 --iops 32000 Type: gp2 IOPS: 3000 Size: 1 TiB Original volume: Type: io1 IOPS: 32000 Size: 5 TiB Modified volume:
  36. 36. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 2: Monitor volume aws ec2 describe-volumes-modifications --volume-id vol-00077cd243d4af642 { "VolumesModifications": [ { "TargetSize": 5000, "TargetVolumeType": "io1", "ModificationState": "optimizing", "VolumeId": "vol-00077cd243d4af642", "TargetIops": 32000, "StartTime": "2018-03-30T17:09:18.486Z", "Progress": 99, "OriginalVolumeType": "gp2", "OriginalIops": 3000, "OriginalSize": 1000 } ] } Type: gp2 IOPS: 3000 Size: 1 TiB Original volume: Type: io1 IOPS: 32000 Size: 5 TiB Modified volume:
  37. 37. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 2: Monitor volume (EC2 console)
  38. 38. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 2: Monitor volume (EC2 console)
  39. 39. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Linux) • Determine your file system • Compare block device size to file system disk usage • Extend the file system (if needed) Note: if the drive is partitioned, first grow the partitions [ec2-user ~]$ sudo file –s /dev/xvd* /dev/xvda1: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data ... /dev/xvdf: SGI XFS filesystem data ... [ec2-user ~]$ lsblk [ec2-user ~]$ df –h EXT: [ec2-user ~]$ sudo resize2fs device_name XFS: [ec2-user ~]$ sudo xfs_growfs –d mount_point https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/recognize-expanded-volume-linux.html
  40. 40. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Windows)
  41. 41. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Windows)
  42. 42. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Step 4: Extending the filesystem (Windows) Resize partition with PowerShell: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/storage/resize-partition?view=win10-ps
  43. 43. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Volume modification tips • Modification must fit within volume specs (1 GiB gp2 != 1 GiB st1) • Can modify volumes once every 6 hours • Current generation instances do not need a stop/start or attach/detach • Volumes created before 11/1/2016 require a stop/start or attach/detach
  44. 44. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Elastic Volumes: Automation ideas Amazon CloudWatchElastic Volumes AWS Lambda
  45. 45. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Elastic Volumes: Automation ideas • Publish a “free space” metric to CloudWatch and use Lambda + EC2 Systems Manager to resize the volume and the file system • Use a CloudWatch alarm to watch for a volume that is running at or near its IOPS limit or exhausting burst balance • Initiate workflow to provision additional IOPS Amazon CloudWatch Right-sizing: https://github.com/awslabs/aws-elastic-volumes
  46. 46. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS Deep Dive
  47. 47. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How do volumes attach?
  48. 48. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume attachment API AttachVolume CLI aws ec2 attach-volume --instance-id i-0cda3bbe40c6ba495 --volume-id vol-01324f611e2463981 --device /dev/xvdf Console
  49. 49. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS volume attachment: Xen [ec2-user@ip-10-0-22-96 ~]$ lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT xvda 202:0 0 8G 0 disk └─xvda1 202:1 0 8G 0 part / xvdf 202:80 0 100G 0 disk
  50. 50. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A day in the life of an I/O: Xen Responses Requests I/O domain READ 8KB @ 1024 Hypervisor EBS volume Instance
  51. 51. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EBS volume attachment: Nitro Hypervisor [ec2-user@ip-10-0-12-183 ~]$ lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT nvme1n1 259:1 0 1G 0 disk nvme0n1 259:0 0 8G 0 disk ├─nvme0n1p1 259:2 0 8G 0 part / └─nvme0n1p128 259:3 0 1M 0 part [ec2-user@ip-10-0-12-183 ~]$ sudo nvme id-ctrl -v /dev/nvme1n1 | egrep "mn|sn|^00[01]0" sn : vol01324f611e2463981 mn : Amazon Elastic Block Store 0000: 2f 64 65 76 2f 78 76 64 66 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 "/dev/xvdf......." 0010: 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 "................"
  52. 52. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EBS volume attachment: Nitro Hypervisor [ec2-user@ip-10-0-12-183 ~]$ lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT nvme1n1 259:1 0 1G 0 disk nvme0n1 259:0 0 8G 0 disk ├─nvme0n1p1 259:2 0 8G 0 part / └─nvme0n1p128 259:3 0 1M 0 part With ec2-utils: [ec2-user@ip-10-0-12-183 ~]$ sudo /sbin/ebsnvme-id /dev/nvme1n1 EBS Volume ID: vol-01324f611e2463981 Block device : /dev/xvdf [ec2-user@ip-10-0-12-183 ~]$ ls -la /dev/xvdf lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Oct 12 02:55 /dev/xvdf -> nvme1n1 [ec2-user@ip-10-0-12-183 ~]$ ls -la /dev/disk/by-id/nvme-Amazon_Elastic_Block_Store_vol01324f611e2463981-ns-1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Oct 12 02:55 /dev/disk/by-id/nvme-Amazon_Elastic_Block_Store_vol01324f611e2463981- ns-1 -> ../../nvme1n1
  53. 53. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A day in the life of an I/O: Nitro Hypervisor Instance Nitro Card READ 8 KB @ 1024 Nitro Hypervisor EBS volume
  54. 54. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS best practices
  55. 55. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS best practices Security
  56. 56. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS encryption: Data volumes Best practice: Encryption
  57. 57. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Create a new AWS KMS master key for Amazon EBS • Define key rotation policy • Enable AWS CloudTrail auditing • Control who can use key • Control who can administer key Best practice: Encryption
  58. 58. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS encryption: Data volumes Best practice: Encryption
  59. 59. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon EBS best practices Security Reliability
  60. 60. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 99.999% service availability 0.1% to 0.2% annual failure rate (AFR) Amazon EBS is designed for
  61. 61. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Snapshots
  62. 62. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EBS volume Availability Zone AWS Region Amazon S3 Availability Zone EBS snapshot EC2 instance What is an Amazon EBS snapshot?
  63. 63. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. • Point-in-time backup of modified volume blocks • Stored in Amazon S3, accessed via EBS APIs • Subsequent snapshots are incremental • Deleting snapshot will only remove data exclusive to that snapshot • Crash consistent EBS volume EBS snapshot How does an Amazon EBS snapshot work?
  64. 64. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Quiesce I/O 1. Database: FLUSH and LOCK tables 2. Filesystem: sync and fsfreeze 3. Amazon EBS: Snapshot all volumes 4. When CreateSnapshot API returns success, it is safe to resume Best practice: Taking snapshots from Linux
  65. 65. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Best practice: Taking snapshots from Windows 1. sync equivalent available 2. Use Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS): Aware utilities for backups 3. Amazon EBS: Backups on dedicated volume for snapshots
  66. 66. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New EBS volume? New EBS volume from snapshot? • Attach and it’s ready to go • Initialize for best performance • Random read across volume https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ebs-initialize.html EBS volume initialization
  67. 67. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. $ sudo yum install –y fio $ sudo fio --filename=/dev/xvdf --rw=randread --bs=128k --iodepth=32 --ioengine=libaio --direct=1 --name=volume-initialize Fio-based example: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ebs-initialize.html Best practice: EBS volume initialization
  68. 68. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. • Use Policy Generator to create IAM policy for AWS service, AWS Systems Manager • Actions: DescribeInstances, CreateTags, and CreateSnapshot • Create Amazon EC2 type IAM role and attach to Windows instances New: VSS support via EC2 SSM
  69. 69. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New: VSS support via EC2 SSM • Call the Run Command AWSEC2-CreateVssSnapshot
  70. 70. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New: VSS support via EC2 SSM SSM VSS included in Microsoft Windows Server AMI version 2017.11.21 & up • Select the instance • Add description, tags • Can exclude boot volume • Run Command makes the VSS agent flush I/O, freeze Select “True” to exclude boot volume from the snapshot process Highly Recommended: Use tags to group all your resulting snapshots. Specify your tags as key=key1, value=value1 and use ”;” to enter multiple tags
  71. 71. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New: Amazon EBS snapshot tagging upon creationSpecify tags for Amazon EBS snapshots as part of the API call that creates the resource or via the Amazon EC2 Console when creating an Amazon EBS snapshot.
  72. 72. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New: Amazon EBS snapshot tagging upon creation aws ec2 create-snapshot --volume-id vol-03f3c34ded2e3398f --tag-specifications 'ResourceType=snapshot, Tags=[{Key=CostCenter,Value=115}, {Key=IsProd,Value=Yes}]'
  73. 73. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New: Resource-level permissions CreateSnapshot DeleteSnapshot ModifySnapshotAttribute Ideas: • Require use of specific tags • Specify which users could take snapshots for a given set of volumes • Restrict access to DeleteSnapshot IAM policies could mandate the use of specific tags when taking actions on Amazon EBS snapshots.
  74. 74. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Tracking snapshots and costs (tagging) • Custom tags provide the ability to assign key/value pairs to AWS resources • Amazon EBS snapshots support custom tags for identification and management • Amazon EBS snapshot tags can be activated as “cost allocation” tags allowing for greater visibility into snapshot storage costs EBS snapshots Development EBS volume Key = usage Value = dev Key = usage Value = dev EBS snapshots Production EBS volume Key = usage Value = backup Key = usage Value = backup
  75. 75. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Tracking snapshots and costs (Cost Explorer) First, activate customer tag for cost allocation Generate reports with ….. View usage and costs broken down by “usage” tag value (example : metrics, dev, backup)
  76. 76. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EBS volume Availability Zone AWS Region Amazon S3 EBS snapshot Availability Zone EBS volume EC2 instance EC2 instance What can you do with a snapshot?
  77. 77. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EBS volume Availability Zone AWS Region Amazon S3 EBS snapshot EBS volume Availability Zone AWS Region EBS snapshot EC2 instance EC2 instance What can you do with a snapshot?
  78. 78. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Key ingredients: AWS Lambda Amazon EC2 Run Command Tagging https://aws.amazon.com/answers/infrastructure-management/ops-automator/ Best practice: Automate snapshots
  79. 79. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. https://aws.amazon.com/answers/infrastructure-management/ops-automator/ Best practice: Automation with Ops Automator aws-ops-automator@amazon.com • Create EBS snapshots for tagged EC2 instances in us-west-1 • Copy EBS snapshot to eu-central-1 region • Delete all but the last four snapshots per volume • Operate across accounts
  80. 80. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hybrid volume use cases https://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/zendesk/ We have a more flexible way to manage our logging solution using multiple types of Amazon EBS volumes, and that has helped us save more than 60% of the overall costs of running the solution. - David Bernstein, Director, Operations Services Management, Zendesk
  81. 81. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Region EBS volume EC2 instance Availability Zone What about EC2 instance failure?
  82. 82. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Region EBS volume New EC2 instance Availability Zone What about EC2 instance failure?
  83. 83. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. RECOVER instance Instance ID Instance metadata Private IP addresses Elastic IP addresses EBS volume attachments Instance retains: * Supported on C3, C4, C5, M3, M4, R3, R4, T2, and X1 instance types with EBS-only storage StatusCheckFailed_System Amazon CloudWatch per-instance metric alarm: When alarm triggers? Amazon EBS enables EC2 instance recovery
  84. 84. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. DeleteOnTermination = False What about EC2 instance termination? AWS Region EBS volume EC2 instance Availability Zone
  85. 85. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. DeleteOnTermination = True AWS Region EBS volume EC2 instance Availability Zone What about EC2 instance termination?
  86. 86. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Security Reliability Performance Amazon EBS best practices
  87. 87. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How do we count I/O? When possible, we logically merge sequential I/Os ...To minimize I/O charges on io1, and maximize burst on gp2, sc1, and st1 io1 and gp2: up to 256 KiB st1 and sc1: up to 1 MiB
  88. 88. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Example 1: Random I/Os • 4 random I/Os (i.e., non-sequential I/Os) • Each I/O 64 KiB EC2 instance Amazon EBS Counted as 4 I/Os How do we count I/O?
  89. 89. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How do we count I/O? Example 2: Sequential I/O • 4 sequential I/Os • Each I/O 64 KiB Up to 256 KiB (SSD) EC2 instance Counted as 1 I/O Amazon EBS
  90. 90. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Example 2: Sequential I/O • 4 sequential I/Os • Each I/O 64 KiB Up to 1024 KiB (HDD) EC2 instance Counted as 1 I/O How do we count I/O? Amazon EBS
  91. 91. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Example 3: Large I/O • 1 I/O • 1024 KiB Up to 256 KiB EC2 instance Counted as 4 I/Os How do we count I/Os for GP2 and IO1? Amazon EBS
  92. 92. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. EC2 instance Example 4: Mixed I/O • 2 * 512 KB sequential I/Os • 2 * 64 KB random I/Os • 2 * 128 KB sequential I/Os Up to 1024 KiB Counted as 4 I/Os or 4 MiB/s of burst (but only ~ 1.4 MiB of data transferred) How do we count I/Os for ST1 and SC1? Amazon EBS
  93. 93. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Max I/O credit per bucket is 5.4M Burst performance: You can spend up to 3,000 credits per second Baseline performance: Always accumulating 3 IOPS per GiB per second gp2 Burst bucket: gp2
  94. 94. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Burst and baseline: gp2 Baseline IOPS (Baseline Linearly Scales at 3 IOPS/GiB) Burstable to 3,000 IOPS IOPS 0 1 16 1,000 2,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 3 90.5 Volume size (TiB) 3,334 GiB 100 IOPS Minimum 300-GiB volume
  95. 95. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 0 150 300 450 600 750 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 MinutesofBurst Volume size in GiB 43 min 300 GiB 1 hour 500 GiB How long can I burst on gp2? 10 hours 950 GiB
  96. 96. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. VolumeWriteOpsBurstBalance One hour How do I monitor my burst balance?
  97. 97. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How do I monitor my burst balance?
  98. 98. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Max I/O bucket credit is 1 TiB of credit per TiB in volume Burst performance: Spend up to st1: 500 MiB/s sc1: 250 MiB/s Baseline performance: Always accumulating st1: 40MiB/s per TiB sc1: 12MiB/s per TiB st1/sc1 Burst bucket: Throughput
  99. 99. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 0 125 250 375 500 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 ThroughputinMiB/s Volume size in TiB Burst Base 320 st1 Burst & baseline: st1
  100. 100. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 0 75 150 225 300 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 ThroughputinMiB/s Volume size in TiB Burst Base 192 sc1 Burst & baseline: sc1
  101. 101. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 4 TiB st1 Volume 5,400 GiB 87 GiB 0 1500 3000 4500 6000 Data Transferred in GiB 3-Hour Data Transfer: Sequential vs. Random 1 MiB Sequential 16 KiB Random 1 MiB Sequential: 5.4 TiB transferred 16 KiB Random: 87 GiB transferred Burst balance for st1 and sc1
  102. 102. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2046 sectors x 512 bytes/sector = ~1024 KiB $ iostat –xm Device: rrqm/s wrqm/s r/s w/s rMB/s wMB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util xvdf 0.00 0.20 0.00 523.40 0.00 523.00 2046.44 3.99 7.62 1.61 100.00 iostat for Linux Perfmon for Windows Verify workload I/O patterns
  103. 103. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Verify ST1 & SC1 workloads 128 KiB Amazon CloudWatch Console
  104. 104. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Verify ST1 & SC1 workloads Under 64 KiB? Small or random IOPS likely Amazon CloudWatch Console
  105. 105. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Verify ST1 & SC1 workloads Stuck around 44 KiB? Amazon CloudWatch Console
  106. 106. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Increase read-ahead buffer: • Recommended for high-throughput read workloads • Per volume configuration • Default is 128 KiB (256 sectors) for Amazon Linux • Smaller or random I/O will degrade performance Increase read-ahead: $ sudo blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/<device> Examine current value: $ sudo blockdev --report 2048 /dev/<device> https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/EBSPerformance.html Linux performance tuning: st1 & sc1
  107. 107. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. More details: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/EBSOptimized.html • Dedicated network bandwidth for Amazon EBS I/O • Enabled by default on most current generation instances • Can be enabled at instance launch or on a running instance • Not an option on some 10-Gbps instance types • (c3.8xlarge, r3.8xlarge, i2.8xlarge) What is an EBS-optimized instance?
  108. 108. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. c4.large Dedicated to EBS 500 Mbps ~ 62.5 MiB/s 2 TiB GP2 volume: 6,000 IOPS 160 MiB/s max throughput 4,000 16K IOPS c4.2xlarge Dedicated to EBS 1 Gbps ~ 125 MiB/s 8,000 16K IOPS 2 TiB GP2 volume: 6,000 IOPS 160 MiB/s max throughput Performance: EBS-optimized
  109. 109. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Performance: EBS-optimized burst c5.large Dedicated to EBS 525 Mbps ~ 64 MiB/s 8,000 16K IOPS 2 TiB GP2 volume: 6,000 IOPS 160 MiB/s max throughput c5.large Dedicated to EBS 2250 Mbps ~ 275 MiB/s 2 TiB GP2 volume: 6,000 IOPS 160 MiB/s max throughput 16,000 16K IOPS 30 minutes
  110. 110. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. When to RAID? • Storage requirement >16 TiB • Throughput requirement >500 MiB/s • IOPS requirement >20,000 @ 16K Best practice: RAID EBS EBS EBS
  111. 111. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Avoid RAID for redundancy • EBS data is already replicated • RAID1 halves available EBS bandwidth • RAID5/6 loses 20% to 30% of usable I/O to parity EBS EBS EBS Best practice: RAID
  112. 112. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Use Metric Math to derive new monitoring insights Convert count metrics to rate/throughput metrics EBS Database read/write operations to IOPS or EFS TotalIOBytes to Throughput metrics Aggregated cluster or fleet-wide metrics Total # of requests for a service distributed across multiple clusters or Average CPU Utilization across multiple instances Fill sparse metrics Fill in default values for metrics that have empty values or are not collected at regular intervals Relative scale/percentage metrics Error count to % Error Rate or availability metrics
  113. 113. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Supported Math Functions Add (+) Multiply (*) Exponent (^) Subtract (-) Unary subtraction (1 to -1) Divide (/) Example: EFS total throughput = TotalIOBytes / 1024 / 1024 / Period Arithmetic Operations Functions Sum Floor Average Ceiling Min Period Max Fill Standard Deviation Example: Fill(ELB_HTTPCode_ELB_5xx, 0)
  114. 114. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Use encryption if you need it Take snapshots, tag snapshots Select the right instance for your workload Select the right volume for your workload Summary
  115. 115. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thank you!
  116. 116. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Please complete the session survey in the summit mobile app.
  117. 117. Submit Session Feedback 1. Tap the Schedule icon. 2. Select the session you attended. 3. Tap Session Evaluation to submit your feedback.

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