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Arianna Becerril García
The current and prevailing science
communication system has failed in
terms of making science a global,
participatory and ...
17 years after BOAI we should acknowledge that the
goal has not been achieved and the ways to attain
the goal have been ig...
The best ranked publications are usually
for-profit and the research assessment
systems reward publishing in them.
Quantit...
CONTEXT: Cognitive Dissonance or Stockholm Syndrome?
346 years later ...
Find the differences
CONTEXT: ineffective transition to the digital age
CONTEXT: ineffective transition to the digital age
% % % %
Now a global flip is being intended based on a
transformation from a pay-to-read to a pay-
to-publish strategy.
However, t...
How could they interact without cause other forms of exclusion?
How could they coexist if the big funding flow is directed...
Analyzing scientific collaborations from Scopus data
North very active
South collaborations from Scopus data
Analyzing scientific collaborations from Redalyc data
Property
We must think about:
There is no guarantee that what it is open now,
will continue open.
Specially if authors do ...
What role will the academy play to face this
challenge?
What will be the role of libraries?
What will be the role of resea...
Large publishers enjoy economies of scale
which makes them companies "too big to fail"
and can be considered natural monop...
ICT has the potential to redraw the
landscape, and thus bring new
possibilities for other models to be
competitive and eve...
The cost of communicating scientific research is a
tiny fraction of the cost of research, somewhere
between 1% and 2%.
So ...
Academy owned publishing
seems not to exist … in the
mainstream databases
Repiso, Rafael; Orduña-Malea, Enrique; Aguaded, Ignacio (2019). “Revistas
científicas editadas por universidades en Web of...
MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN
2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
Author-fee journals (based on DOAJ)
Author-fee journ...
Non-APC journals
Non-APC academy-owned journals
Source: DOAJ
95%
non-APC
academy-owned
journals
Non-APC tradition in LatAm
Source: DOAJ
Latin America has created
and maintains a non-
commercial structure
where scientific
publishing belongs to
academic instit...
Every institution supports journals
that are driven by their own faculty
members, and then that content is
made available ...
Nonprofit platforms:
visibility, edition, quality
assurance, metrics
Nonprofit institutional
journal publishing
Mainly pub...
Redalyc architecture
Journal
evaluation
Redalyc
internal
ratification
International
Advisory Board
ratification
 12 mandatory requierements
 ...
Marcalyc – XML JATS markup system –
• It is free to use
• Prevents editors from outsourcing XML
Markup
• Designed for non-...
Mathematical
expressions
tagging with
MathML
XML tagging of
tables and dataReplicability
necessary condition in science
XM...
Before: without XML
Self-classification of
information
Improved reading
experience
Illustration of items
Intelligent infor...
• Interactive
article reader
• Mobile article
reader
• ePUB
• PDF
• HTML
• XML JATS 4R
OAI-PMH
Productivity Co-authorship Usage
Elsevier’s article of the future
Many functionalities offered by commercial publishers in other parts of
the world are pro...
Unfortunately ...
The Latin American OA ecosystem is being
fragmented
Two different OA approaches
• Research assessment based on IF
(JCR) or SJR (Scopus) as the most
important metrics.*
• Favours APC bussiness model
(inh...
• Scholarly-driven publications and repositories
This approach seeks to strengthen publishers inside
universities by empow...
So, we had to act in response...
MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN
2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
A decision made to take advantage of the regional ec...
AmeliCA is a multi-institutional
community-driven initiative supported by
UNESCO and led by Redalyc and
CLACSO, that arise...
maintain the open and academic nature of scholarly publication in the
region, at the same time that contributes in improvi...
An infrastructure to strengthen
editorial teams within academic
institutions through providing
technology and knowledge to...
Convergences for the reduction of gaps
MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN
2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
A non-profit publishing model to preserve the schola...
MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN
2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
What does it mean to take part in Redalyc-AmeliCA?
I...
MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN
2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
Technology and Artificial Intelligence for a
partici...
What part of current technology do academic publications take
advantage of?
• Open data
• Open access
• Linked data
• Know...
What if every source
of information could
be a provider of a
linked data?
And contents
including scholarly
full-texts could be
granulated into
pieces
Every single piece of information
could be part of a giant graph
to compose a structure
that expresses the
inherent knowledge
and to be linked to a
wider and unrestricted
knowledge cloud
An upper layer of linked knowledge could be built
Aligned to the Web Foundation call on policymaker to reverse and leverag...
It is possible to achieve a cooperative values-based
infrastructure that benefits scientific communication
worldwide.
Acad...
Arianna Becerril- García
arianna.becerril@gmail.com
http://www.redalyc.org/autor.oa?id=25
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0278-...
Redalyc - AmeliCA. For a non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication
Redalyc - AmeliCA. For a non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication
Redalyc - AmeliCA. For a non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication
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Redalyc - AmeliCA. For a non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication

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Redalyc - AmeliCA. For a non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication

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Redalyc - AmeliCA. For a non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication

  1. 1. Arianna Becerril García
  2. 2. The current and prevailing science communication system has failed in terms of making science a global, participatory and equitable conversation.
  3. 3. 17 years after BOAI we should acknowledge that the goal has not been achieved and the ways to attain the goal have been ignored, and even more ... Reed Elsevier: Goodbye to Berlin - The Fading Threat of Open Access (Upgrade to Market-Perform) Claudio Aspesi, Helen Luong Budapest Open Access Initiative Open access to peer-reviewed journal literature is the goal. Self- archiving (I.) and a new generation of open-access journals (II.) are the ways to attain this goal. Preliminary Findings: Rent Seeking by Elsevier Publishers are increasingly in control of scholarly infrastructure and why we should care A Case Study of Elsevier Written by: Alejandro Posada and George Chen, University of Toronto Scarborough Published on September 20th 2017 Increasing control of the knowledge production circuit Restrictions on the rise: restrictions on where, when or how to deposit Publishers’ good financial health CONTEXT: Consolidation of commercial publishing
  4. 4. The best ranked publications are usually for-profit and the research assessment systems reward publishing in them. Quantitative metrics cannot replace qualitative evaluation, nor can they make the contributions of local research visible. It is critical to understand that the Journal Impact Factor has a number of well-documented deficiencies as a tool for research assessment. CONTEXT: Exclusive and deficient research assessment
  5. 5. CONTEXT: Cognitive Dissonance or Stockholm Syndrome?
  6. 6. 346 years later ... Find the differences CONTEXT: ineffective transition to the digital age
  7. 7. CONTEXT: ineffective transition to the digital age % % % %
  8. 8. Now a global flip is being intended based on a transformation from a pay-to-read to a pay- to-publish strategy. However, the control of science will continue in the hands of corporations. Countries, academic institutions and the research community do not have any control beyond commercial agreements
  9. 9. How could they interact without cause other forms of exclusion? How could they coexist if the big funding flow is directed unequally? If one subsystem is altered to emulate other, new concepts, rules and values will appear with side effects varying from the weakening of the original subsystem’s strength to its complete disruption and disappearance. Different resultant subsystems of science communication Different paradigms to address Open Access Aim to eliminate pay-to-read business model Neither a cost for readers nor for authors Focused on commercial publishers Open, scholarly-led, non-profit communication system
  10. 10. Analyzing scientific collaborations from Scopus data
  11. 11. North very active
  12. 12. South collaborations from Scopus data
  13. 13. Analyzing scientific collaborations from Redalyc data
  14. 14. Property We must think about: There is no guarantee that what it is open now, will continue open. Specially if authors do not hold copyright. Sustainability Research assessment Participation / Cost 1 2 3 4 Is it OA long-term guaranteed? Is it non- profit OA sustainable? Is it science fairly assessed? Are there OA platforms included in assessment criteria? Are new forms of exclusion emerging?
  15. 15. What role will the academy play to face this challenge? What will be the role of libraries? What will be the role of researchers? What will be the role of funders? What will be the role of platforms? What will be the role of publishers?
  16. 16. Large publishers enjoy economies of scale which makes them companies "too big to fail" and can be considered natural monopolies that have acquired a market power that impedes competition. They reach an optimum production level to produce more at lower cost. However, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) enables the stage for breaking that power. “Too big to fail”
  17. 17. ICT has the potential to redraw the landscape, and thus bring new possibilities for other models to be competitive and even disruptive… will we be prepared for it?
  18. 18. The cost of communicating scientific research is a tiny fraction of the cost of research, somewhere between 1% and 2%. So why should we ask that particular phase of the research cycle to obey financial rules couched in terms of “sustainability” while the overwhelming part of scientific research has to be constantly subsidized? Jean-Claude Guédon “ ”
  19. 19. Academy owned publishing seems not to exist … in the mainstream databases
  20. 20. Repiso, Rafael; Orduña-Malea, Enrique; Aguaded, Ignacio (2019). “Revistas científicas editadas por universidades en Web of Science: características y contribución a la marca universidad”. El profesional de la informa- ción, v. 28, n. 4, e280405. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.jul.05 Academy-owned journals in WoS 6,3% ScienceCitation Index; 14,6% Social Sciences Citation Index; 33,8% Arts & Humanities Citation Index. CiteScore2019 Academy-owned journals in Scopus
  21. 21. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN Author-fee journals (based on DOAJ) Author-fee journals Non-APC journals Non-APC academy-owned journals
  22. 22. Non-APC journals Non-APC academy-owned journals Source: DOAJ
  23. 23. 95% non-APC academy-owned journals Non-APC tradition in LatAm Source: DOAJ
  24. 24. Latin America has created and maintains a non- commercial structure where scientific publishing belongs to academic institutions and not to large publishers Autonomous National University of Mexico
  25. 25. Every institution supports journals that are driven by their own faculty members, and then that content is made available in OA. Everyone gets benefit from everyone’s investment. A fee has not been included neither for authors nor for readers in the regional editorial tradition.
  26. 26. Nonprofit platforms: visibility, edition, quality assurance, metrics Nonprofit institutional journal publishing Mainly public institutions Key factors: Cooperation Networking Crowdsourcing Open source software In-house software Free software Nonprofit, mainly publicly – funded scientific communication system 2,849 journal installations Scholarly-led scientific communication system composed by hundreds of publisher institutions Open Access Ecosystem in Latin America
  27. 27. Redalyc architecture
  28. 28. Journal evaluation Redalyc internal ratification International Advisory Board ratification  12 mandatory requierements  Peer review  75% original content  14 researchers  Different areas  11 countries rejected journals 88%
  29. 29. Marcalyc – XML JATS markup system – • It is free to use • Prevents editors from outsourcing XML Markup • Designed for non-technical users • Minimizes XML markup time • Automatic front and tables tagging. • Automatic reference tagging. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
  30. 30. Mathematical expressions tagging with MathML XML tagging of tables and dataReplicability necessary condition in science XML tagging of annexes and supplementary materialOpen Data
  31. 31. Before: without XML Self-classification of information Improved reading experience Illustration of items Intelligent information retrieval After: with XML
  32. 32. • Interactive article reader • Mobile article reader • ePUB • PDF • HTML • XML JATS 4R
  33. 33. OAI-PMH
  34. 34. Productivity Co-authorship Usage
  35. 35. Elsevier’s article of the future Many functionalities offered by commercial publishers in other parts of the world are provided for free by Redalyc and now by AmeliCA vs. Redalyc article reader technology However, the recognition of research assessment -by governments and institutions- is for what is present in Scopus (Elsevier) or WoS. If this doesn’t change there is no future for scholarly-led research communication
  36. 36. Unfortunately ...
  37. 37. The Latin American OA ecosystem is being fragmented Two different OA approaches
  38. 38. • Research assessment based on IF (JCR) or SJR (Scopus) as the most important metrics.* • Favours APC bussiness model (inherited from the Global North becoming attractive for Latin American journals) • Language criteria that disqualify publishing in local languages *Scielo’s agreement with Clarivate Analytics to generate Scielo Citation Index APC Approach 1: Dependent on Mainstream-metrics and Commercial Open Access
  39. 39. • Scholarly-driven publications and repositories This approach seeks to strengthen publishers inside universities by empowering editors with technology and training in favor of the sustainability of OA • Non-commercial OA -More than 500 journal publisher institutions adopting tools provided by Redalyc to keep the non-commercial nature of their processes and to avoid APCs. • Research Assessment - Efforts towards finding a better way to assess scientific research (Redalyc metrics, UdeA metrics) - More than 600 journals signed DORA (Redalyc’s additional mandatory requirement) • Intellectual Property - Publishers allow authors to hold the copyright without restrictions Approach 2: Scholarly-driven Scientific Communication and Non-commercial OA
  40. 40. So, we had to act in response...
  41. 41. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN A decision made to take advantage of the regional ecosystem, technology, knowledge and experience of multiple organizations so that the scholarly communication remains in control of the academy and that avoids losing subsidies by choosing a shift to address Open Access with commercial mechanisms such as the APC.
  42. 42. AmeliCA is a multi-institutional community-driven initiative supported by UNESCO and led by Redalyc and CLACSO, that arises in response to the international, regional, national and institutional contexts of Open Access, which seeks a cooperative, sustainable, protected and non-comercial solution for Open Knowledge in Latin America and the Global South.
  43. 43. maintain the open and academic nature of scholarly publication in the region, at the same time that contributes in improving the quality, visibility and scope of science published in the region. AmeliCA is aimed to
  44. 44. An infrastructure to strengthen editorial teams within academic institutions through providing technology and knowledge to ensure low costs in journal publishing which contributes in the sustainability of Open access and prevents the inclusion of author charges.
  45. 45. Convergences for the reduction of gaps
  46. 46. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN A non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication Journals participating in this model have the following: Scientific and editorial quality Digital publishing technology (XML JATS) Open Access policy free of publishing or processing costs (APC) A vision to overcome the current assessment of science based on the Impact Factor, signing the Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)
  47. 47. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN What does it mean to take part in Redalyc-AmeliCA? It means you’ve raised your voice for an inclusive, equitable and sustainable science communication model It means you stand out for scientific and editorial high-quality publishing It means your editorial work is in line with principles in favour of science as a common good It means you’ve shifted to the digital publishing technology XML JATS, and that you promote and take advantage of it as well It means you support an Open Access policy free of publishing or processing charges (APC) and recognise it as the sustainable and collaborative route to protect the natural model of Open Access It means that you have a vision to overcome the current assessment of science, and fight so that assessment may be defined on the basis of the work’s own merits and not due its publishing venue. This is why you know, share and promote the principles of the Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)
  48. 48. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN Technology and Artificial Intelligence for a participatory and inclusive science ecosystem. XML Open data Linked data Knowledge Discovery Ubiquity Semantic web The potential of this model to create a global participatory arena
  49. 49. What part of current technology do academic publications take advantage of? • Open data • Open access • Linked data • Knowledge base • Discovery • Ubiquity • Semantic web • Data compression algorithms to incorporate high resolution content.
  50. 50. What if every source of information could be a provider of a linked data?
  51. 51. And contents including scholarly full-texts could be granulated into pieces
  52. 52. Every single piece of information could be part of a giant graph
  53. 53. to compose a structure that expresses the inherent knowledge and to be linked to a wider and unrestricted knowledge cloud
  54. 54. An upper layer of linked knowledge could be built Aligned to the Web Foundation call on policymaker to reverse and leverage the power of technology to fight inequality: Accelerate progress towards universal access Level the playing field
  55. 55. It is possible to achieve a cooperative values-based infrastructure that benefits scientific communication worldwide. Academy has the power to take back control (or keep it) of the whole knowledge generation life-cicle. Publishing in control of academia and libraries can create a counterweight to the exclusionary system that prevails today.
  56. 56. Arianna Becerril- García arianna.becerril@gmail.com http://www.redalyc.org/autor.oa?id=25 http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0278-8295 @ariannabec Thank you!

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